Electroacoustic Devices: Microphones and Loudspeakers

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-08-10
  • Publisher: Focal Press

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This is the definitive reference for microphones and loudspeakers, your one-stop reference covering in great detail all you could want and need to know about electroacoustics devises (microphones and loudspeakers). Covering both the technology and the practical set up and placement this guide explores and bridges the link between experience and the technology, giving you a better understanding of the tools to use and why, leading to greatly improved results.* The most comprehensive guide available, heavily illustrated with clear helpful diagrams, charts and equations * Timesaving, one stop reference covering both technology and practical tips and problem solving * Authored by highly respected industry veterans leaders in the field

Author Biography

Glen Ballou is a graduate of General Motors Institute, now called Kettering University, with a bachelor's degree in Industrial Engineering and a minor in Electrical Engineering. He has been a Syn-Aud-Con representative, has served as a governor, convention chairman, papers chairman and facilities chairman of the Audio Engineering Society (AES) and has been a member of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) He has been a contributor to Sound and Video Contractor, and Church Production magazine on a variety of subjects. Glen also wrote the chapter on capacitor and inductors for the CRC Press publication The Electrical Engineer Handbook. Glen is owner of Innovative Communications, a company that specializes in room acoustics and sound system design.

Table of Contents

Electroacoustic Devices
Introductionp. 4
Pickup Patternsp. 5
Omnidirectional Microphonesp. 5
Bidirectional Microphonesp. 9
Unidirectional Microphonesp. 10
Types of Transducersp. 23
Carbon Microphonesp. 23
Crystal and Ceramic Microphonesp. 24
Dynamic Microphonesp. 26
Capacitor Microphonesp. 33
Electret Microphonesp. 48
Microphone Sensitivityp. 49
Open-Circuit Voltage Sensitivityp. 49
Maximum Power Output Sensitivityp. 50
Electronic Industries Association (EIA) Output Sensitivityp. 51
Various Microphone Sensitivitiesp. 53
Microphone Thermal Noisep. 53
Microphone Practicesp. 54
Placementp. 54
Groundingp. 56
Polarityp. 57
Balanced or Unbalancedp. 59
Impedancep. 59
Miscellaneous Microphonesp. 61
Pressure Zone Microphones (PZM)p. 61
Lavalier Microphonesp. 69
Head-Worn Microphonesp. 72
Base Station Microphonesp. 75
Differential Noise-Canceling Microphonesp. 76
Controlled-Reluctance Microphonesp. 77
Handheld Entertainer Microphonesp. 77
Pressure-Gradient Condenser Microphonesp. 79
Interference Tube Microphonesp. 82
Rifle Microphonesp. 89
Parabolic Microphonesp. 90
Zoom Microphonesp. 91
Automatic Microphone Systemsp. 94
PolarFlex Microphone Systemp. 95
Stereo Microphonesp. 98
Coincident Microphonesp. 98
XY Stereo Techniquep. 100
The ORTF Techniquep. 103
The M/S Stereo Techniquep. 104
The Stereo Boom Microphonep. 111
SASS Microphonesp. 113
Surround Sound Microphone Systemp. 115
Microphones for Binaural Recordingp. 120
Artificial Head Systemsp. 120
In the Ear Recording Microphonesp. 124
USB Microphonesp. 126
Wireless Communication Systemsp. 127
Criteria for Selecting a Wireless Microphonep. 129
Receiving Antenna Systemsp. 134
Compandingp. 137
Waterproof Wireless Microphone Systemsp. 138
Multichannel Wireless Microphone and Monitoring Systemsp. 139
Introductionp. 139
Frequenciesp. 140
Spacingp. 140
Frequency Deviationp. 140
Frequency Coordinationp. 140
Transmitter Considerationsp. 143
Receiver Considerationsp. 146
Antennasp. 147
Wireless Monitor Systemsp. 151
System Planning for Multichannel Wireless Systemsp. 152
Future Considerations: Digital Wireless Transmissionp. 154
Conclusionp. 155
Microphone Accessoriesp. 156
Inline Microphone Processorsp. 156
Windscreens and Pop Filtersp. 160
Shock Mountsp. 165
Stands and Boomsp. 169
Attenuators and Equalizersp. 170
Microphone Techniquesp. 171
Stereo Micing Techniquesp. 173
Microphone Choicep. 174
Microphone Characteristicsp. 174
Specific Micing Techniquesp. 176
Conclusionp. 192
Acknowledgmentsp. 192
Referencesp. 192
Bibliographyp. 193
Introductionp. 196
Uses of Loudspeakersp. 196
Loudspeaker Componentsp. 197
Transducer Typesp. 197
Electrodynamic Transducersp. 198
Diaphragm Typesp. 199
Suspension Methodsp. 201
Mechanical Constructionp. 201
Compression Driversp. 203
Electrostatic Transducersp. 206
Piezoelectric Loudspeakersp. 210
Motor Design Considerationsp. 213
Output Limitationsp. 215
Heat Transfer Designs for High-Power Woofersp. 219
Radiator Typesp. 221
Direct Radiatorsp. 221
Cone Radiatorsp. 221
Dome Radiatorsp. 222
Ring Radiatorsp. 222
Panel Radiatorsp. 223
Hornsp. 223
Loudspeaker Systemsp. 234
Configuration Choicesp. 235
Types of Loudspeaker Systemsp. 236
Performance Issues in Multiway Systemsp. 237
Line Arraysp. 241
Crossoversp. 243
Acoustic Boundariesp. 249
Conclusionp. 251
Characterization of Loudspeaker Performancep. 252
Motivationp. 252
Efficiency and Sensitivityp. 252
Network Transfer Functionp. 253
Loudspeaker Transfer Functionp. 253
Impedancep. 255
Distortionp. 257
Characterization for Design Purposesp. 257
Characterization for the Userp. 258
Direct Radiation of Soundp. 261
Acoustics of Radiatorsp. 261
Direct Radiator Enclosure Designp. 265
Hornsp. 270
Loudspeaker Testing and Measurementp. 271
Linear Transfer Functionp. 271
Chart Recordersp. 272
Real Time Analyzersp. 273
Time-Windowed Measurementsp. 274
Swept Sine Measurementsp. 276
Referencep. 277
Bibliographyp. 277
Loudspeaker Cluster Design
Why Array?p. 279
Array Problems and Partial Solutions: A Condensed Historyp. 280
Conventional Array Shortcomingsp. 280
Conventional Array Shortcoming Analysisp. 284
Coincident Acoustical Centers: A Practical Approachp. 286
TRAP Horns: A New Approachp. 286
TRAP Performancep. 289
Low Frequency Arrays: Beneficial Interferencep. 289
Horizontal Woofer Arrays: Maintaining Wide Dispersionp. 289
Vertical Woofer Arraysp. 291
Line Arrays and Digitally Steerable Loudspeaker Column Arraysp. 292
What Affects Intelligibilityp. 293
Measuring Intelligibilityp. 294
Architecture and Room Acousticsp. 295
Line Arraysp. 296
DSP-Driven Vertical Arraysp. 300
Multichannel DSP Can Control Array Heightp. 306
Steerable Arrays May Look Like Columns But They Are Notp. 306
Indexp. 311
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