Epidemiology: Beond the Basics

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-11-01
  • Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

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Written for those who are familiar with the basic strategies of analytic epidemiology, Epidemiology: Beyond the Basics takes readers through a more rigorous discussion of key epidemiologic concepts and methods such as study design, measures of association, research assessment, and more. With real-life examples throughout, the book avoids complex statistical formulations and is an invaluable resource for intermediate students and practicing epidemiologists who wish to expand their knowledge of epidemiology and its role in the medical and public health sciences.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xii
About the Authorsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Basic Study Designs in Analytical Epidemiologyp. 3
Introduction: Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiologyp. 3
Analysis of Age, Birth Cohort, and Period Effectsp. 4
Ecologic Studiesp. 14
Studies Based on Individuals as Observation Unitsp. 19
Referencesp. 39
Exercisesp. 42
Measures of Disease Occurrence and Associationp. 45
Measuring Disease Occurrencep. 47
Introductionp. 47
Measures of Incidencep. 49
Measures of Prevalencep. 71
Oddsp. 73
Referencesp. 74
Exercisesp. 75
Measuring Associations Between Exposures and Outcomesp. 79
Introductionp. 79
Measuring Associations in a Cohort Studyp. 79
Cross-Sectional Studies: Point Prevalence Rate Ratiop. 90
Measuring Associations in Case-Control Studiesp. 90
Assessing the Strength of Associationsp. 101
Referencesp. 104
Exercisesp. 105
Threats to Validity and Issues of Interpretationp. 107
Understanding Lack of Validity: Biasp. 109
Overviewp. 109
Selection Biasp. 111
Information Biasp. 116
Combined Selection/Information Biasesp. 133
Referencesp. 147
Exercisesp. 150
Identifying Noncausal Associations: Confoundingp. 153
Introductionp. 153
The Nature of the Association Between the Confounder, the Exposure, and the Outcomep. 156
Theoretical and Graphical Aids to Frame Confoundingp. 162
Assessing the Presence of Confoundingp. 164
Additional Issues Related to Confoundingp. 171
Conclusionp. 179
Referencesp. 180
Exercisesp. 182
Defining and Assessing Heterogeneity of Effects: Interactionp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Defining and Measuring Effectp. 186
Strategies to Evaluate Interactionp. 186
Assessment of Interaction in Case-Control Studiesp. 196
More on the Interchangeability of the Definitions of Interactionp. 203
Which is the Relevant Model? Additive Versus Multiplicative Interactionp. 205
The Nature and Reciprocity of Interactionp. 207
Interaction, Confounding Effect, and Adjustmentp. 211
Statistical Modeling and Statistical Tests for Interactionp. 212
Interpreting Interactionp. 214
Interaction and Search for New Risk Factors in Low-Risk Groupsp. 219
Interaction and "Representativeness" of Associationsp. 221
Referencesp. 222
Exercisesp. 224
Dealing with Threats to Validityp. 227
Stratification and Adjustment: Multivariate Analysis in Epidemiologyp. 229
Introductionp. 229
Stratification and Adjustment Techniques to Disentangle Confoundingp. 230
Adjustment Methods Based on Stratificationp. 234
Multiple Regression Techniques for Adjustmentp. 248
Alternative Approaches for the Control of Confoundingp. 282
Incomplete Adjustment: Residual Confoundingp. 293
Over-Adjustmentp. 295
Conclusionp. 296
Referencesp. 301
Exercisesp. 305
Quality Assurance and Controlp. 313
Introductionp. 313
Quality Assurancep. 313
Quality Controlp. 318
Indices of Validity and Reliabilityp. 328
Regression to the Meanp. 358
Final Considerationsp. 359
Referencesp. 360
Exercisesp. 363
Issues of Reporting and Application of Epidemiologic Resultsp. 367
Communicating Results of Epidemiologic Studiesp. 369
Introductionp. 369
What to Reportp. 369
How to Reportp. 373
Conclusionp. 385
Referencesp. 386
Exercisesp. 388
Epidemiologic Issues in the Interface with Public Health Policyp. 391
Introductionp. 391
Causality: Application to Public Health and Health Policyp. 392
Decision Tree and Sensitivity Analysisp. 408
Meta-Analysisp. 413
Publication Biasp. 416
Summaryp. 420
Referencesp. 421
Exercisesp. 426
Standard Errors, Confidence Intervals, and Hypothesis Testing for Selected Measures of Risk and Measures of Associationp. 431
Test for Trend (Dose Response)p. 455
Test of Homogeneity of Stratified Estimates (Test for Interaction)p. 459
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures Manual for Blood Pressure Measurement and Blood/Urine Collection in the ARIC Studyp. 461
Calculation of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficientp. 469
Answers to Exercisesp. 473
Indexp. 501
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