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e-Learning and the Science of Instruction Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2023-12-12
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Table of Contents


Part 1: Foundations of e-Learning and the Science of Instruction

Chapter 1: E-Learning: Promise and Pitfalls

What Is E-Learning?

The Evolution of e-Learning for Training

Is e-Learning Better?

The Promises of e-Learning

The Pitfalls of e-Learning

E-Learning Architectures

Twenty-Five Years Later

Chapter 2: How People Learn from e-Courses

How Do People Learn?

Guiding Cognitive Processing During Learning

Core Goals in Instructional Design for e-Learning

How e-Lessons Affect Learning

Chapter 3: Evidence-Based Practice

What Is Evidence-based Practice?

Rationale for Evidence-based Practice

Three Approaches to Research on Instructional Effectiveness

What to Look for in Experimental Comparisons

What Are Boundary Conditions?

What Is a Meta-Analysis?

Limits of Experimental Research

Where Can You Find Relevant Research?

The Evolution of Evidence-based Practice

What We Don’t Know About Evidence-based Practice

Part 2: How to Leverage Visuals and Words in e-Learning.

Chapter 4: Applying the Multimedia Principle: Use Words and Graphics Rather Than Words Alone

Do Visuals Make a Difference?

Multimedia Principle: Include Both Words and Graphics

Some Ways to Select Graphics to Promote Learning

Psychological Reasons for the Multimedia Principle

Evidence for Using Words and Pictures

When to Use Animations

How to Optimize Learning from Graphics

What We Don’t Know About Visuals 

Chapter 5: Applying the Contiguity Principle: Align Words to Corresponding Graphics

Spatial Contiguity Principle: Place Printed Words Near Corresponding Graphics

Violations of Spatial Contiguity

Psychological Reasons for the Spatial Contiguity Principle

Evidence for the Spatial Contiguity Principle

Temporal Contiguity Principle: Synchronize Spoken Words with Corresponding Graphics

Violations of Temporal Contiguity Principle

Psychological Reasons for the Temporal Contiguity Principle

Evidence for the Temporal Contiguity Principle

What We Don’t Know About Contiguity

Chapter 6: Applying the Signaling Principle: Use Verbal and Visual Cues to Direct Attention

What is Signaling?

How does Signaling work?

Evidence for Benefits of Signaling

Principle 1: Use Text Summaries and Headers to Signal Learning Content

Principle 2: Use Text Phrases to Explicitly Direct Attention to Relevant Content

Principle 3: Use Emphasis Cues such as Color and Intonation

Principle 4: Use Graphic Cues such as Arrows and Pointers

Principle 5: Use Anti-cueing in Animations to Signal Less Salient Visual Elements

Signaling: The Bottom Line

What We Don’t Know About Signaling

Chapter 7: Applying the Modality Principle: Present Words as Audio Narration Rather than On-screen Text

Modality Principle: Present Words as Speech rather than On-screen Text

Psychological Reasons for the Modality Principle

Evidence for Using Spoken Rather than Printed Text

When Audio is Not Effective:  Boundary Conditions of the Modality Principle

What We Don’t Know About the Modality Principle

Chapter 8: When to Add Text to Audio Narration: Applying the Redundancy Principle

What is the Redundancy Principle?

Psychological Reasons for Redundancy Principle

Evidence for Omitting Redundant On-screen Text

Add On-screen Text to Narration in Special Situations

The Bottom Line

What We Don’t Know About Redundancy

Chapter 9: Applying the Coherence Principle: Adding Extra Material Can Hurt Learning

Principle 1: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Words

Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Words in e-Learning

Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Interest

Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added to Expand on Key Ideas

Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Words Added for Technical Depth

Principle 2: Avoid E-Lessons with Extraneous Graphics

Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Graphics in e-Learning

Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Graphics Added for Interest

Boundary Conditions for Seductive Details

Evidence for Using Simpler Visuals

Can Interesting Graphics Ever Be Helpful?  Guidelines for Emotional Design

Principle 3: Avoid e-Lessons with Extraneous Audio

Psychological Reasons to Avoid Extraneous Audio in e-Learning

Evidence for Omitting Extraneous Audio

What We Don’t Know About Coherence

Part 3: How to Promote Skill Building in e-Learning.

Chapter 10: Engagement in e-Learning: Activities for Promoting Generative Learning

What is Engagement?

Engagement and Generative Processing

Behavioral Versus Psychological Engagement

When Behavioral Activity Impedes Learning

Three Engagement Activities that Promote Generative Processing

The Bottom Line to Engagement in e-Learning

What We Don’t Know About Engagement

Chapter 11: Leveraging Examples in e-Learning

What is Example-based Instruction?

The Psychology of Example-based Instruction

Evidence for the Benefits of Example-based Instruction

How to Optimize the Benefits of Example-based Instruction

Principle 1: Provide at Least Two Examples (with paired practice assignments) when the Lesson Content Is Complex.

Principle 2:  Promote Self-explanations to Stimulate Deeper Processing of              Examples.

Principle 3: Fade from Worked Examples to Problems as Expertise Builds.

Principle 4: Apply the Multimedia Principles to the Design of Your Examples.

Principle 5: Consider Using Video Examples for Complex Tasks    

Principle 6: Optimize Example-based Instruction for Strategic Tasks

What We Don’t Know About Worked Examples

Chapter 12: Does Practice Make Perfect?

