Environmental Enrichment For Captive Animals

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-12-02
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective means of improving animal welfare in any species - companion, farm, laboratory and zoo. For many years, it has been a popular area of research, and has attracted the attention and concerns of animal keepers and carers, animal industry professionals, academics, students and pet owners all over the world. This book is the first to integrate scientific knowledge and principles to show how environmental enrichment can be used on different types of animal. Filling a major gap, it considers the history of animal keeping, legal issues and ethics, right through to a detailed exploration of whether environmental enrichment actually works, the methods involved, and how to design and manage programmes. The first book in a major new animal welfare series Draws together a large amount of research on different animals Provides detailed examples and case studies An invaluable reference tool for all those who work with or study animals in captivity

Author Biography

Robert Young is currently Professor of Animal Behaviour at PUC-Minas (Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil where he works on environmental enrichment in zoos and conducts field research on a number of different species. He has given lectures, workshops and mini-courses on the subject of environmental enrichment in the UK, USA, Denmark, Russia and Brazil.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgementsp. xi
Environmental Enrichment: an Historical Perspectivep. 1
Definitionsp. 1
A Short History of Animal Keepingp. 3
Two Approaches to Environmental Enrichmentp. 7
Animal Welfare and Environmental Enrichmentp. 11
Developmental Psychologyp. 13
The Animal Rights Movementp. 13
The Animal Welfare Movementp. 15
The Five Freedoms: a Central Concept in Animal Welfarep. 16
Animal-welfare Indicatorsp. 18
Conclusionp. 19
Why Bother with Environmental Enrichment?p. 20
Why Use Enrichment?p. 20
Justifying Enrichmentp. 21
The Ethical Imperative for Environmental Enrichmentp. 22
Zoos: a Special Case for Enrichmentp. 27
Care-givers and Enrichmentp. 29
Conclusionp. 30
Does Environmental Enrichment Work?p. 31
The Evidencep. 31
How does Enrichment Improve Animal Welfare?p. 43
Proactive v. Reactive use of Environmental Enrichmentp. 45
What Animals Wantp. 45
Prioritising Environmental Enrichmentp. 48
Solving Animal-welfare Problems using Environmental Enrichmentp. 51
Summary: Treating Welfare Problemsp. 53
Designing an Enrichment Devicep. 54
Identifying What You Want to Dop. 54
Importance of Species-specific Behaviourp. 54
Rewards and Schedules of Rewardp. 58
Cosmetic Design Considerationsp. 61
Safety Considerationsp. 62
Discussion and Summary of the Product Design Processp. 66
The Enrichment Programmep. 68
Setting Goalsp. 68
The Enrichment Diaryp. 70
The Enrichment Manualp. 71
Changing Animal Care-giver Attitudesp. 74
Conclusionp. 75
Enrichment for Different Categories of Animalsp. 76
Companion Animalsp. 76
Farm Animalsp. 79
Laboratory Animalsp. 81
Zoo Animalsp. 83
Conclusionp. 84
Food and Foraging Enrichmentp. 85
What is Food?p. 85
How Animals Forage and Feedp. 86
Feeding in Generalp. 100
The Sensory Qualities of Foodp. 102
Conclusionp. 105
Social Environmental Enrichmentp. 107
Social Housing of Asocial Speciesp. 107
Group-housing Social Speciesp. 108
Behavioural Development and Socialisationp. 111
Rehabilitation and Group Formationp. 112
Managing Social Behaviourp. 113
Solitary Housing of Social Speciesp. 115
The Value of Human-Animal Contactp. 116
The Value of Contraspecific Contactp. 118
Limited Physical Contactp. 118
Visual, Auditory and Olfactory Contactp. 119
Conclusionp. 120
Housingp. 122
Looking at Species and Housing Levelsp. 122
A Substrate Approach to Housingp. 123
A Bottom-up Approach to Housingp. 124
Barriers: Keeping People Out and Animals Inp. 130
The World Outside the Enclosurep. 136
Conclusionp. 141
Furniture, Toys and Other Objectsp. 142
Furniturep. 142
Furniture Design and Behaviourp. 145
Toys and Novel Objectsp. 147
Alternatives to Static Homesp. 151
Conclusionp. 153
Designing and Analysing Enrichment Studiesp. 155
Experimental Designp. 155
Statistical Analysisp. 158
Example Experimental Design and Associated Statistical Analysesp. 162
Has Animal Welfare been Improved?p. 165
Information Sources about Environmental Enrichmentp. 166
Booksp. 166
Pet Booksp. 169
Journalsp. 171
Magazinesp. 173
Organisationsp. 173
Videos and Televisionp. 176
Information Sources on the World Wide Webp. 177
Enrichment Manuals, Lists and CD-ROMsp. 179
Conferencesp. 180
Training Coursesp. 181
University Coursesp. 181
Competitionsp. 182
Suppliersp. 183
End-notep. 183
Referencesp. 184
Glossaryp. 220
Indexp. 223
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