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Elements of Crisis Intervention : Crises and How to Respond to Them,9780534366391
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Elements of Crisis Intervention : Crises and How to Respond to Them

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534366391

ISBN10:
0534366392
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/6/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $80.33

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 6/6/2001.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

With its practical, hands-on approach, this text is perfect for counselors, human service workers, law enforcement, nurses, psychologists, social workers or other professionals who encounter crisis situations. This book is designed to aid in practical, day-to-day, on-the-scene crisis intervention.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
Approach to Crisis Intervention
1(6)
Know what a crisis is
Use the crisis cube to plot the course of a crisis
Differentiate between the need for Crisis Intervention and the need for counseling
Determine whether the sufferer fits the profile of a crisis-prone person
Isolate the events that precipitated the crisis
Determine whether the sufferer is in crisis
Know the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral signs and symptoms of psychological reactions to crisis
Procedures for Effective Crisis Intervention
7(16)
Act immediately
Take control
Be clear about what and whom you are attempting to control
Enter the crisis scene cautiously
Appear stable, supportive, and able to establish structure
Be clear in your introductory statements
Do not promise things that might not happen
Direct and arrange the pattern of standing or sitting
Guide victims with your eyes and voice rather than through physical force
Use physical force only as a last resort, and only if you are trained and authorized to use it
Remove the victim from the crisis situation if possible. Be creative in taking control
Be creative in taking control
Break eye contact between disputants
Separate the victims if necessary
Assess the situation
Evaluate on the spot
Make the evaluation quick, accurate, and comprehensive
Do not take a lengthy life history. Focus on the present crisis and the events that precipitated it
Ask short, direct questions
Ask questions one at a time
Allow the victim time to answer
Do not bombard victims with questions
Be comfortable with silence
Avoid interrupting the victim
Clarify the crisis
Allow the crisis to be the victim's crisis
Assess both the actual and the symbolic meaning of the crisis event
Use the sufferer's body language and nonverbal cues as a source of additional information
Listen for what is not being said
Recognize that personal attributes can contribute to your effectiveness
Allow the sufferer to speak freely
Encourage the sufferer to ventilate feelings
Establish ground rules in a multiple victim situation
Return control to the victim as soon as possible
Decide how to handle the situation after you have assessed it
Help victims identify and mobilize their own resources
Mobilize social resources
Hold out hope that a solution is possible
Develop options
Help parties to the crisis make an agreement
Refer as needed
Have prepared referral information available
Keep your list of referral sourecs up to date
Make appropriate referrals
Follow up as agreed
Use the American Academy of Crisis Interveners Lethality Scale and the Life change index Scale if needed
Recognize that these are tools to aid in assessment
They might be used before, during, or after an intervention
The intervener might decide not to use them
Communicating Effectively with Those in Crisis
23(12)
Determine what the crisis is
Which problem is of most immediate concern?
Which problem would prove most damaging if not treated immediately?
Which problem can be most quickly resolved?
Which problem must be dealt with first before others may be handled?
What resources for handling problems are available?
What barriers and obstacles will hinder problem solving?
Be aware that every communication contains three messages:
A content message
A feeling message
A meaning message
Be alert to the potential for distortion within a communication
What the other person means to say
What the other person actually says
What you, as intervener believe you hear
Do not assume that you understand
Use clarification techniques for understanding: Repetition of key words used by victim
Restatement
Direct request for clarification
Use of questions
Recognize the importance of empathy
Learn to listen effectively
Learn to respond effectively
Remember that effective intervention can only occur if the intervener and the victim are talking about the same crisis
Be alert to nonverbal communication
Identify feelings
Team Intervention
35(12)
Understand the appropriate use of team intervention:
For maximizing the safety for all involved
For efficient information gathering
For division of responsibility among team members
For emotional and physical support for team members
Understand the designation and role of lead teams and lead interveners
Clarify the division of responsibility of team members.
Be familiar with the positioning of team members
Be prepared to accept personal responsibility as a team member
As a team, apply the procedure for effective Crisis Intervention
Some Mistaken Assumptions:
``If you can't help them, at least don't hurt them.''
``I know exactly how you feel.''
``If I ask about suicide, the person might do it.''
``I can relax after the parties are seated.''
``Listening to and acknowledging feelings implies agreement.''
``My degree, badge, or profession will automatically make me an effective intervener.''
Special Issues
47(10)
Take safety seriously
Approach the crisis slowly
Don't park infront of the building where the crisis is occurring
Approach doors carefully
Expect the unexpected
Listen for clues
Maintain control
Visually first the people involved
Remain observant
Separate disputants if necessary
Seat the victims
Sit attentively
Do not turn your back
Bring disputants back together
Maintain eye contact with your partner
Break eye contact between disputants
Plan your office with safety in mind
Intervene with a partner
Play the ``what if'' game
Make contingeney plans
Be sensitive to gender, racial, and ethnic issues
Become aware of your own cultural biases
Ask for clarification as needed
Do not impose your personal values
Be willing to test, adapt, and change your perceptions to fit your new experience with people from another culture
Be able to identify students at risk for violent behavior
Be able to identify adults at risk for violent behavior
Intervener Survival
57(10)
Recognize the signs and symptoms of stress and burnout
Take care of yourself:
Eat nutritiously:
Get enough rest
Exercise regularly
Set realistic goals for yourself
Plan for fun and relaxation
Be responsible for self-direction
Be concerned about personal safety
Become aware of your own personal issues
Be aware of Critical Incident Stress Management
Children's Reactions to Crisis
67(13)
Teachers: Take care of yourself and each other
Learn the ``typical'' reactions of normal children in each age group
Refer the family for professional help as needed.
Create age- and grade-appropriate activities for children in crisis
Preschool
Elementary School
Junior and Senior High School
Journalism
Science
English Composition
Literature
Psychology
Peer Counseling
Health
Art
Speech and Drama
Mathematics
Civics and Government
History
Hot-Line Workers
80(4)
Learn the Do's to effective hot-line interactions
Avoid the Don'ts that can lead to ineffective hot-line interactions
Learn to handle the difficult caller
Family Crisis
84(6)
Follow the 30 steps for handling family crisis
Learn how parents can help their children cope with crisis-related feelings
In preparing for holidays, follow the 20 steps for avoiding holiday crisis
Grief
90(9)
Look for the grief component in the crisis
Recognize what grief victims might experience
Teach the sufferer to use self-intervention
Help the sufferer cope with separation or loss
Recognize the recurring reactions of sufferers of tragic events
Legal Implications of Crisis Intervention
99(6)
Know the laws that govern what you do
Treat victims as human beings rather than as cases
Intervene within the limits of your background, training, and experience
If you begin an intervention, stay with it unless you are relieved by someone with greater skill.
If possible, obtain consent before intervening
Maintain confidentiality of all information you obtain
Document all your actions in an intervention
Maintain your professional competency
Respect the victim's right to privacy
Think before you act
Appendix 105(2)
Bibliography 107


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