The End of the European Era

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-03-01
  • Publisher: W W Norton & Co Inc
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The Fifth Edition retains these strengths while embracing recent developments and current research. The text covers a century of rapid and tumultuous change, from increased population and migration in the early 1900s through the ongoing unrest in the Balkans.

Author Biography

David Clay Large is professor of history at Montana State University and the author of many acclaimed works in modern European history Felix Gilbert is late of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. In addition to many other awards and honorary degrees, he received the American Historical Association's first Award for Scholarly Distinction in 1985

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Europe's Apogee
The Beginning of a New Centuryp. 3
A Rising Populationp. 3
Intellectual Disquiet and Cultural Revoltp. 7
The Second Industrial Revolution and the Global Dimensions of European Politicsp. 12
The Structure of Societyp. 15
The Workers
The Ruling Group in Europe
The Middle Classes
The Waning of Political Consensusp. 28
Politics and Society, 1890-1914p. 36
Great Britainp. 36
From the Victorian to the Edwardian Age
The Politics of the Ruling Class
The Labor Movement and Social Reform
Imperialism versus Domestic Reform
The Triumph of the Liberal Party
Intensification of Internal Conflicts: Women's Rights and the Irish Question
The Waning of Confidence
Francep. 55
Social Basis of French Parliamentarianism
The Republican Regime versus Monarchist Traditions
The Consolidation of the Republic
The Rise of New Tensions
Foreign Policy
Italyp. 65
Germanyp. 70
Constitution and Social Structure
The Empire under William II
The Habsburg Monarchyp. 80
The Dual Monarchy
Russiap. 85
The Autocracy in Practice
The Drive toward Industrialization
The Opposition
The Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of 1905
The First World Warp. 95
The Rigidification of the Alliance Systemp. 95
The Crises of 1905-1914p. 98
The First and Second Moroccan Crises
The Bosnian Crisis
War and Crisis in the Balkans
The Outbreak of the First World Warp. 105
The European Attitude toward War in 1914
The Nature of Total Warp. 112
The Home Front
The War Aims
The Tides of Battlep. 121
The Expanding Theater of War
Stalemate in the West
German Success in the East
Why Men Fought
1917: The Turning Point of the Warp. 130
The Revolution in Russiap. 133
Decision in the Westp. 139
A New Combatant: The United States
Consequences of the First World Warp. 143
The Peace That Failed
Peacemakingp. 151
The Statesmen and Their Aimsp. 151
The Settlements in Eastern Europep. 154
The Treaty of Sevres and the Birth of Modern Turkey
The Treaties of Neuilly, Trianon, and St. Germain and Developments in Southeastern and Eastern Europe
The Treaty of Versaillesp. 167
Beginnings of the Weimar Republicp. 169
The League of Nationsp. 173
Soviet Russia and the Peace Settlementp. 177
The Era of Stabilizationp. 186
Unrest and Chaos in Germany: 1919-1924p. 186
The Road to the Reparations Settlementp. 191
Great Britain
Britain as Europe's Leader: 1925-1929p. 201
Italy and Russia in the Twentiesp. 205
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
The Stabilization of Communism in Russia
From Lenin to Stalin
Socialism in One Country
The Ambiguity of the Weimar Republicp. 224
Brave New Worldp. 229
The Economic Crisis and the Rise of Nazismp. 235
The World Economic Crisisp. 235
The First Stirrings of Revolt Against European Control of the Globep. 241
The Change in the Far East: Japan and China
The Rise of Nazism in Germanyp. 248
Adolf Hitler and the Foundation of the Nazi Party
Decline of Parliamentary Government in the Weimar Republic
The Implementation of the Nazi Program
Nazi Policies toward Women
The Beginning of Nazi Foreign Policy
The Italian Conquest of Ethiopia
The Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Toward the Inevitable Conflictp. 276
The Years of Appeasementp. 276
Great Britain
The General Strike
From Ramsay MacDonald to Neville Chamberlain
The Democracies in Retreatp. 290
The Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War and European Diplomacy
Anschluss and the Invasion of Czechoslovakia
The End of Appeasement
Soviet Russia During the Interwar Yearsp. 304
Stalinism and the Purge Trials
Stalin's Foreign Policy
