Effective Leadership in Adventure Programming - 2nd Edition

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-05-28
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics
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Effective Leadership in Adventure Programming, Second Edition,will help students-understand the key elements of effective leadership in both theory and practice,-learn important leadership skills through real-world applications, and-explore new trends in adventure programming.Effective Leadership in Adventure Programming, Second Edition,explains how the key elements of leadership work in theory and practice, and it helps train the next generation of adventure leaderstraining that is paramount to developing the field.Through this text, readers will enhance their understanding of this rapidly growing profession. Renowned authors Simon Priest and Michael Gass provide in-depth descriptions and real-world applications of the technical, organizational, instructional, and facilitative skills that are essential to adventure leadership. The authors also identify what they call the metaskills that superior leaders use to combine the other essential skills seamlessly and effectively.The authors provide fully updated content and references, including new information on legal liability, risk management skills, and future research trends in adventure programming. They also do the following:-Examine the historical and philosophical foundations of adventure programming-Provide safety and environmental guidelines that leaders should follow-Describe the organizational, instructional, and facilitation skills that outdoor adventure leaders should possess-Identify the importance of flexible leadership style, problem-solving and decision-making skills, experience-based judgment, effective communication, and ethical behaviorsThe first edition of this book set new levels of excellence in leadership in adventure programming. The second edition preserves the comprehensive and classic nature of the original while raising the standard for the field in the 21st century. The authors'skillful approach to integrating all aspects of effective outdoor adventure leadership makes this book an ideal text for adventure leadership and programming courses and an outstanding reference for practicing professionals.

Author Biography

Michael Gass is a full professor and chair of the department of kinesiology and member of the outdoor education program at the University of New Hampshire (UNH).

