Endocrine Disrupters : Hazard Testing and Assessment Methods

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-03-25
  • Publisher: Wiley

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This book describes methodology and applications for endocrine disrupter toxicity testing, an issue of considerable urgency, because of international regulatory authorities currently considering such testing schemes. The coverage examines major animal groups for sensitivity to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), identifying endpoints and procedures for testing guidelines. Three EDC screening methods (two using fish and one using amphibians) are examined in detail for their efficacy and applicability. Edited by, and with contributions from, a leading participant in regulatory efforts, the book outlines methods that combine sensitivity, efficiency, statistical power, acceptable cost, and minimum ethical concern.

Author Biography

PETER MATTHIESSEN, PhD, is an aquatic ecotoxicologist who works as an independent consultant. Specializing in the study of endocrine disrupters, he has conducted extensive research into how sewage effluents cause feminization in wild male fish as well as how tributyltin-based antifoulants cause masculinization in wild female mollusks. Professor Matthiessen is a member of the UK Advisory Committee on Pesticides and Co-chair of the OECD Validation Management Group for Ecotoxicity Tests. He has contributed to the development of standardized ecotoxicity assays with sensitivity for endocrine disrupters as well as written guidance for the interpretation of the resulting data.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction
Peter Matthiessen

1.1 Background

1.2 Regulatory concerns

1.3 Invertebrates

1.4 Vertebrates

1.5 Testing schemes for EDCs

1.6 References

Chapter 2. Endocrine disruption in wildlife: background, effects and implications
Dick Vethaak and Juliette Legler

2.1 Background to endocrine disruption

2.2 Effects of EDCs on wildlife

2.3 The weight of evidence and ecological significance of ED effects

2.4 Implications for effect assessment and toxicity testing

2.5 Need for more field studies and an integrated approach

2.6 Concluding points

2.7 References

Chapter 3. The regulatory need for tests to detect EDCs and assess their hazards to wildlife
Hans-Christian Stolzenberg, Tobias Frische, Anne Gourmelon, Taisen Iguchi, Flemming Ingerslev, Mike Roberts, and Gary Timm

3.1 Emerging concerns and policy responses, focusing on EDCs as a large pseudo-uniform group of substances

3.2 General approaches in substance-related regulatory frameworks (EU)

3.3 How to make EDC definitions operational for substance-related regulatory work

3.4 Future perspectives

3.5 Conclusions

3.6 References

Chapter 4. Techniques for measuring endocrine disruption in insects
Lennart Weltje

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Methods

4.3 Discussion

4.4 Conclusions

4.5 Acknowledgements

4.6 References

Chapter 5. Crustaceans
Magnus Breitholtz

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Background to crustacean endocrinology

5.3 State of the art - what do we know about endocrine disruption in crustaceans?

5.4 Available subchronic/chronic standard test protocols

5.5 Complementary tools for identification of endocrine disruption

5.6 Summary and conclusions

5.7 References

6. Endocrine disruption in mollusks (processes and testing
Patricia D. McClellan-Green

6.1 Background and introduction

6.2 What constitutes the endocrine system in mollusks?

6.3 Endpoints and biomarkers of endocrine disruption

6.4 Current test methods using mollusks

6.5 Proposed test methods

6.6 Conclusions

6.7 References

7. Using fish to detect endocrine disrupters and assess their potential environmental hazards
Peter Matthiessen

7.1 Introduction

7.2 International efforts to standardise fish-based methods for screening and testing endocrine disrupting chemicals

7.3 Fish-based screens developed by OECD for endocrine disrupting chemicals

7.4 Progress with developing fish partial life-cycle tests for endocrine disrupters

7.5 Prospects for the standardisation of fish full life-cycle and multi-generation tests

7.6 Strengths and weaknesses of a hazard evaluation strategy based partly on available and proposed fish screens and tests

7.7 Conclusions

7.8 References

8. Screening and testing for endocrine disrupting chemicals in amphibian models
Daniel B. Pickford

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Potential uses of amphibians in endocrine disrupter screening and testing programmes

8.3 Embryonic development

8.4 Hatching

8.5 Larval development

8.6 Higher tier tests with amphibians

8.7 Other and emerging test methods

8.8 Summary and conclusions

8.9 References

9. Endocrine disruption and reptiles: using the unique attributes of temperature-dependent sex determination to assess impacts
Satomi Kohno and Louis J. Guillette Jr.

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Approaches to examine effects of EDCs

9.3 Induction of sex reversal in ovo

9.4 Analysis of sex-reversed animals

9.5 Conclusions

9.6 References

10. Birds
Paul D. Jones, Markus Hecker, Steve Wiseman and John P. Giesy

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Differences between birds and mammals and among bird species

10.3 In vitro techniques

10.4 Studies with embryos

10.5 In vivo techniques

10.6 Examples of EDC effects from field studies

10.7 Proposed 2-generation test

10.8 Conclusions

10.9 References

11. Mammalian methods for detecting and assessing endocrine-active compounds

M. Sue Marty

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Mammalian Tier 1 screening assays

11.3 Tier 2 tests

11.4 Human and wildlife relevance of estrogen, androgen and thyroid screening assays

11.5 Potential future assays for endocrine screening

11.6 References

12. Application of the OECD Conceptual Framework for assessing the human health and ecological effects of endocrine disrupters
Thomas H. Hutchinson, Jenny Odum and Anne Gourmelon

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Overview of the OECD revised Conceptual Framework

12.3 Application of the ‘Klimisch Criteria’ to the EE2 and VIN case studies

12.4 Case study: data examples for 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)

12.5 Case study: data examples for vinclozolin (VIN)

12.6 Conclusions

12.7 Disclaimer

12.8 References

13. The prospects for routine testing of chemicals for endocrine disrupting properties and potential ecological impacts
Peter Matthiessen

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Are there gaps in the testing suite for EDCs?

13.3 ‘New’ modes of endocrine disrupting action

13.4 How should tests for EDCs be deployed in an integrated fashion?

13.5 Use of weight-of-evidence when assessing possible EDCs

13.6 Conclusions

13.7 References


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