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Educational Psychology : Windows on Classrooms,9780131108400
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Educational Psychology : Windows on Classrooms

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780131108400

ISBN10:
0131108409
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
PEARSON
List Price: $117.33
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Summary

For Introduction to Educational Psychology courses.Revised and expanded, this is the new edition of the most applied introduction to educational psychology on the market today. Long recognized for its groundbreaking innovations in placing educational psychology firmly within the context of classrooms, this text examines every educational psychology theory learning, motivation, and development and every pertinent concept through the viewpoint of the teacher. Once again in this edition, the authors' hallmark cases, in both written and videotape format, introduce real-world applications in a way that no other text can, truly fulfilling the promise of its title to give students a "window" on the classrooms in which they will someday teach.

Table of Contents

Teaching in the Real World
2(30)
Educational Psychology: Teaching in the Real World
4(3)
Knowledge and Learning to Teach
7(5)
Knowledge of Content
7(1)
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
7(3)
General Pedagogical Knowledge
10(1)
Knowledge of Learners and Learning
10(1)
The INTASC Standards: States Respond to the Need for Professional Knowledge
11(1)
The Role of Research in Acquiring Knowledge
12(1)
Descriptive Research
13(12)
Correlational Research
14(2)
Experimental Research
16(1)
Action Research
16(1)
Conducting Action Research in Classrooms: Instructional Strategies
17(1)
Research and Development of Theory
18(2)
Research and Teacher Decision Making
20(1)
Critical Decision Making: The Role of Classroom Context
21(1)
Practical Decision Making: The Need for Efficiency
21(1)
Artistic Decision Making: Creativity in Teaching
22(1)
Assessment and Learning: Gathering Information for Decision Making
23(1)
Reflection and Decision Making
24(1)
The Use of Case Studies in Educational Psychology
25(4)
Video Cases
25(1)
The Praxis Exam
25(4)
Windows on Classrooms
29(3)
Part 1: The Learner
The Development of Cognition and Language
32(46)
Development: A Definition
34(3)
Principles of Development
34(1)
The Human Brain and Cognitive Development
35(2)
Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development
37(18)
The Drive for Equilibrium
37(1)
Organization and Adaptation: The Development of Schemes
37(2)
Factors Influencing Development
39(1)
Stages of Development
40(7)
Assessment and Learning: Assessing Students' Cognitive Development
47(2)
Technology and Learning: Using Technology to Develop Formal Thinking
49(1)
Using Technology in Your Study of Educational Psychology: Examining Cognitive Development
50(1)
Applying Piaget's Work in Classrooms: Instructional Strategies
51(2)
Putting Piaget's Theory into Perspective
53(2)
A Sociocultural View of Development: The Work of Lev Vygotsky
55(8)
Social Interaction and Development
56(1)
Language and Development
57(1)
Culture and Development
58(1)
The Relationship Between Learning and Development
58(1)
Vygotsky's Work: Instructional Strategies
58(3)
Piaget's and Vygotsky's Views of Knowledge Construction
61(2)
Language Development
63(11)
Theories of Language Acquisition
63(2)
Stages of Learning Acquisition
65(1)
Language Diversity
66(1)
English as a Second Language
67(3)
Teaching ELL Students: Instructional Strategies
70(4)
Windows on Classrooms
74(4)
Personal, Social, and Emotional Development
78(38)
Personal Development
79(3)
Heredity
80(1)
Parents and Other Adults
80(1)
Peers
81(1)
Social Development
82(7)
Perspective Taking
83(1)
Social Problem Solving
83(2)
Assessment and Learning: Assessing Students' Social Development
85(1)
Promoting Social Development: Instructional Strategies
86(1)
Technology and Learning: Using the Internet to Promote Social Development
87(2)
Integrating Personal, Emotional, and Social Development: Erikson's Theory
89(4)
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
89(1)
Putting Erikson's Work into Perspective
90(1)
Supporting Psychological Development
90(3)
The Development of Identity and Self-Concept
93(8)
The Development of Identity
93(2)
The Development of Self-Concept
95(1)
Self-Concept and Achievement
95(1)
Promoting Psychological and Self Concept Development: Instructional Strategies
96(2)
Ethnic Pride: Promoting Positive Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity
98(3)
Development of Morality, Social Responsibility, and Self-Control
101(13)
Increased Interest in Moral Education and Development
101(1)
Piaget's Description of Moral Development
102(1)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
102(5)
Emotional Factors in Moral Development
107(1)
Using Technology in Your Study of Educational Psychology: Assessing Moral Thinking
108(1)
The Moral Education Versus Character Education Debate
109(1)
Promoting Moral Development: Instructional Strategies
110(4)
Windows on Classrooms
114(2)
Learner Differences
116(42)
Intelligence
117(12)
Intelligence: What Does It Mean?