The Second World Warp. 311
The European Warp. 311
Germany in Command
The "Phony War"
The Opening of the Western Offensive
The Battle of Britain
The Shift of the Theater of War From the West to the Eastp. 318
England's Chances of Survival
The Mediterranean Campaign
The Eastern Offensive
The War At Its Heightp. 324
The Global War
Total War
Europe under the Nazis
The Hinge of Fatep. 332
Germany before Surrender
The Overthrow of Mussolini
The End of the War in Europe
The Fall of Japan
Rebuilding Europe
Postwar Uncertaintiesp. 349
From Wartime Cooperation to Conflicts Over the Peace Settlementp. 349
Europe at the End of Hostilities
Wartime Preparations for Postwar Europe
The Potsdam Conference
The United States and Soviet Russia Confront Each Other in Europep. 359
The Problem of the Peace Treaties and the Development of East-West Conflict
The Problem of German Reparations and the Break between Russia and the West
The Beginning of the Cold War: The Berlin Blockade
Extension of the Cold War to the Far Eastp. 367
Asia at the End of Hostilities
The Retreat from Colonialism
A Chain of Open Conflicts
The Struggle in China
The Korean War
The French Defeat in Indochina and the End of the Cold War
Reconstruction and Revolt: The 1950sp. 372
The Basic Tasks of Reconstructionp. 372
The Context of Reconstruction: Science, Technology, and Economicsp. 374
Reconstruction in the Eastern Blocp. 376
Reconstruction in Soviet Russia
Reconstruction in the Satellite Countries
Treaty Bonds between Soviet Russia and the Satellites
The Establishment of a New Order in the Satellite Countries
The Defection of Tito and the Stalinist Purges
Reconstruction in the Westp. 385
Treaty Bonds in the Western Bloc
Internal Developments in Western Bloc Nations
The Recovery of the Defeated Powers
West Germany
Postwar Strains in France and Britainp. 394
The Growth of Tensions Within the Eastern and Western Blocsp. 403
Crisis in the Eastp. 404
Unrest in Poland and Hungary
The Revolt in Hungary
The Suez Affairp. 408
Resurgent Europe
Europe's Abundant Decade: The 1960sp. 413
The Pursuit of Stability and Prosperity in the Westp. 415
Conservative Government in Great Britain, 1956-1964
Labor's Return to Power
France: The Return of de Gaulle
Independence for Algeria
De Gaulle's Vision for France
Italy's Opening toward the Left
Germany: A Western Power
Western Europe: Coherence and Tension
De-Stalinization in Eastern Europep. 434
Khrushchev's Domestic Policies
Khrushchev's Foreign Policies and the Sino-Soviet Split
Poland and Hungary
Romania and East Germany
A Shift in Theory
The Years of Disillusionment: 1967-1973p. 444
Shattered Hopesp. 444
Prague Springp. 445
Student Revoltp. 447
The Roots of Revolt
Reactions to the Revolution that Failedp. 451
The Oil Crisisp. 457
Women in Revoltp. 459
Contradictory Impulsesp. 463
The Decade of Detente: 1969-1979p. 465
Superpower Detente and Arms Controlp. 466
The SALT I Negotiations
The Helsinki Accords
West European Politics in the Decade of Detentep. 470
West Germany
Great Britain
Democracy Comes to Portugal and Greecep. 470
A time of Uncertaintyp. 484
Western Europe in the Troubled 1980sp. 487
Thatcher's Britainp. 488
West Germany Turns Rightp. 493
Mitterrand's Francep. 497
Southern Europep. 501
European-American Relations in the Reagan Erap. 505
The Collapse of Detente
The Euromissile Controversy
Return to Detente
The European Economic Community: Planning for 1992p. 513
A New Order in Eastern Europep. 517
The Soviet Unionp. 517
The Brezhnev Era
The Andropov-Chernenko Interregnum
Gorbachev: Glasnost and Perestroika
Exit Gorbachev, Enter Yeltsinp. 529
The Return to Diversity in Eastern Europep. 532
High Noon in Poland
The New Hungarian Revolution
East Germany: The Wall Comes Down
Czechoslovakia: From Velvet Revolution to Velvet Divorce
Changing Guard in Bulgaria
Romania: Ceausescu's Bloody End
Yugoslavia: Ethnic Turmoil in the Balkans
Women in Post-Communist Eastern Europep. 558
Europe in the 1990s: New Beginnings, Old Agoniesp. 562
Western Europe Adrift: France, Britain, and Italyp. 562
From Bonn to Berlin: United Germanyp. 576
Yeltsin's Russiap. 584
The Collapse of Yugoslaviap. 594
Globalization and its Discontents: New Challenges for the European Union and Natop. 606
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 619
Illustration Creditsp. 633
Indexp. 635
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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