The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1994-06-01
  • Publisher: William s Hein & Co
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Developed from the authors' highly successful annual imaging physics review course, this new Second Edition gives readers a clear, fundamental understanding of the theory and applications of physics in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiobiology. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, Second Edition provides key coverage of the clinical implications of technical principles--making this book great for board review. Highlights of this new edition include completely updated and expanded chapters and more than 960 illustrations. Major sections cover basic concepts, diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation protection, dosimetry, and biology. A Brandon-Hill recommended title.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Forewordp. xix
Basic Conceptsp. 1
Introduction to Medical Imagingp. 3
The Modalitiesp. 4
Image Propertiesp. 13
Radiation and the Atomp. 17
Radiationp. 17
Structure of the Atomp. 21
Interaction of Radiation with Matterp. 31
Particle Interactionsp. 31
X- and Gamma Ray Interactionsp. 37
Attenuation of X- and Gamma Raysp. 45
Absorption of Energy from X- and Gamma Raysp. 52
Imparted Energy, Equivalent Dose, and Effective Dosep. 56
Computers in Medical Imagingp. 61
Storage and Transfer of Data in Computersp. 61
Analog Data and Conversion between Analog and Digital Formsp. 66
Components and Operation of Computersp. 70
Performance of Computer Systemsp. 78
Computer Softwarep. 79
Storage, Processing, and Display of Digital Imagesp. 82
Diagnostic Radiologyp. 95
X-ray Production, X-ray Tubes, and Generatorsp. 97
Production of X-raysp. 97
X-ray Tubesp. 102
X-ray Tube Insert, Tube Housing, Filtration, and Collimationp. 113
X-ray Generator Function and Componentsp. 116
X-ray Generator Circuit Designsp. 124
Timing the X-ray Exposure in Radiographyp. 132
Factors Affecting X-ray Emissionp. 135
Power Ratings and Heat Loadingp. 137
X-ray Exposure Rating Chartsp. 140
Screen-Film Radiographyp. 145
Projection Radiographyp. 145
Basic Geometric Principlesp. 146
The Screen-Film Cassettep. 148
Characteristics of Screensp. 149
Characteristics of Filmp. 157
The Screen-Film Systemp. 163
Contrast and Dose in Radiographyp. 164
Scattered Radiation in Projection Radiographyp. 166
Film Processingp. 175
Film Exposurep. 175
The Film Processorp. 178
Processor Artifactsp. 181
Other Considerationsp. 183
Laser Camerasp. 184
Dry Processingp. 184
Processor Quality Assurancep. 186
Mammographyp. 191
X-ray Tube Designp. 194
X-ray Generator and Phototimer Systemp. 204
Compression, Scattered Radiation, and Magnificationp. 207
Screen-Film Cassettes and Film Processingp. 212
Ancillary Proceduresp. 219
Radiation Dosimetryp. 222
Regulatory Requirementsp. 224
Fluoroscopyp. 231
Functionalityp. 231
Fluoroscopic Imaging Chain Componentsp. 232
Peripheral Equipmentp. 242
Fluoroscopy Modes of Operationp. 244
Automatic Brightness Control (ABC)p. 246
Image Qualityp. 248
Fluoroscopy Suitesp. 249
Radiation Dosep. 251
Image Qualityp. 255
Contrastp. 255
Spatial Resolutionp. 263
Noisep. 273
Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE)p. 283
Sampling and Aliasing in Digital Imagesp. 283
Contrast-Detail Curvesp. 287
Receiver Operating Characteristics Curvesp. 288
Digital Radiographyp. 293
Computed Radiographyp. 293
Charged-Coupled Devices (CCDs)p. 297
Flat Panel Detectorsp. 300
Digital Mammographyp. 304
Digital versus Analog Processesp. 307
Implementationp. 307
Patient Dose Considerationsp. 308
Hard Copy versus Soft Copy Displayp. 308
Digital Image Processingp. 309
Contrast versus Spatial Resolution in Digital Imagingp. 315
Adjuncts to Radiologyp. 317
Geometric Tomographyp. 317
Digital Tomosynthesisp. 320
Temporal Subtractionp. 321
Dual-Energy Subtractionp. 323
Computed Tomographyp. 327
Basic Principlesp. 327
Geometry and Historical Developmentp. 331
Detectors and Detector Arraysp. 339
Details of Acquisitionp. 342
Tomographic Reconstructionp. 346
Digital Image Displayp. 358
Radiation Dosep. 362
Image Qualityp. 367
Artifactsp. 369
Nuclear Magnetic Resonancep. 373
Magnetization Propertiesp. 373