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Introduction to Effective Outdoor Leadershipp. 1
Need for Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 2
Emerging and Designated Leadersp. 2
Research on Outdoor Leadershipp. 3
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 6
Creating the Appropriate Mixture in the Right Settingsp. 6
Summaryp. 6
Questions to Think Aboutp. 7
Referencesp. 7
Foundations of Adventure Programmingp. 9
Philosophy of Adventure Programmingp. 11
Philosophy: Definitionsp. 13
Philosophical Models Supporting Adventure Programmingp. 13
Cognitive, Behavioral, and Experiential Theories of Learningp. 14
Information Assimilation and Experiential Learningp. 15
Defining Structures in Adventure Programmingp. 16
Product of Adventure: Affective Aspectsp. 19
Process of Adventurep. 20
Adventure Programming Applicationsp. 23
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 24
Summaryp. 24
Questions to Think Aboutp. 25
Referencesp. 25
History of Adventure Programmingp. 27
Beginningsp. 28
Outward Boundp. 28
Growth of Adventure Learning Programsp. 30
History of Outdoor Leadership Preparationp. 31
Certification Versus Accreditationp. 37
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 40
Summaryp. 40
Questions to Think Aboutp. 41
Referencesp. 41
Individual Behavior and Motivationp. 45
Physiological and Psychophysiological Factorsp. 46
Theories and Models of Motivationp. 54
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 61
Summaryp. 61
Questions to Think Aboutp. 62
Referencesp. 62
Group Development and Dynamicsp. 65
Stages of Group Developmentp. 66
Other Factors Affecting Group Dynamicsp. 72
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 73
Summaryp. 73
Questions to Think Aboutp. 74
Referencesp. 74
Practical and Organizational Skills for Outdoor Leadersp. 75
Technical Skillsp. 77
Generic, Metaskills, and Specific Competencyp. 78
Specific Technical-Skill Competenciesp. 79
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 86
Summaryp. 86
Questions to Think Aboutp. 86
Referencesp. 87
Additional Resourcesp. 87
Safety and Risk Managementp. 91
Risk Is Essentialp. 92
Accident Theoryp. 93
Risk-Management Countermeasuresp. 98
Risk-Management Skillsp. 109
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 110
Summaryp. 111
Questions to Think Aboutp. 112
Referencesp. 112
Environmental Skillsp. 113
Planning for an Environmentally Appropriate Experiencep. 115
Hiking and Traveling With Minimal Impactp. 115
Camping and Campsite Behaviorp. 116
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 117
Summaryp. 118
Questions to Think Aboutp. 118
Referencesp. 118
Trip Planningp. 119
Before the Tripp. 120
During the Tripp. 126
Back Home and Other Planningp. 128
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 128
Summaryp. 129
Questions to Think Aboutp. 129
Referencesp. 129
Legal Liabilityp. 131
Legal Liabilityp. 132
Four Conditions of Negligencep. 132
Applying the Four Conditions of Negligence in Courtp. 132
Standard of Care: Being Reasonable and Prudentp. 133
Defenses Against Negligence Claimsp. 133
Written Formsp. 134
After an Accidentp. 136
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 139
Summaryp. 139
Questions to Think Aboutp. 140
Referencesp. 140
Instruction in Adventure Programmingp. 143
Experiential Educationp. 145
Rationale for Fostering Functional Growthp. 147
Educational Models Supporting Adventure Programmingp. 150
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 156
Summaryp. 157
Questions to Think Aboutp. 157
Referencesp. 157
Instructional Methodsp. 159
Five Depths of Learningp. 160
Public Speakingp. 163
Designing Effective Lessonsp. 164
Objective Writing and Goal Settingp. 166
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 168
Summaryp. 168
Questions to Think Aboutp. 169
Referencesp. 169
Teaching Modelsp. 171
Phases of the Learning Experiencep. 172
Range of Teaching Stylesp. 174
Selecting the Most Appropriate Stylep. 178
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 179
Summaryp. 179
Questions to Think Aboutp. 179
Referencesp. 179
Facilitation in Adventure Programmingp. 181
The Process of Facilitationp. 183
Why Facilitate Adventure Experiences?p. 184
Importance of Transfer of Learningp. 184
Empowering Clientsp. 186
Facilitation Guidelinesp. 188
Six Generations of Adventure Facilitationp. 189
Adventure Programs and Facilitation Stylesp. 194
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 194
Summaryp. 195
Questions to Think Aboutp. 195
Referencesp. 196
Basic Facilitation Techniquesp. 197
Discussion Techniquesp. 198
Alternative Reflections and Nonverbal Methodsp. 201
Debriefing the Experiencep. 202
Frontloading the Experiencep. 207
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 211
Summaryp. 211
Questions to Think Aboutp. 212
Referencesp. 212
Advanced Facilitation Techniquesp. 213
Isomorphically Framing the Experiencep. 215
Indirectly Frontloading the Experiencep. 220
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 225
Summaryp. 225
Questions to Think Aboutp. 226
Referencesp. 226
Facilitation Rolesp. 229
Assess Needsp. 230
Be Neutralp. 232
Construct Change Processesp. 232
Deal With Resistancep. 234
Exceptions Produce Solutionsp. 235
Feedback Aids Learningp. 235
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 237
Good Listening Elicits Useful Questionsp. 237
Summaryp. 237
Questions to Think Aboutp. 238
Referencesp. 238
Metaskills for Outdoor Leadersp. 241
Flexible Leadership Stylep. 243
Leadership Stylesp. 244
Leadership Orientationp. 244
Conditional Favorabilityp. 246
Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory Modelp. 247
Applying the COLT Modelp. 247
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 250
Summaryp. 250
Questions to Think Aboutp. 250
Referencesp. 251
Effective Communicationp. 253
Communication Definedp. 254
Improving Communicationp. 259
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 259
Summaryp. 260
Questions to Think Aboutp. 260
Referencesp. 260
Experience-Based Judgmentp. 261
The Judgment Cyclep. 262
Role of Piagetian Theoryp. 264
Role of Heuristicsp. 265
Developing Judgmentp. 266
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 267
Summaryp. 267
Questions to Think Aboutp. 268
Referencesp. 268
Problem Solvingp. 269
Multiphase Problem Solvingp. 270
Solving Problems Using the Multiphase Modelp. 272
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 277
Summaryp. 278
Questions to Think Aboutp. 278
Referencesp. 278
Decision Makingp. 279
Divergencep. 280
Convergencep. 281
Qualitative Modificationsp. 284
Application to Problem Solvingp. 286
Decision Making and Leadership Stylesp. 286
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 287
Summaryp. 287
Questions to Think Aboutp. 287
Referencesp. 288
Professional Ethicsp. 289
Principle and Virtue Ethicsp. 291
Kitchener's Model of Ethical Decision Makingp. 292
Ethical Guidelines for Outdoor Leadersp. 295
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 297
Summaryp. 297
Questions to Think Aboutp. 297
Referencesp. 297
Trends and Issuesp. 299
Factors at Workp. 300
Growthp. 300
Environmentp. 302
Technologyp. 303
Burnoutp. 305
Professionalismp. 307
Researchp. 308
Growth Curves and Life Cyclesp. 310
Rebirth or Death?p. 312
Effective Outdoor Leadersp. 315
Summaryp. 315
Questions to Think Aboutp. 316
Referencesp. 316
Author Indexp. 319
Subject Indexp. 323
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