The Essence of Anthropology

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-01-09
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Filled with current examples, THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY brings to life anthropology's key concepts and their great relevance to today's complex world. You'll learn about the varied ways culture helps humans adapt to face the challenges of existence, the connection between human culture and human biology, and the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. Furthermore, the book is packed with learning tools that demonstrate major concepts, offer interesting examples of anthropology's relevance to daily life, and guide your study to help you retain what you read.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
The Essence of Anthropologyp. 2
The Anthropological Perspectivep. 3
Anthropology and Its Fieldsp. 5
Cultural Anthropologyp. 5
Linguistic Anthropologyp. 8
Archaeologyp. 10
Physical Anthropologyp. 11
Anthropology, Science, and the Humanitiesp. 15
Fieldworkp. 16
Field Methodsp. 20
Archaeological and Paleoanthropological Methodsp. 20
Ethnographic Methodsp. 22
Anthropology's Comparative Methodp. 24
Questions of Ethicsp. 25
Anthropology and Globalizationp. 26
Chapter Checklistp. 28
Questions for Reflectionp. 29
Key Termsp. 29
Online Study Resourcesp. 29
Biocultural Connection: Picturing Pesticidesp. 6
Anthropology Applied: Forensic Anthropology: Voices for the Dead, by Clyde C. Snow. Karen Burns, Amy Zelson Mundorff, and Michael Blakeyp. 14
Original Study: Whispers from the Ice, by Sherry Simpsonp. 18
Biology and Evolutionp. 30
Evolution and Creation Storiesp. 31
The Classification of Living Thingsp. 32
The Discovery of Evolutionp. 34
Heredityp. 35
The Transmission of Genesp. 35
Genes and Allelesp. 36
Cell Divisionp. 38
Polygenetic Inheritancep. 40
Evolution, Individuals, and Populationsp. 42
Mutationp. 42
Genetic Driftp. 42
Gene Flowp. 44
Natural Selectionp. 44
The Case of Sickle-Cell Anemiap. 44
Adaptation and Physical Variationp. 46
Macroevolution and the Process of Speciationp. 47
Chapter Checklistp. 48
Questions for Reflectionp. 50
Key Termsp. 50
Online Study Resourcesp. 51
Biocultural Connection: The Social Impact of Genetics on Reproductionp. 39
Original Study: Ninety-Eight Percent Alike: What Our Similarity to Apes Tells Us about Our Understanding of Genetics, by Jonathan Marksp. 41
Living Primatesp. 52
Methods and Ethics in Primatologyp. 54
Primates as Mammalsp. 55
Primate Characteristicsp. 56
Primate Teethp. 56
Sensory Organsp. 56
The Primate Brainp. 58
The Primate Skeletonp. 59
Living Primatesp. 60
Lemurs and Lorisesp. 60
Tarsiersp. 60
Anthropoids: Monkeys and Apesp. 62
Small and Great Apesp. 62
Primate Behaviorp. 63
Chimpanzee and Bonobo Behaviorp. 64
Concealed Ovulationp. 68
Reproduction and Care of Youngp. 68
Communicationp. 69
Use of Objects as Toolsp. 70
The Question of Culturep. 70
Primate Behavior and Human Evolutionp. 70
Primate Conservationp. 71
Chapter Checklistp. 72
Questions for Reflectionp. 73
Key Termsp. 73
Online Study Resourcesp. 73
Biocultural Connection: Why Red Is Such a Potent Color, by Meredith F. Smallp. 58
Original Study: Reconciliation and Its Cultural Modification in Primates, by Frans B. M. de Waalp. 65
Human Evolutionp. 74
Mammalian Primate Evolutionp. 76
Human Evolutionp. 78
The First Bipedsp. 78
Ardipithecus ramidusp. 78
The Anatomy of Bipedalismp. 79
Australopithecinesp. 81
Homo habilisp. 82
Interpreting the Fossil Recordp. 83
Tools, Food, and Brain Expansionp. 83
Homo erectusp. 85
Lumpers or Splittersp. 88
The Neandertalsp. 88
The Upper Paleolithicp. 91
The Modern Human Origins Debatep. 93
Chapter Checklistp. 95
Questions for Reflectionp. 96
Key Termsp. 97
Online Study Resourcesp. 97