Generation and Detection of the Magnetic Resonance Signalp. 381
Pulse Sequencesp. 391
Spin Echop. 391
Inversion Recoveryp. 399
Gradient Recalled Echop. 403
Signal from Flowp. 408
Perfusion and Diffusion Contrastp. 409
Magnetization Transfer Contrastp. 411
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)p. 415
Localization of the MR Signalp. 415
k-space Data Acquisition and Image Reconstructionp. 426
Three-Dimensional Fourier Transform Image Acquisitionp. 438
Image Characteristicsp. 439
Angiography and Magnetization Transfer Contrastp. 442
Artifactsp. 447
Instrumentationp. 458
Safety and Bioeffectsp. 465
Ultrasoundp. 469
Characteristics of Soundp. 470
Interactions of Ultrasound with Matterp. 476
Transducersp. 483
Beam Propertiesp. 490
Image Data Acquisitionp. 501
Two-Dimensional Image Display and Storagep. 510
Miscellaneous Issuesp. 516
Image Quality and Artifactsp. 524
Doppler Ultrasoundp. 531
System Performance and Quality Assurancep. 544
Acoustic Power and Bioeffectsp. 548
Computer Networks, PACS, and Teleradiologyp. 555
Computer Networksp. 555
PACS and Teleradiologyp. 565
Nuclear Medicinep. 587
Radioactivity and Nuclear Transformationp. 589
Radionuclide Decay Terms and Relationshipsp. 589
Nuclear Transformationp. 593
Radionuclide Production and Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 603
Radionuclide Productionp. 603
Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 617
Regulatory Issuesp. 624
Radiation Detection and Measurementp. 627
Types of Detectorsp. 627
Gas-Filled Detectorsp. 632
Scintillation Detectorsp. 636
Semiconductor Detectorsp. 641
Pulse Height Spectroscopyp. 644
Non-Imaging Detector Applicationsp. 654
Counting Statisticsp. 661
Nuclear Imaging--The Scintillation Camerap. 669
Planar Nuclear Imaging: The Anger Scintillation Camerap. 670
Computers in Nuclear Imagingp. 695
Nuclear Imaging--Emission Tomographyp. 703
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)p. 704
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)p. 719
Radiation Protection, Dosimetry, and Biologyp. 737
Radiation Protectionp. 739
Sources of Exposure to Ionizing Radiationp. 739
Personnel Dosimetryp. 747
Radiation Detection Equipment in Radiation Safetyp. 753
Radiation Protection and Exposure Controlp. 755
Regulatory Agencies and Radiation Exposure Limitsp. 788
Radiation Dosimetry of the Patientp. 795
X-ray Dosimetryp. 800
Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry: The MIRD Methodp. 805
Radiation Biologyp. 813
Interaction of Radiation with Tissuep. 814
Cellular Radiobiologyp. 818
Response of Organ Systems to Radiationp. 827
Acute Radiation Syndromep. 831
Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesisp. 838
Hereditary Effects of Radiation Exposurep. 851
Radiation Effects In Uterop. 853
Appendicesp. 863
Fundamental Principles of Physicsp. 865
Physical Laws, Quantities, and Unitsp. 865
Classical Physicsp. 867
Electricity and Magnetismp. 868
Physical Constants, Prefixes, Geometry, Conversion Factors, and Radiologic Datap. 883
Physical Constants, Prefixes, and Geometryp. 883
Conversion Factorsp. 884
Radiological Data for Elements 1 through 100p. 885
Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Spectra Data Tablesp. 887
Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Elementsp. 887
Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Compoundsp. 889
Mass Energy Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Detector Compoundsp. 890
Mammography Spectra: Mo/Mop. 891
Mammography Spectra: Mo/Rhp. 893
Mammography Spectra: Rh/Rhp. 895
General Diagnostic Spectra: W/Alp. 897
Radiopharmaceutical Characteristics and Dosimetryp. 899
Route of administration, localization, clinical utility, and other characteristics of commonly used radiopharmaceuticalsp. 900
Typical administered adult activity, highest organ dose, gonadal dose, and adult effective dose for commonly used radiopharmaceuticalsp. 908
Effective doses per unit activity administered to patients age 15, 10, 5, and 1 year for commonly used diagnostic radiopharmaceuticalsp. 910
Absorbed dose estimates to the embryo/fetus per unit activity administered to the mother for commonly used radiopharmaceuticalsp. 911
Internet Resourcesp. 913
Subject Indexp. 915
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