118(1)
Intelligence: One Trait or Many?
118(4)
Intelligence: Nature Versus Nurture
122(1)
Assessment and Learning: Cultural Controversies in Measuring Intelligence
123(2)
Ability Grouping
125(3)
Learning Styles
128(1)
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
129(3)
Influence of SES on Learning
130(1)
SES: Some Cautions and Implications for Teachers
131(1)
Culture
132(8)
Ethnicity
132(1)
Culture and Schooling
133(4)
Culturally Responsive Teaching: Instructional Strategies
137(3)
Gender
140(4)
Differences in the Behavior of Boys and Girls
141(1)
Gender Stereotypes and Perceptions
142(1)
Responding to Gender Differences: Instructional Strategies
143(1)
Students Placed at Risk
144(10)
Resilience
146(2)
Teaching Students Placed at Risk: Instructional Strategies
148(3)
Technology and Learning: Equity Issues
151(3)
Windows on Classrooms
154(4)
Learners with Exceptionalities
158(36)
Changes in the Way Teachers Help Students with Exceptionalities
160(5)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
160(3)
Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
163(2)
Students with Learning Problems
165(12)
The Labeling Controversy
165(1)
Mental Retardation
166(1)
Learning Disabilities
167(2)
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
169(1)
Behavior Disorders
170(3)
Communication Disorders
173(1)
Visual Disabilities
174(1)
Hearing Disabilities
175(1)
Assessment and Learning: Assessment Trends in Special Education
176(1)
Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
177(4)
Creativity: What Is It?
178(1)
Identifying Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
179(1)
Teaching Gifted and Talented Students: Instructional Strategies
179(2)
The Teacher's Role in Inclusive Classrooms
181(8)
Identifying Students with Exceptionalities
181(1)
Teaching Students with Exceptionalities: Instructional Strategies
182(4)
Technology and Learning: Assistive Technology
186(3)
Windows on Classrooms
189(5)
Part 2: Learning
Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theory
194(40)
Behaviorist Views of Learning
196(18)
Contiguity
196(1)
Classical Conditioning
197(3)
Operant Conditioning
200(7)
Behaviorism in the Classroom: Instructional Strategies
207(5)
Putting Behaviorism into Perspective
212(2)
Social Cognitive Theory
214(13)
Comparing Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theory
214(2)
Modeling
216(1)
Vicarious Learning
217(1)
Effects of Modeling on Behavior
217(1)
Technology and Learning: The Impact of Symbolic Modeling on Behavior
218(2)
Processes Involved in Learning from Models
220(1)
Effectiveness of Models
220(1)
Self-Regulation
221(2)
Social Cognitive Theory in the Classroom: Instructional Strategies
223(2)
Assessment and Learning: Self-Modeling as an Assessment Tool
225(1)
Putting Social Cognitive Theory into Perspective
226(1)
Dealing with Diversity: Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theory
227(4)
Classical Conditioning: Learning to Like and Dislike School
228(1)
Motivating Hesitant Learners
229(1)
Capitalizing on Minority Role Models
229(2)
Windows on Classrooms
231(3)
Cognitive Views of Learning
234(44)
Cognitive Perspectives on Learning
236(2)
Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory
237(1)
Information Processing
238(25)
Models: Aids to Understanding
238(1)
Sensory Memory
239(1)
Working Memory
240(3)
Long-Term Memory
243(2)
Using Technology in Your Study of Educational Psychology: The Importance of Background Knowledge
245(3)
Cognitive Processes
248(11)
Metacognition: Knowledge and Control of Cognitive Processes
259(3)
The Impact of Diversity on Information Processing
262(1)
Information Processing in the Classroom: Instructional Strategies
263(11)
Schema Production: Acquiring Integrated Declarative Knowledge
264(1)
Promoting Schema Production in Classrooms: An Instructional Strategy
264(3)
Understanding and Automaticity: Acquiring Procedural Knowledge
267(1)
Promoting Understanding and Automaticity: An Instructional Strategy
267(4)
Assessment and Learning: The Role of Assessment in Cognitive Instruction
271(1)
Putting Information Processing into Perspective
272(2)
Windows on Classrooms
274(4)
Constructing Understanding
278(32)
What Is Constructivism?
