Egress Design Solutions : A Guide to Evacuation and Crowd Management Planning

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-05-01
  • Publisher: Wiley

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The architect's primary source for information on designing for egress, evacuation, and life safety,Egress Design Solutions, Emergency Evacuation and Crowd Management Planning, is written by proven experts on egress issues. Meacham and Tubbs are engineers with Arup, an international firm with a stellar reputation for quality design and engineering. Their book examines egress solutions in terms of both prescriptive and performance-based code issues. A portion of the book focuses on techniques for providing egress design solutions and for coordinating egress systems with other critical life safety systems. Another part reviews historic and recent tragic life-loss fire events. As such, this is easily the most comprehensive take on the subject, written especially for architects.

Author Biography

Jeffrey S. Tubbs, PE, is an associate principal with the global engineering and consulting firm Arup, and is staff group leader of Arup's Westborough, Massachusetts, office. Tubbs is a registered fire protection engineer in seven states, and has extensive experience developing prescriptive and performance-based code fire protection, life safety, and egress strategies for projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to being an adjunct instructor at the Center for Fire Safety Studies at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Tubbs has also contributed his expertise to various building design texts and led the Arup contributions to the National Construction Safety Team investigation of the February 20, 2002, fire at The Station nightclub in West Warwick, Rhode Island.

Brian J. Meacham, PhD, PE, is a principal with Arup, leading the firm's Global Risk Consulting Business. A licensed engineer and a fellow of the Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Meacham is widely regarded as an expert in risk-informed performance-based approaches to building regulation and fire protection design. He holds appointments of adjunct associate professor in fire protection engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and research associate professor and director, Center for Risk and Security, Clark University. Meacham is the editor of the ICC book Performance-Based Building Design Concepts: A Companion to the ICC Performance Code and lead editor of the NFPA book Extreme Event Mitigation in Buildings: Analysis and Design.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
St. Lawrence University Laboratory Buildingp. 1
Dallas-Fort Worth International Airportp. 4
International Finance Centerp. 9
Overviewp. 10
Myths and Misconceptionsp. 13
Summaryp. 15
Referencesp. 16
Building Codes and Regulationsp. 17
History and Overview of Building and Fire Codes in the United Statesp. 17
Model Codesp. 20
Scope of Building and Fire Codesp. 22
Application of Building and Fire Codesp. 23
Responsibilitiesp. 25
ICC Codes and Egressp. 26
NFPA Codesp. 30
Evolution to Performance-Based Codesp. 35
Looking to the Futurep. 47
Referencesp. 49
Recommended Readingp. 51
Historic Eventsp. 53
Iroquois Theater, Chicago, Illinois, 1903p. 54
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, New York, New York, 1911p. 58
Italian Hall Disaster, Calumet, Michigan, 1913p. 60
Rhythm Club, Natchez, Mississippi, 1940p. 62
Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire, Boston, Massachusetts, 1942p. 63
Ringling Brothers, Barnum & Bailey Circus Tent Fire, Hartford, Connecticut, 1944p. 65
Our Lady of Angels School Fire, Chicago, Illinois, 1958p. 66
Hartford Hospital Fire, Hartford, Connecticut, 1961p. 67
Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire, Southgate, Kentucky, 1977p. 70
The Who Concert, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979p. 73
MGM Grand Fire, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1980p. 74
Dupont Plaza, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1986p. 76
World Trade Center Bombing, New York, New York, 1993p. 79
World Trade Center Collapse, New York, New York, 2001p. 80
E2 Nightclub, Chicago, Illinois, 2003p. 82
The Station Nightclub Fire, West Warwick, Rhode Island, 2003p. 83
Cook County Administration Building, Chicago, Illinois, 2003p. 86
Summaryp. 89
Referencesp. 89
Recommended Readingp. 92
Egress System Fundamentals
Egress Strategiesp. 93
Egress System Goals and Objectivesp. 93
General Egress Strategiesp. 95
Designing for Occupants with Disabilitiesp. 103
Prescribed Performancep. 109
Emerging Egress Strategiesp. 110
Performance-Based Approachesp. 119
Selecting and Evaluating Optionsp. 127
Summaryp. 128
Referencesp. 128
Recommended Readingp. 131
Prescriptive Egress Conceptsp. 133
Fundamentalsp. 133
Occupant Loadp. 135
Exit Accessp. 147
Exit Componentsp. 162
Exit Dischargep. 173
Assembly Occupanciesp. 174
Summaryp. 177
Referencesp. 180
Recommended Readingp. 180
Supporting Systemsp. 183
Systems Approachp. 183
Accessibilityp. 185
Securityp. 188
Control of Combustiblesp. 189
Structural Integrityp. 191
Fire Ratingp. 192
Construction Typep. 193
Fire Resistancep. 193
Compartmentationp. 193
Floorsp. 194
Wallsp. 195
Doorsp. 196
Detection Systemsp. 197
Occupant Notificationp. 198
Suppression Systemsp. 200
Smoke Management Systemsp. 202
Back-Up Powerp. 203
Evacuation Using Elevatorsp. 205
Types of Elevatorsp. 207
Referencesp. 210
Recommended Readingp. 211
Human Behavior and Performance Concepts
Human Behavior Considerations for Egress System Designp. 213
People-Building-Event Interactionp. 213
Occupant Characterizationp. 218
Occupant Reaction and Response in Emergency Situationsp. 221
Human Behavior and Crowdsp. 241
Using Occupant Risk Factors to Aid Egress System Designp. 253
Summaryp. 255
Referencesp. 256
Recommended Readingp. 263
Performance Egress Conceptsp. 265
Performance Egress Overviewp. 268
Tenability Criteriap. 285
Hazardsp. 289
Safety Factors and Uncertaintiesp. 289
Evacuation Time Calculation Overviewp. 291
Limitations with Engineering Calculationsp. 311
Designing for Elevator Evacuationp. 324
Referencesp. 330
Recommended Readingp. 333
Evacuation Planning and Design
Evacuation Planning and Crowd Managementp. 335
Evacuation Planning Overviewp. 335
Evacuation Plan Developmentp. 337
Typical Challenges with Evacuation Plansp. 347
Roles and Responsibilities during Incidentsp. 347
Evacuation Drilling and Trainingp. 350
Crowd Management Planningp. 355
Summaryp. 362
Referencesp. 362
Recommended Readingp. 363
Design Solutionsp. 365
Airport Terminalsp. 365
Air Traffic Control Towersp. 379
Arenas, Stadia, and Sports Facilitiesp. 380
Convention and Exhibit Centersp. 388
Courthousesp. 396
Detention and Correctional Facilitiesp. 401
Day-Care, Adult-Care, and Assisted-Living Facilitiesp. 409
Hazardous Occupanciesp. 412
Health-Care Facilitiesp. 414
Historic and Existing Buildingsp. 422
Museums and Librariesp. 434
Performing Arts Centersp. 441
Rail Stations and Platformsp. 445
Rail and Road Tunnelsp. 455
Retail Facilitiesp. 462
Tall Buildingsp. 465
Summaryp. 475
Referencesp. 475
Recommended Readingp. 476
Appendixp. 479
About the Authorsp. 516
Indexp. 518
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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