What Is Practice in e-Learning?

Is Practice a Good Investment?

Principle 1: Add Sufficient Practice Interactions to Achieve the Objective

Principle 2: Make Sure Practice Mirrors the Job

Principle 3: Provide Effective Feedback on Practice Performance

Principle 4: Distribute and Mix Practice Among Learning Events

Principle 5: Arrange Practice that Increases in Challenge as Learners Progress

Principle 6: Provide Scaffolding to Support Guided Practice When Needed

Principle 7: Apply Multimedia Principles in Designing Feedback

What We Don’t Know about Practice

Part 4: How to Organize Content in e-Learning

Chapter 13: Organizing Instruction: Applying the Segmenting and Pretraining Principles

What Is the Segmenting Principle?          

What Is the Pretraining Principle?


Psychological Reasons for the Pretraining Principle

Managing Essential Overload

What We Don’t Know About Segmenting and Pretraining

Chapter 14: Who’s in Control? Guidelines for e-Learning Navigation

Learner Control VS Program Control

Do Learners Make Good Instructional Decisions?

The Psychology of Learner Decisions

Four Principles for Learner Control

Principle 1: Give Experienced Learners Control in e-learning

Principle 2: Make Important Instructional Events the Default

Principle 3: Give Pacing Control to All Learners

Principle 4: Provide Guidance in Open-ended e-Learning Environments

The Bottom Line

What We Don’t Know About Learner Control

Part 5: How to Leverage Social Cues in e-Learning

Chapter 15: Applying the Personalization Principle: Use Conversational Style, Polite Wording, Friendly Voice, On-Screen Agents, and Social Presence in Video Lessons

Personalization Principle 1: Use Conversational Rather than Formal Style

Psychological Reasons for the Personalization Principle

Evidence for Using a Conversational Style

Personalization Principle 2: Use Polite Wording Rather than Direct Wording

Evidence for Polite Wording

Personalization Principle 3: Use Friendly Human Voice Quality for Narrations

Evidence for Friendly Voice

Can On-Screen Agents Promote Learning in Asynchronous e-Learning?

How Can Instructors in Video Lessons Leverage Personalization?

What We Don’t Know about Personalization

Chapter 16: Online Collaborative Learning

What is Collaborative Learning?

The Psychology of Collaborative Learning

What is Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)?

Principle 1: Design Tasks and Team Assignments to Foster Interdependence

Principle 2: Optimize Group Size, Prior Knowledge and Collaboration Experience

Principle 3: Consider Tradeoffs Between Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Collaboration

Principle 4: Maximize Social Presence in Online Collaborative Environments

Principle 5: Use Scripts to Structure Team Processes

What We Don’t Know About Online Collaborative Learning

Part 6: Special Applications of e-Learning

Chapter 17: E-Learning to Build Thinking Skills

What Are Thinking Skills?

What to Teach: Focused Target Skills Versus Improving the Mind in General

Where to Teach: Domain General Versus Domain-specific Thinking Skills

How to Teach: Expert Modeling with Learner Practice Versus Direct Instruction

Can Thinking Skills Be Trained?

Principle 1: Build Explicit Instruction to Teach Specific Job-relevant Thinking Skills

Principle 2: Incorporate Online Simulations of Authentic Work Scenarios

Principle 3: Identify Job-Specific Thinking Processes

Teaching Thinking Skills: The Bottom Line

What We Don’t Know About Teaching Thinking Skills

Chapter 18: Designing Effective Instructional Video

The Challenge of Instructional Video

Historical Foundations of Instructional Video

Uses of Instructional Video

Principle 1: Record a Demonstration Video from a First-Person Perspective

Principle 2: Have the Instructor Draw on the Board While Lecturing

Principle 3: Embed Generative Activities During Breaks in the Video

Principle 4: Add Subtitles for Learners in a Second Language

Principle 5: Have the Instructor Exhibit Positive Voice and Gestures

Principle 6: Have the Instructor Use Pointing and Eye Gaze to Direct Attention

Principle 7: Avoid Overuse of Talking Heads or Static Instructor Images

Principle 8: Apply Multimedia Design Principles

What We Don’t Know About Instructional Video

Chapter 19: Learning with Computer Games

Do Games Have a Place in the Serious Business of Training?

Which Features Improve a Computer Game's Effectiveness?

What Are the Cognitive Consequences of Playing Off-the-Shelf Computer Games?

Are Computer Games More Effective than Conventional Media?

What Makes an Effective Game for Skill Training?

What Makes an Ineffective Game for Skill Training?

What We Don't Know About Learning with Computer Games

Chapter 20: Immersive Virtual Reality for Instruction

The Promise and Pitfalls of Learning in Immersive Virtual Reality

What Is Immersive Virtual Reality?

Three Levels of Immersion

Is Immersive Virtual Reality Better for Learning than Traditional Media?

When to use Immersive Virtual Reality Training Environments

How to use Immersive Virtual Reality for Learning

What We Don’t Know about Immersive Virtual Reality

Chapter 21: Applying the Multimedia Guidelines

How Strong is the Evidence for the Multimedia Principles?

E-Learning Guidelines Checklists

Trends in Multimedia Design Research

The Future of Multimedia Design Research

In Conclusion




    About the Authors


Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

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