281(1)
Different Views of Constructivism
281(1)
Characteristics of Constructivism
282(2)
Learners Construct Understanding That Makes Sense to Them
282(1)
New Learning Depends on Current Understanding
283(1)
Social Interaction Facilitates Learning
283(1)
Meaningful Learning Occurs in Real-World Tasks
284(1)
Implications of Constructivism for Teaching
284(8)
The Teacher's Role in Constructivist Classrooms
284(1)
Suggestions for Classroom Practice
285(5)
Assessment and Learning: The Role of Assessment in Constructivist Classrooms
290(2)
Constructivism in Classrooms: Instructional Strategies
292(12)
Guided Discovery
293(2)
Inquiry
295(1)
Discussion
296(2)
Cooperative Learning
298(6)
Putting Constructivism into Perspective
304(3)
Windows on Classrooms
307(3)
Complex Cognitive Processes
310(38)
Cognitive Learning
312(7)
Concepts: Categories That Simplify the World
312(1)
Theories of Concept Learning
313(1)
Examples: The Key to Learning and Teaching Concepts
314(1)
Concept Mapping: Embedding Concepts on Complex Schemas
315(1)
Concept Learning: Misconceptions and Conceptual Change
316(1)
Learning and Teaching Concepts: Instructional Strategies
317(2)
Problem Solving
319(11)
Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems
320(1)
A Problem Solving Model
321(2)
Expert-Novice Differences in Problem-Solving Ability
323(1)
Helping Learners Become Better Problem Solvers: Instructional Strategies
324(4)
Using Technology to Improve Problem-Solving Ability
328(1)
Problem-Based Learning
329(1)
The Strategic Learner
330(8)
Metacognition: The Foundation of Strategic Learning
330(1)
Study Strategies
331(2)
Developing Strategic Learning in Students: Instructional Strategies
333(1)
Critical Thinking
334(4)
Transfer of Learning
338(6)
General and Specific Transfer
338(1)
Factors Affecting the Transfer of Learning
339(3)
Assessment and Learning: The Role of Assessment in Transfer
342(2)
Windows on Classrooms
344(4)
Part 3: Classroom Processes
Theories of Motivation
348(38)
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
350(1)
Motivation to Learn
351(1)
Behavioral Views of Motivation
351(2)
Using Rewards in Classroom: Instructional Strategies
352(1)
Humanistic Views of Motivation
353(4)
Development of the Whole Person
353(3)
Humanistic Views of Motivation: Instructional Strategies
356(1)
Cognitive Theories of Motivation
357(21)
Expectancy x Value Theory
358(3)
Self-Efficacy: Beliefs About Capability
361(1)
Goals and Goal Orientation
362(5)
Attribution Theory
367(2)
Beliefs, Goals, and Attributions: Instructional Strategies
369(2)
Self-Determination Theory
371(3)
Assessment and Learning: The Role of Assessment in Self-Determination
374(1)
Developing Students' Self-Determination: Instructional Strategies
375(3)
Affective Factors in Motivation
378(5)
Self-Worth Theory
378(1)
Arousal and Anxiety
379(1)
Accommodating Affective Factors in Motivation: Instructional Strategies
380(3)
Windows on Classrooms
383(3)
Motivation in the Classroom
386(38)
Class Structure: Creating a Learning-Focused Environment
388(1)
Self-Regulated Learners: Developing Student Responsibility
389(4)
Developing Self-Regulation: Applying Self-Determination Theory
390(1)
Helping Students Develop Self-regulation: Instructional Strategies
390(3)
Teacher Characteristics: Personal Qualities That Increase Student Motivation and Learning
393(8)
Personal Teaching Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching and Learning
393(2)
Modeling and Enthusiasm: Communicating Genuine Interest
395(1)
Caring: Meeting the Need for Relatedness
395(2)
Teacher Expectations: Increasing Perceptions of Competence
397(2)
Demonstrating Personal Qualities That Increase Motivation: Instructional Strategies
399(2)
Climate Variables: Creating a Motivating Environment
401(3)
Safety and Order: Classrooms as Secure Places to Learn
401(1)
Success: Developing Learner Self-Efficacy
402(1)
Challenge: Increasing Perceptions of Competence and Self-Determination
402(1)
Task Comprehension: Increasing Perception of Control and Value
403(1)
Instructional Variables: Developing Interest in Learning Activities
404(10)
Introductory Focus: Attracting Students' Attention
405(2)
Personalization: Links to Students' Lives
407(1)
Involvement: Increasing Intrinsic Motivation
408(2)
Feedback: Meeting the Need to Understand
410(1)
