Environmental Ethics Theory in Practice

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-06-01
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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An accessible yet rigorous introduction to the field, Environmental Ethics: Theory in Practice helps students develop the analytical skills to effectively identify and evaluate the social and ethical dimensions of environmental issues. Covering a wide variety of theories and critical perspectives, author Ronald Sandler considers their strengths and weaknesses, emphasizes their practical importance, and grounds the discussions in a multitude of both classic and contemporary cases and examples.

Author Biography

Ronald Sandler is Professor of Philosophy, Chair of the Philosophy and Religion Department, and Director of the Ethics Institute at Northeastern University. He is the author of Food Ethics: The Basics (2014), The Ethics of Species (2012), and Character and Environment (2007); the editor of Ethics and Emerging Technologies (2013); and the coeditor of Environmental Justice and Environmentalism (2007) and Environmental Virtue Ethics (2005).

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. What is Environmental Ethics
1.1 What Are Environmental Issues?
1.2 Why Environmental Ethics
1.3 Three Bases for Environmental Ethics
1.4 The Radicalness of Environmental Ethics
1.5 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter 2. Methods of Environmental Ethics
2.1 Description, Explanation, Predication, and Prescription
2.2 Environmental Ethics and Environmental Science
2.3 Justification in Ethics: The Philosophical Method and Evaluating Arguments
2.4 Skepticism about Ethics
2.5 God and Ethics
2.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Three. The Normativity of Nature
3.1 What is Nature?
3.2 Is Nature Normative?
3.2.1 Is it Wrong to Interfere with Nature?
3.2.2 Should we Follow Nature?
3.2.3 Is a Behavior Wrong if it is Unnatural?
3.3 Evolution and Prescription
3.4 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Four. Natural Value
4.1 Instrumental Value
4.2 Final Value (or Intrinsic Value)
4.3 Economic Valuation and Environmental Values
4.4 Is Naturalness Valuable?
4.5 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Five. Anthropocentrism, Ratiocentrism, and Indirect Duties
5.1 Moral Status Terminology
5.2 Arguments for Anthropocentrism
5.3 Ratiocentrism
5.4 Actual Preference Anthropocentrism
5.5 Technological Optimism
5.6 Indirect Duties Views
5.7 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Six. Enlightened Anthropocentrism: Efficiency, Sustainability, and Future Generations
6.1 The Elements of Unwise Use
6.1.1 Inefficient Use
6.1.2 Underutilization
6.1.3 Short-term Use
6.1.4 Exclusive Use
6.1.5 Narrow Use
6.2 Ideal Preference Anthropocentrism
6.3 The Problem of Future Generations
6.4 Summary, Questions and Further Reading
Chapter Seven. Nonanthropocentric Individualism: The Moral Considerability of Plants and Animals
7.1 Primary Arguments for Sentientism
7.2 Responses to the Arguments for Sentientism
7.3 Do Plants Have Interests?
7.4 Should We Care about the Interests of Plants?
7.5 Pluralism
7.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Eight. Consequentialist Environmental Ethics: Animal Welfare and Utilitarianism
8.1 Distinguishing Normative Theories
8.2 Utilitarianism
8.3 Identifying and Weighing Interests
8.4 Secondary Principles and Indirect Consequentialism
8.5 Concerns About Utilitarian Environmental Ethics
8.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Nine. Deontological Environmental Ethics: Respect for Nature, Animal Rights, and Environmental Rights
9.1 The Motivations for Deontology
9.2 Taylor's Respect for Nature View
9.3 Regan's Animal Rights View
9.4 Human Rights and the Environment
9.5 Concerns About Deontological Environmental Ethics
9.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Ten. Character Ethics: Virtue, Vice, and the Environment
10.1 What Are Environmental Virtues and Vices?
10.2 Character and Environmental Ethics
10.3 Environmental Virtue Ethics
10.4 Concerns Regarding Environmental Virtue Ethics
10.5 Evaluating Ethical Theories
10.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Eleven. Ecocentrism: Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic
11.1 The Argument for the Land Ethic
11.2 Implications of the Land Ethic
11.3 Moral Development and Outdoor Recreation
11.4 Concerns Regarding the Land Ethic
11.4.1 Problematic Implications: Ecofascism and Misanthropy
11.4.2 Conceptual Clarity: Defining Ecosystems and Ecological Integrity
11.4.3 Misapplication of Moral Concepts
11.5 Summary, Questions and Further Reading
Chapter Twelve. Deep Ecology
12.1 Principles of Deep Ecology
12.2 The Deep Ecology Metaphysic: Self-Realization
12.3 The "Deep" in Deep Ecology
12.4 Concerns Regarding Deep Ecology
12.5 Spiritual Experience and Environmental Ethics
12.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Thirteen. Species and Biodiversity
13.1 What are Species and Biodiversity?
13.2 The Instrumental Value of Species and Biodiversity
13.3 The Final Value of Species
13.3.1 Natural Historical Value of Species
13.3.2 Do Species Have Inherent Worth?
13.4 Do we Have a Duty to Preserve Species?
13.5 The Conservation Dilemma
13.6 Novel Species Conservation Strategies
13.7 Intervention or Restraint?
13.8 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Fourteen. Ecofeminism and Environmental Pragmatism
14.1 Ecofeminism: Background and Context
14.2 The Logic of Domination and the Ethics of Care
14.3 Diverse Perspectives
14.4 The Motivation for Pragmatism
14.5 Themes of Environmental Pragmatism
14.6 Practical Efficacy in Environmental Ethics
14.7 Summary, Questions and Further Reading
Chapter Fifteen. Environmental Justice
15.1 Unequal Exposure and Environmental Injustice
15.2 Environmental Justice and Cost Benefit Analysis
15.3 Addressing Environmental Injustice
15.4 Consumption
15.5 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Sixteen. Global Justice: Population, Poverty and the Environment
16.1 The Extent and Sources of Malnutrition
16.2 The Lifeboat Ethic
16.3 Feeding People and Saving Nature
16.4 An Obligation to Assist?
16.5 How Much to Assist?
16.6 Summary, Questions, and Further Reading
Chapter Seventeen. The Anthropocene and Environmental Ethics
17.1 Are We in the Anthropocene?
17.2 Why this Definition and this Name?
17.3 Environmental Ethics with or without "The Anthropocene"
17.4 Conclusion, Questions, and Further Reading

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