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Preface | p. xi |
Introdction | p. 1 |
Background | p. l |
Notation for chemical transport | p. 2 |
Simplifications for environmental systems | p. 5 |
Review of mass balances | p. 11 |
Equilibrium Calculations | p. 18 |
Introduction | p. 18 |
Thermodynamic state functions | p. 20 |
Chemical potentials | p. 21 |
Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constants | p. 23 |
Distribution of chemicals based on fugacities | p. 25 |
Diffusive Transport | p. 43 |
Introduction | p. 43 |
Diffusion | p. 43 |
Calculation of molecular diffusion coefficients | p. 45 |
Effective diffusion coefficients in porous media | p. 53 |
Experimental determination of diffusivities and molecular size spectra | p. 59 |
The Constitutive Transport Equation | p. 79 |
Introduction | p. 79 |
Derivation of the general transport equation | p. 80 |
Special forms of the general transport equation | p. 81 |
Similarity of mass, momentum, and heat dispersion laws | p. 84 |
Transport relative to moving coordinate systems | p. 86 |
Simplified forms of the constitutive transport equation | p. 89 |
The constitutive transport equation in cylindrical and spherical coordinates | p. 91 |
Concertration Profiles and Chemical Fluxes | p. 95 |
Introduction | p. 95 |
The three theories of mass transport | p. 95 |
Mass transport in radial and cylindrical coordinates using shell balances | p. 112 |
Mass Transport Correlations: Form Theory to Empiricism | p. 120 |
Definition of a mass transport coefficient | p. 120 |
The three theories | p. 121 |
Multiple resistances during interphase mass transport | p. 125 |
Correlations for mass transport coefficients | p. 132 |
Transport to spheres | p. 135 |
Transport in Sheared Reactors | p. 140 |
Introduction | p. 140 |
Fluid shear and turbulence | p. 141 |
Mass transport in steady sheared fluids | p. 145 |
Mass transport in turbulent sheared fluids | p. 148 |
Shear rates in mixed reactors | p. 149 |
Chemical transport in bubbled reactors | p. 158 |
Suspended Unattached and Aggregated Microorganisms | p. 167 |
Introduction | p. 167 |
Chemical transport to cells at rest | p. 167 |
Effect of fluid motion on microorganisms | p. 170 |
Transport to microbial aggregates | p. 175 |
Effectiveness factors for mass transport | p. 184 |
Relative uptake factors for mass transport | p. 187 |
Biofilms | p. 194 |
Introduction | p. 194 |
Transport in the fluid layer above a biofilm | p. 194 |
Biofilm kinetics | p. 198 |
Modeling completely mixed biofilm reactors: rotating biological contactors | p. 210 |
Modeling plug flow biofilm reactors: packed beds | p. 213 |
Modeling wetted wall biofilm reactors: trickling filters | p. 215 |
Electrogenic biofilms | p. 225 |
Disperspn | p. 232 |
Introduction | p. 232 |
Averaging properties to derive dispersion coefficients in turbulent fluids | p. 235 |
Dispersion in nonbounded turbulent sheared fluids | p. 239 |
Longitudinal dispersion coefficients for defined systems | p. 244 |
Dispersion in porous media | p. 253 |
Rivers, Lakes, and Oceans | p. 264 |
Introduction | p. 264 |
Chemical transport in rivers | p. 265 |
Mixing in lakes | p. 273 |
Mixing in estuaries | p. 277 |
Miiing in the ocean | p. 279 |
Transport of chemicals present as pure phases | p. 280 |
Chemical Transport in Porous Media | p. 292 |
Introduction | p. 292 |
Porous media hydraulics | p. 292 |
Contaminant transport of conservative tracers | p. 295 |
Transport with reaction | p. 298 |
Transport with chemical adsorption | p. 299 |
Formation of ganglia of nonaqueous phase-liquids | p. 306 |
Mass transport calculations of chemical fluxes from NAPL ganglia | p. 315 |
Particles and Fractals | p. 331 |
Introduction | p. 331 |
Particle size spectra | p. 332 |
Solid particles and fractal aggregate geometries | p. 336 |
Measuring particle size distributions | p. 351 |
Calculating fractal dimensions from particle size distributions | p. 353 |
Coagulation in Natural and Engineered Systems | p. 362 |
Introduction | p. 362 |
The general coagulation equations: integral and summation forms | p. 363 |
Factors affecting the stability of aquasols | p. 364 |
Coagulation kinetics: collision kernels for spheres | p. 374 |
Fractal coagulation models | p. 388 |
Coagulation in the ocean | p. 397 |
Praticle Transport in Porous Media | p. 408 |
Introduction | p. 408 |
A macroscopic particle transport equation | p. 409 |
Clean-bed filtration theory | p. 411 |
Discrete particle size distributions prepared by filtration | p. 426 |
The dimensionless collision number | p. 432 |
Pressure drops in clean-bed filters | p. 434 |
Particle accumulation in filters | p. 435 |
Particle transport in aquifers | p. 437 |
Appendicies | p. 445 |
Notation | p. 445 |
Transport equations | p. 452 |
Chemical properties | p. 453 |
Solutions of differential equations | p. 458 |
References | p. 465 |
Index | p. 475 |
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