Applying the Climate and Instructional Variables in Your Classroom: Instructional Strategies
410(2)
Assessment and Learning: Using Feedback to Increase Interest and Self-Efficacy
412(2)
Technology and Learning: Using Technology to Increase Learner Motivation
414(2)
The Motivating Effects of Technology: Theoretical Explanations
415(1)
Technology and Motivation: Cautions and Guidelines for Teachers
416(1)
Motivation and Diversity
416(4)
Motivation Problems: Student Perspectives
417(1)
Motivation Problems: Possible Solutions
418(2)
Windows on Classrooms
420(4)
Creating Productive Learning Environments: Classroom Management
424(36)
Classroom Management: A Definition
426(3)
Classroom Management and the Complexities of the Classroom
426(2)
Cognitive Approaches to Management: Developing Learner Responsibility
428(1)
Planning for Effective Classroom Management
429(8)
Rules and Procedures: Cornerstones of an Effective Management System
431(1)
Creating and Teaching Rules: Instructional Strategies
431(6)
Communication with Parents
437(6)
Benefits of Communication
437(1)
Involving Parents: Instructional Strategies
438(2)
Communication with Parents: Accommodating Learner Diversity
440(3)
Economic, Cultural, and Language Barriers??
Dealing with Misbehavior: Interventions
443(12)
Guidelines for Successful Interventions
443(2)
Cognitive Interventions
445(3)
Behaviorist Interventions
448(3)
An Intervention Continuum
451(2)
Assessment and Learning: The Role of Assessment in Classroom Management
453(2)
Serious Management Problems: Violence and Aggression
455(3)
Immediate Action
455(1)
Long-Term Solutions
456(2)
Windows on Classrooms
458(2)
Creating Productive Learning Environments: Principles of Instruction
460(32)
Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Thinking
462(2)
Teacher Knowledge
463(1)
Teacher Thinking
463(1)
Planning for Instruction
464(8)
Deciding What Topics are Important to Study
464(1)
Preparing Objectives: Deciding What Students Should Know, Value, or Be Able to Do
464(4)
Preparing and Organizing Learning Activities
468(1)
Planning for Assessment
469(1)
Planning in a Standards-Based Environment
470(2)
Implementing Instruction: Essential Teaching Skills
472(15)
Attitudes
473(1)
Use of Time
473(1)
Organization
474(1)
Communication
474(1)
Focus: Attracting and Maintaining Attention
475(1)
Feedback
476(2)
Questioning
478(3)
Review and Closure
481(1)
Classroom Interaction: Accommodating Learner Diversity
481(2)
Assessment and Learning: Using Assessment as a Learning Tool
483(4)
Windows on Classrooms
487(5)
Assessing Classroom Learning
492(48)
Classroom Assessment
495(3)
Functions of Classroom Assessment
495(1)
Measurement and Evaluation
495(2)
Validity: Making Appropriate Evaluation Decisions
497(1)
Reliability: Consistency in Measurement
497(1)
Traditional Assessment Strategies
498(12)
Teachers' Assessment Patterns
498(2)
Valid Test Items
500(1)
Constructing Valid Test Items: Instructional Strategies
501(8)
Commercially Prepared Test Items
509(1)
Alternative Assessment
510(9)
Performance Assessment
510(1)
Designing Performance Assessments: Instructional Strategies
511(3)
Portfolios: Involving Students in Alternative Assessment
514(3)
Putting Traditional and Alternative Assessments into Perspective
517(2)
Using Technology in Your Study of Educational Psychology: Assessment in the Balance
519(1)
Effective Assessment Practices: Instructional Strategies
519(8)
Planning for Assessment
519(2)
Preparing Students for Assessment
521(3)
Administering Assessments
524(1)
Analyzing Results
525(1)
Accommodating Diversity in Classrooms: Reducing Bias in Assessment
525(2)
Grading and Reporting: The Total Assessment System
527(9)
Designing a Grading System
528(2)
Assigning Grades: Increasing Learning Motivation
530(3)
Technology and Learning: Using Technology to Improve Assessment
533(3)
Windows on Classrooms
536(4)
Assessment Through Standardized Testing
540(37)
Standardized Tests
542(9)
Functions of Standardized Testing
543(1)
Types of Standardized Tests
544(4)
Evaluating Standardized Tests: Validity Revisited
548(2)
The Teacher's Role in Standardized Testing: Instructional Strategies
550(1)
Understanding and Interpreting Standardized Test Scores
551(7)
Descriptive Statistics
551(3)
Interpreting Standardized Test Results
554(4)
Issues in Standardized Testing
558(9)
Standards-Based Education and the Accountability Movement
558(2)