Biocultural Connection: Evolution and Human Birthp. 84
Anthropology Applied: Stone Tools for Modern Surgeonsp. 87
The Neolithic Revolutionp. 98
The Mesolithic Roots of Farming and Pastoralismp. 99
The Neolithic Revolutionp. 100
What Is Domestication?p. 101
Evidence of Early Plant Domesticationp. 102
Evidence of Early Animal Domesticationp. 102
Why Humans Became Food Producersp. 103
The Fertile Crescentp. 103
Other Centers of Domesticationp. 105
Food Production and Population Sizep. 110
The Spread of Food Productionp. 111
The Culture of Neolithic Settlementsp. 112
Jericho: An Early Farming Communityp. 112
Neolithic Material Culturep. 112
Social Structurep. 113
Neolithic Cultures in the Americasp. 114
The Neolithic and Human Biologyp. 114
The Neolithic and the Idea of Progressp. 116
Chapter Checklistp. 117
Questions for Reflectionp. 119
Key Termsp. 119
Online Study Resourcesp. 119
Original Study: The Real Dirt on Rainforest Fertility, by Charles C. Mannp. 108
Biocultural Connection: Paleolithic Prescriptions for the Neolithic and Beyondp. 115
The Emergence of Cities and Statesp. 120
Defining Civilizationp. 122
Tikal: A Case Studyp. 124
Surveying and Excavating the Sitep. 125
Evidence from the Excavationp. 126
Cities and Cultural Changep. 127
Agricultural Innovationp. 127
Diversification of Laborp. 127
Central Governmentp. 128
Social Stratificationp. 131
The Making of Statesp. 132
Ecological Theoriesp. 132
Action Theoryp. 134
Civilization and Its Discontentsp. 135
Social Stratification and Diseasep. 135
Colonialism and Diseasep. 135
Anthropology and Cities of the Futurep. 136
Chapter Checklistp. 138
Questions for Reflectionp. 138
Key Termsp. 139
Online Study Resourcesp. 139
Anthropology Applied: Tell It to the Marines: Teaching Troops about Cultural Heritage, by Jane C. Waldbaump. 133
Biocultural Connection: Perilous Pigs: The Introduction of Swine-Borne Disease to the Americas, by Charles C. Mannp. 136
Modern Human Diversity-Race and Racismp. 140
The History of Human Classificationp. 142
Race as a Biological Conceptp. 144
The Conflation of the Biological into the Cultural Category of Racep. 144
The Social Significance of Race: Racismp. 146
Race and Behaviorp. 146
Race and Intelligencep. 146
Studying Human Biological Diversityp. 149
Skin Color: A Case Study in Adaptationp. 150
Culture and Biological Diversityp. 150
Chapter Checklistp. 155
Questions for Reflectionp. 156
Key Termsp. 156
Online Study Resourcesp. 156
Original Study: A Feckless Quest for the Basketball Gene, by Jonathan Marksp. 147
Biocultural Connection: Beans, Enzymes, and Adaptation to Malariap. 153
The Characteristics of Culturep. 158
Culture and Adaptationp. 159
The Concept of Culturep. 161
Characteristics of Culturep. 162
Culture Is Learnedp. 162
Culture Is Sharedp. 164
Culture Is Based on Symbolsp. 166
Culture Is Integratedp. 167
Culture Is Dynamicp. 170
Culture and Changep. 170
Culture, Society, and the Individualp. 171
Ethnocentrism and the Evaluation of Culturep. 172
Chapter Checklistp. 174
Questions for Reflectionp. 175
Key Termsp. 175
Online Study Resourcesp. 175
Biocultural Connection: Pig Lovers and Pig Haters, by Marvin Harrisp. 160
Anthropology Applied: New Houses for Apache Indians, by George S. Esberp. 168
Language and Communicationp. 176
Linguistic Research and the Nature of Languagep. 178
Descriptive Linguisticsp. 179
Phonologyp. 179
Morphology, Syntax, and Grammarp. 179
Historical Linguisticsp. 180
Processes of Linguistic Divergencep. 180
Language Loss and Revivalp. 181
Language in Its Social and Cultural Settingsp. 183
Sociolinguisticsp. 183
Ethnolinguisticsp. 186
Language Versatilityp. 187
Beyond Words: The Gesture-Call Systemp. 138
Nonverbal Communicationp. 188
Paralanguagep. 189
Tonal Languagesp. 190
