Essential Readings in Light Metals, Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production

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Volume 4

Author Biography

ALAN TOMSETT, PhD, is Technical Director for the Pacific Technology Center, Pacific Aluminum, where he provides technical support and advice to the Pacific Aluminum smelters. Dr. Tomsett has more than twenty-five years of experience in carbon anode and cathode technology.

JOHN JOHNSON, MS, heads his own consulting business. He has forty-two years of experience in the aluminum industry, specializing in prebake and VSS anode technology as well as prebake cell design and development. Mr. Johnson was the Editor of Light Metals 2010.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Lead Editors xix

Editorial Team xxi

Part 1: Hall-Héroult Cell Carbon Anodes

Section Introduction 1

Raw Materials: Coke

Calcined Coke from Crude Oil to Customer Silo . 3
B. Vitchus, F. Cannova, and H. Childs

Refinery Feedstocks, Coke Structures and Aluminum Cell Anodes......11
P. Rhedey and D. DuTremblay

Coker Feedstock Characteristics and Calcined Coke Properties ....19
P. Rhedey and S. Nadkarni

Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners 24
L. Edwards

High Vanadium Venezuelan Petroleum Coke, A Rawmaterial for the Aluminum Industry?...30
U. Mannweiler, W. Schmidt-Hatting, D. Rodriguez, and A. Maitland

Use of Shot Coke as an Anode Raw Material....36
L. Edwards, F. Vogt, M. Robinette, R. Love, A. Ross, M. McClung, R. Roush, and W. Morgan

Influence of High Sulphur Cokes on Anode Performance42
S. Jones, R. Hildebrandt, and M. Hedlund

Carbon Raw Material Effects on Aluminum Reduction Cell Anodes ...53
P. Rhedey and S. Nadkarni

A Comprehensive Determination of Effects of Calcined Petroleum Coke Properties on Aluminum Reduction Cell Anode Properties ... 59
D. Belitskus and D. Danka

A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Calcination at Various Temperatures on Coke Structure and
Properties _ Part 2....73
E. Hardin, C. Beilharz, P. Ellis, and L. McCoy

Influence of Coke Real Density on Anode Reactivity Consequence on Anode Baking....84
B. Coste and J. Schneider

Coke Calcination Levels and Aluminum Anode Quality .93
C. Dreyer, B. Samanos, and F. Vogt

Impact of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Temperature on Anode Properties ....101
B. Samanos and C. Dreyer

Use of Under-Calcined Coke for the Production of Low Reactivity Anodes ....109
J. Lhuissier, L. Bezamanifary, M. Gendre, and M. Chollier

Anode Filler Coke Porosity Studies...114
P. Rhedey

Desulphurization and Its Effect on Calcined Coke Properties...... 119
R. Garbarino and R. Tonti

Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium Sensitivity of Carbon Anodes......123
S. Hume, W. Fischer, R. Perruchoud, J. Metson, and R. Baker

A Review of Coke and Anode Desulfurization 130
L. Edwards, K. Neyrey, and L. Lossius

Coke and Anode Desulfurization Studies .136
L. Lossius, K. Neyrey, and L. Edwards

Minimizing Impact of Low Sulfur Coke on Anode Quality ..142
A. Adams, R. Cahill, Y. Belzile, K. Cantin, and M. Gendron

Evaluating Calcined Coke for Aluminum Smelting by Bulk Density .148
D. Belitskus

Maintaining Consistent Anode Density Using Varying Carbon Raw Materials156
S. Wilkening

Coke Blending and Fines Circuit Targeting at the Alcoa Deschambault Smelter ....163
M. Gendron, S. Whelan, and K. Cantin

Raw Materials: Pitch

Worldwide Pitch Quality for Prebaked Anodes167
R. Perruchoud, M. Meier, and W. Fischer

Coal Tar Pitch _ Past, Present, and Future177
J. Baron, S. McKinney, and R. Wombles

Electrode Binder Pyrolysis and Bond-Coke Microstructure..182
S. Jones and R. Hildebrandt

Binder for the Ideal Anode Carbon....198
S. Jones and E. Bart

Binding Characteristics of Coal Tar Pitches for Prebaked Anode Mix - Choice Criteria: LRF Report 830 215
J. Pinoir and P. Hyvernat

The Influence of Solid Particles in Pitch on the Preparation and Baking of the Carbon Blocks ...225
G. Romovacek

