Environmental Policy and Politics

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-02
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Covering global threats such as climate change, population growth, and loss of biodiversity, as well as national, state, and local problems of environmental pollution, energy use, and natural resource use and conservation, this exciting and unique text covers U.S. policy-making processes, the legislative and administrative settings for policy decisions, the role of interest groups and public opinion in environmental politics, and the public policies that result. Offering a succinct overview and assessment of U.S. environmental policy and politics, Kraft encourages students to judge environmental problems and policy actions for themselves by summarizing extensive collections of scientific studies, government reports, and policy analyses to convey the nature of environmental problems, progress and limitations in dealing with them, and the implications of keeping or revising present policies.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Environmental Problems and Politicsp. 1
Environmental Policy and Politicsp. 5
Perspectives on Environmental Problemsp. 7
Scientific Knowledge and Its Usep. 7
Economics and Incentivesp. 9
Environmental Values and Ethicsp. 10
The Role of Government and Politicsp. 11
Democracy, Politics, and Environmental Policyp. 13
Defining Environmental Policyp. 13
Policy Typologiesp. 14
The Breadth of Environmental Policyp. 15
Environmental Problems and Public Policyp. 16
Defining the Problems: The Nature of Environmental Risksp. 16
Coping with Environmental Risksp. 19
Public Policy Responsesp. 21
Conclusionsp. 22
Discussion Questionsp. 23
Suggested Readingsp. 23
Endnotesp. 24
Judging the State of the Environmentp. 26
Air Qualityp. 27
Gains in Air Quality and Remaining Problemsp. 28
Indoor Air Qualityp. 30
Acid Precipitationp. 31
CFCs and the Stratospheric Ozone Layerp. 31
Water Qualityp. 32
Pollution of Surface Watersp. 33
Drinking Water Qualityp. 35
Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastesp. 36
Toxic Chemicals and Health Effectsp. 36
Hazardous Wastesp. 39
Contaminated Federal Facilitiesp. 40
Radioactive Wastesp. 41
Solid Waste and Consumer Wastep. 41
Energy Use and Climate Changep. 42
The Nature of Energy Problemsp. 42
Fossil Fuels and the Threat of Climate Changep. 44
Biological Diversity and Habitat Lossp. 45
Biodiversity Loss and Implicationsp. 46
Policy Actions and Effectsp. 48
Population Growthp. 49
Population and Sustainable Developmentp. 49
Growth Rates and Projected Population Increasesp. 51
Conclusionsp. 53
Discussion Questionsp. 53
Suggested Readingsp. 54
Endnotesp. 54
Making Environmental Policyp. 59
Understanding Environmental Politicsp. 61
The Policy Process Modelp. 62
Agenda Settingp. 64
Policy Formulationp. 67
Policy Legitimationp. 69
Policy Implementationp. 71
Policy and Program Evaluationp. 71
Policy Changep. 72
Patterns in Environmental Policymakingp. 74
Characteristics of U.S. Government and Politicsp. 76
Constitutional and Political Featuresp. 76
Institutional Fragmentation and Policy Stalematep. 77
The Benefits of Dispersed Powerp. 81
Conclusionsp. 85
Discussion Questionsp. 85
Suggested Readingsp. 86
Endnotesp. 86
The Evolution of Environmental Policy and Politicsp. 88
Natural Resources and Environmental Policies in Historical Perspectivep. 89
The Settlement and "Conquest" of Naturep. 90
The Conservation Movement and Advances in Public Healthp. 91
From the New Deal to the Environmental Movementp. 92
The Modern Environmental Movement and Policy Achievementsp. 94
Environmental Interest Groupsp. 97
Public Opinion and the Environmentp. 103
Environmental Issues in Election Campaignsp. 107
Political Reaction to Environmentalismp. 108
Environmental Policy in the Reagan and Bush Administrationsp. 108
Clinton and Gore Reform Environmental Policy and Battle Congressp. 109
George W. Bush and the Environmentp. 110
Conclusionsp. 111
Discussion Questionsp. 112
Suggested Readingsp. 112
Endnotesp. 113
Environmental Protection Policy: Controlling Pollutionp. 115