Testing Teachers
560(1)
Cultural Minorities and High Stakes Tests
560(1)
Student Diversity and Test Bias
561(1)
Eliminating Bias in Standardized Testing: Instructional Strategies
562(2)
Standardized Testing with Alternative Formats
564(1)
Issues in Standardized Testing: Implications for Teachers
565(2)
Windows on Classrooms
567(2)
Appendix
Using This Test to Practice for the PRAXIS™ Principles of Learning and Teaching Exam
569(8)
Glossary 577(10)
References 587(38)
Name Index 625(11)
Subject Index 636

Excerpts

The literature of educational psychology continues to rapidly evolve, and we have written the sixth edition ofEducational Psychology: Windows on Classroomsto remain on the cutting edge of theory and research in the field. At the same time, we have expanded on the theme that has made this book successful: to be the most applied text on the market. Our goals are to provide accurate, clear, and precise descriptions of research and theory combined with the suggestions that make these theories applicable in classroom practice. The subtitle "Windows on Classrooms" refers to our presentation of authentic classroom activities that are designed to provide you, our readers, with a realistic look at classrooms today and what they might become tomorrow. To this end, this new edition has a deeper focus and commitment to being: Case-basedthroughouteach chapter Exceptionally applied Filled with practice for the PRAXIS The edition is also expanded to include a new chapter that provides a detailed examination of the construction of understanding, a second chapter that presents a classroom model of student motivation, and a third chapter that focuses on the processes and issues involved in standardized testing. The following pages illustrate the features and new additions to this text. A BOOK THATTRULY INTEGRATES CASESTHROUGHT CHAPTERS To capture the real world of learning and teaching, we capitalize on the use of case studies. All chapters begin with an extended case study. These cases are detailed and rich and are integrated and elaborated throughout the chapters to make theory concrete and applicable. The process of situating theory in the context of real-world practice is consistent with the most recent learning and motivation research. In this regard, the book is a model for effective instruction and provides our readers with repeated opportunities to construct meaningful understandings of the book's contents. Elaborated Cases.The book does not merely reference the opening case, but it actually integrates and enriches the case as the chapter develops. Illustrations and captions are provided on pages throughout the chapter to call students' attention to the key points in the case study. Videos to Accompany Cases.Twelve of the chapter cases have a video counterpart. These video segments are included on two videotapes, "Looking Through Classroom Windows 1 and 2", in order of their appearance in the book. Viewing video cases and discussing and analyzing them can deepen understanding of concepts presented in the chapter. See the table on page 26 listing the topic, grade level, and content focus of each video case. End-of-Chapter Case Analysis.Chapter-ending cases, called "Windows on Classrooms," provide additional practice in understanding chapter concepts through analysis of the classroom-based case. Moreover, constructed-response questions and document-based analysis questions give students opportunities to practice analyzing cases for the PRAXIS "Principles of Learning and Teaching" Exam--and for professional practice. A BOOK THAT IS EXCEPTIONALLY APPLIED As might be expected from a case-based text, a central goal ofEducational Psychology: Windows on Classroomsis to help its readers be able to use educational psychology as teachers. The text examines every theory and concept through its application in classrooms, and a number of features help students connect content to classrooms. Classroom Connections at the Elementary, Middle School, and High School Levels.This box in each chapter offers strategies for applying the content to specific learning and teaching situations. Each strategy is illustrated with an example, derived largely from the authors' experiences in schools, for elementary classrooms, middle and junior high classrooms,


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