Telecommunication: Talking Drums and Whistled Speechp. 190
The Origins of Languagep. 191
From Speech to Writingp. 191
Literacy and Modern Telecommunication in Our Globalizing Worldp. 193
Chapter Checklistp. 194
Questions for Reflectionp. 195
Key Termsp. 195
Online Study Resourcesp. 195
Anthropology Applied: When Bambi Spoke Arapaho: Preserving Indigenous Languages, by S. Neyooxet Greymorningp. 184
Biocultural Connection: The Biology of Human Speechp. 192
Social Identity, Personality, and Genderp. 196
Enculturation: The Self and Social Identityp. 197
Self-Awarenessp. 198
Social Identity Through Personal Namingp. 199
Self and the Behavioral Environmentp. 200
Culture and Personalityp. 201
Personality Development: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Genderp. 201
Group Personalityp. 205
Modal Personalityp. 206
National Characterp. 206
Core Valuesp. 207
Alternative Gender Modelsp. 208
Normal and Abnormal Personality in Social Contextp. 211
Sadhus: Holy Men in Hindu Culturesp. 212
Mental Disorders Across Time and Culturesp. 212
Personal Identity and Mental Health in Globalizing Societyp. 216
Chapter Checklistp. 216
Questions for Reflectionp. 111
Key Termsp. 218
Online Study Resourcesp. 218
Original Study: The Blessed Curse, by R. K. Williamsonp. 208
Biocultural Connection: Down Syndrome Across Cultures, by Katherine A. Detrwylerp. 214
Subsistence and Exchangep. 220
Adaptationp. 221
The Unit of Adaptationp. 223
Adaptation in Cultural Evolutionp. 223
Modes of Subsistencep. 224
Food-Foraging Societiesp. 224
Characteristics of Food-Foraging Societiesp. 224
Food-Producing Societiesp. 225
Producing Food in Gardens: Horticulturep. 225
Producing Food on Farms: Agriculturep. 226
Mixed Farming: Crop Growing and Animal Breedingp. 226
Herding Grazing Animals: Pastoralismp. 227
Inten Agriculture: Urbanization and Peasantryp. 227
Industrial Food Productionp. 228
Subsistence and Economicsp. 229
Land and Water Resourcesp. 229
Technology Resourcesp. 230
Labor Resources and Patternsp. 231
Distribution and Exchangep. 233
Reciprocityp. 233
Redistributionp. 236
Market Exchange and the Marketplacep. 237
Local Economies and Global Capitalismp. 238
Informal Economy and the Escape from State Bureaucracyp. 239
Chapter Checklistp. 241
Questions for Reflectionp. 243
Key Termsp. 243
Online Study Resourcesp. 243
Biocultural Connection: Surviving in the Andes: Aymara Adaptation to High Altitudep. 222
Anthropology Applied: Anthropologist S. Ann Dunham: Mother to a U.S. President, by Nancy I. Cooperp. 240
Sex, Marriage, and Familyp. 244
Control of Sexual Relations,p. 246
Marriage and the Regulation of Sexual Relationsp. 246
Incest Taboop. 247
Endogamy and Exogamyp. 249
Distinction Between Marriage and Matingp. 249
Forms of Marriagep. 249
Monogamyp. 249
Polygamyp. 250
Group Marriagep. 253
Choice of Spousep. 253
Cousin Marriagep. 255
Same-Sex Marriagep. 256
Marriage and Economic Exchangep. 257
Divorcep. 258
Family and Householdp. 259
Forms of the Familyp. 260
Nontraditional Families and Nonfamily Householdsp. 261
Residence Patternsp. 262
Marriage, Family, and Household in Our Globalized and Technologized Worldp. 263
Adoption and New Reproductive Technologiesp. 263
Migrant Workforcesp. 264
Chapter Checklistp. 265
Questions for Reflectionp. 266
Key Termsp. 266
Online Study Resourcesp. 267
Biocultural Connection: Marriage Prohibitions in the United States, by Martin Ottenheimerp. 250
Original Study: Arranging Marriage in India, by Serena Nandap. 254
Kinship and Other Forms of Groupingp. 268
Descent Groupsp. 269
Unilineal Descentp. 271
Other Forms of Descentp. 273
Descent Within the Larger Cultural Systemp. 274
Lineage Exogamyp. 274
From Lineage to Clanp. 274
Phratries and Moietiesp. 275
Bilateral Kinship and the Kindredp. 276
Kinship Terminology and Kinship Groupsp. 277