The Contours of Environmental Protection Policyp. 117
The Clean Air Actp. 117
The Clean Water Actp. 122
The Safe Drinking Water Actp. 125
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Actp. 127
The Toxic Substances Control Actp. 129
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Actp. 130
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Actp. 132
The Institutional Context of Policy Implementationp. 135
The EPA'S Organization, Budget, and Staffp. 136
Working with the Statesp. 139
Political Support and Oppositionp. 141
Setting Environmental Standardsp. 142
Environmental Goals and Objectivesp. 142
Environmental Quality Criteriap. 143
Setting Quality Standardsp. 145
Emissions Standardsp. 147
Balancing Statutory Goals and Costsp. 148
Adopting and Enforcing Regulationsp. 149
Administrative Rule Makingp. 149
Enforcement and Compliancep. 151
White House Oversightp. 153
Conclusionsp. 156
Discussion Questionsp. 157
Suggested Readingsp. 157
Endnotesp. 158
Energy and Natural Resource Policiesp. 163
Energy Policy: Goals and Meansp. 165
Indirect Policy Impactsp. 166
Shifting Energy Prioritiesp. 167
The Energy Policy Cycle: 1973-1989p. 168
Carter's National Energy Plan and Conservation Gainsp. 168
Reagan's Nonpolicy on Energyp. 169
Energy Policy for the Twenty-First Centuryp. 170
The Bush Administration's National Energy Strategyp. 171
The Clinton Administration Tries Its Handp. 172
Energy Policy Underp. 174
State and Local Energy Initiativesp. 178
Natural Resources and Policy Changep. 178
Environmental Stewardship or Economic Development?p. 180
The Environmentalist Challenge to Resource Developmentp. 181
Natural Resource Policies and Agenciesp. 183
Managing the Nation's Forestsp. 184
Battles over Wildernessp. 189
Governing the Rangep. 191
BLM Lands and the Sagebrush Rebellionp. 192
Other Protected Lands and Agenciesp. 193
Environmental Impacts and Natural Resources Decision Makingp. 197
The Endangered Species Actp. 197
The National Environmental Policy Actp. 201
Conclusionsp. 203
Discussion Questionsp. 204
Suggested Readingsp. 205
Endnotesp. 205
Evaluating Environmental Policyp. 210
Critiques of Environmental Policyp. 211
Environmental Policy Evaluationp. 212
Program Outcomesp. 215
Examining Decision Making and Institutionsp. 215
Signs of Progressp. 215
Environmental Protection Policiesp. 216
Natural Resource Policiesp. 217
Data Assessment and Public Dialoguep. 218
Costs, Benefits, and Risksp. 220
Comparing Risks and Setting Prioritiesp. 221
Controversies over Cost-Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessmentp. 222
Environmentalists' Use of Economic Analysisp. 223
Jobs, the Economy, and the Environment
Employment, Business Costs, and Environmental Policyp. 226
Seeking Common Ground: Toward Environmental Sustainabilityp. 227
Environmental Justicep. 228
Reforming Environmental Regulationp. 229
The Case for Policy Alternativesp. 229
Assessing New Policy Approachesp. 234
New Directions in Energy and Natural Resources Policyp. 237
The Appeal of User Feesp. 238
Privatization of Public Landp. 238
Social Cost Accountingp. 239
Government Purchasing Powerp. 240
Ecosystem Managementp. 241
Conclusionsp. 242
Discussion Questionsp. 243
Suggested Readingsp. 243
Endnotesp. 244
Environmental Policy and Politics for the Twenty-First Centuryp. 247
Environmental Goals and Policy Choices: Domestic and Globalp. 248
Three Generations of Environmental Policy and Politicsp. 249
Toward Sustainable Development?p. 250
The President's Council on Sustainable Developmentp. 251
Sustainable Development at State and Local Levelsp. 252
Business and the Environmentp. 253
Citizens and the Environmentp. 255
International Environmental Policy and Politicsp. 255
Environmental Institutions and Policiesp. 256
Institutional Capacity for Global Sustainable Developmentp. 262
Political Conflict and Global Environmental Policyp. 266
Climate Changep. 267
Protection of Biological Diversityp. 269
Population Growth and Economic Developmentp. 271
Conclusionsp. 274
Discussion Questionsp. 274
Suggested Readingsp. 275
Endnotesp. 275
Referencesp. 279
Indexp. 299
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