The Eskimo Systemp. 277
The Hawaiian Systemp. 278
The Iroquois Systemp. 278
Kinship Terms and New Reproductive Technologiesp. 278
Grouping Beyond Kinshipp. 279
Grouping by Genderp. 279
Grouping by Agep. 279
Grouping by Common Interestp. 280
Grouping by Social Status in Stratified Societiesp. 282
Chapter Checklistp. 287
Questions for Reflectionp. 289
Key Termsp. 289
Online Study Resourcesp. 289
Biocultural Connection: Maori Origins: Ancestral Genes and Mythical Canoesp. 270
Original Study: African Burial Ground Project, by Michael Blakeyp. 284
Politics, Power, and Violencep. 290
Systems of Political Organizationp. 291
Uncentralized Political Systemsp. 291
Centralized Political Systemsp. 295
Political Systems and the Question of Legitimacyp. 297
Politics and Religionp. 298
Political Leadership and Genderp. 298
Political Organization and the Maintenance of Orderp. 300
Internalized Controlsp. 300
Externalized Controlsp. 300
Social Control Through Lawp. 301
Functions of Lawp. 301
Punishing Crimes and Settling Disputesp. 302
Restorative Justice and Conflict Resolutionp. 302
Violent Conflict and Warfarep. 303
Why War?p. 304
Wars Todayp. 306
Domination and Repressionp. 307
Acculturationp. 307
Ethnocidep. 308
Genocidep. 308
Resistance to Domination and Repressionp. 309
Violent Resistance: Rebellion and Revolutionp. 309
Nonviolent Resistance: Revitalization Movementsp. 311
Chapter Checklistp. 311
Questions for Reflectionp. 313
Key Termsp. 313
Online Study Resourcesp. 313
Anthropology Applied: William Ury: Dispute Resolution and the Anthropologistp. 303
Biocultural Connection: Gender, Sex, and Human Violencep. 305
Spirituality and Religionp. 314
The Role of Spirituality and Religionp. 315
The Anthropological Approach to Religionp. 317
Mythp. 318
Supernatural Beings and Spiritual Forcesp. 319
Gods and Goddessesp. 319
Ancestral Spiritsp. 320
Other Types of Supernatural Beings and Spiritual Forcesp. 321
Sacred Placesp. 322
Religious Specialistsp. 323
Priests and Priestessesp. 323
Shamansp. 323
Sacred Performances: Rituals and Ceremoniesp. 327
Rites of Passagep. 327
Rites of Intensificationp. 329
Magicp. 329
Witchcraftp. 330
Ibibio Witchcraftp. 330
Functions of Witchcraftp. 331
Consequences of Witchcraftp. 332
Religion in Cultural Change: Revitalization Movementsp. 332
Persistence of Spirituality and Religionp. 333
Chapter Checklistp. 334
Questions for Reflectionp. 335
Key Termsp. 335
Online Study Resourcesp. 335
Biocultural Connection; Change Your Karma and Change Your Sex? by Hillary Cranep. 324
Original Study: Healing among the Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari, by Marjorie Shostakp. 326
Global Changes and the Role of Anthropologyp. 336
Modernization in the Age of Globalizationp. 337
A Global Culture?p. 338
Doubts about a Global Cultural Unificationp. 340
Pluralistic Societies and Multiculturalismp. 341
Pluralistic Societies and Ethnocentrismp. 341
Structural Power in the Age of Globalizationp. 342
Military Hard Powerp. 343
Economic Hard Powerp. 344
Soft Power: A Global Media Environmentp. 345
Problems of Structural Violencep. 346
Overpopulation and Povertyp. 347
Hunger and Obesityp. 347
Pollution and Global Warmingp. 349
Reactions to Globalizationp. 352
Ethnic Minorities and Indigenous Peoples: Struggles for Human Rightsp. 353
Global Migrations: Refugees, Migrants, and Diasporic Communitiesp. 353
Concluding Remarksp. 355
Chapter Checklistp. 358
Questions for Reflectionp. 359
Key Termsp. 359
Online Study Resourcesp. 359
Biocultural Connection: Toxic Breast Milk Threatens Arctic Culturep. 350
Anthropology Applied: Paul Farmer: Anthropology and Local Health Care Worldwidep. 356
Glossaryp. 361
Bibliographyp. 369
Indexp. 387
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