Performance of Binder Pitches With Decreased QI-Content in Anode Making: Formation - Nature - Properties and

Substitution of Quinoline Insolubles .232
A. Alscher, R. Wildförster, and J. Sharp

Temperature Stability of Søderberg Anode Pitch ....239
M. Sørlie

Developing Coal Tar/Petroleum Pitches...246
R. Wombles and M. Kiser

Raw Materials: Spent Carbon

Investigation of the Quality of Recycled Anode Butts ...251
W. Schmidt-Hatting, A. Kooijman, and R. Perruchoud

Interdependence Between Properties of Anode Butts and Quality of Prebaked Anodes.267
W. Fischer and R. Perruchoud

Raw Material and Anode Characterization

New Methods for Testing Raw Materials for Anode Carbon Paste.....271
O. Bowitz, T. Eftestol, and R. Selvik

Standardization of a Calcined Coke Bulk Density Test..281
D. Belitskus

Reactivity Testing of Anode Carbon Materials 290
G. Houston and H. Øye

Characterization of Prebaked Anode Carbon by Mechanical and Thermal Properties....298
J. Brown and P. Rhedey

Green Anode Production

Aggregate Optimization Using a Y-Blender....307
R. Peterson

Soderberg Paste. Effect of Fine Fraction Variations313
P. Stokka and I. Skogland

Finer Fines in Anode Formulation.....318
F. Figueiredo, C. Cato, A. Nascimento, A. Marques, and P. Miotto

Process Adaptations for Finer Dust Formulations: Mixing and Forming...322
K. Hulse, R. Perruchoud, W. Fischer, and B. Welch

Effects of Mixing Variables and Mold Temperature on Prebaked Anode Quality...328
D. Belitskus

Improving Anode Quality by Separately Optimising Mixing and Compacting Temperature 333
B. Coste

Vibration Forming of Carbon Blocks 339
E. Sandvik, R. Blindheim, and H. Bø

Cooling of Green Anodes After Forming .351
W. Fischer, M. Meier, and M. Lustenberger

Recent Improvement in Paste Plant Design: Industrial Application and Results .....358
C. Vanvoren

Going Beyond SPC _ Why We Need Statistical Thinking in Operations Such as Carbon Plants .365
K. Sinclair and B. Sadler

Properties and Behaviour of Green Anodes.....371
S. Wilkening
Potentialities in the Paste Plant...378
S. Wilkening

Baked Anode Production

Mathematical Simulation of a Horizontal Flue Ring Furnace ...... 386
R. Bui, E. Dernedde, A. Charette, and T. Bourgeois

Flue Gas Management ..390
W. Leisenberg

Safe Operation of Anode Baking Furnaces......396
I. Holden, O. Saeter, F. Aune, and T. Naterstad

Anode Baking: The Underestimated Human Aspect ......403
F. Keller, P. Sulger, and W. Fischer

Specific Energy Consumption in Anode Bake Furnaces 408
F. Keller, P. Sulger, M. Meier, D. Severo, and V. Gusberti

Evaluation of the Uniformity of Baking in Horizontal and Vertical Flue Ring Furnaces414
D. Holdner, S. Nadkarni, and D. DuTremblay

Measurement and Control of the Calcining Level in Anode Baking Furnaces..418
T. Foosnaes, N. Kulset, H. Linga, G. Naeumann, and A. Werge-Olsen

The Equivalent Temperature Method for Measuring the Baking Level of Anodes.. 422
L. Lossius, I. Holden, and H. Linga

Baking Parameters and the Resulting Anode Quality.....427
W. Fischer, F. Keller, R. Perruchoud, and S. Oderbolz

Anode Desulphurization on Baking...434
M. Vogt, K. Ries, and M. Smith

The Effect of Prebake Anode Baking Temperature on Potroom Performance ..444
G. Bain, J. Pruneau, and J. Williams

Influence of Baking Temperature and Anode Effects Upon Carbon Sloughing450
E. Cutshall and V. Bullough

Influence on Anode Baking Temperature and Current Density Upon Carbon Sloughing......469
E. Cutshall

Anode Reactivity Influence of the Baking Process..478
C. Dreyer

Modern Anode Baking Furnace Developments......486
F. Keller and J. Disselhorst

Strategies for the Revision of Bake Furnaces ...492
F. Keller

Rodded Anode Production and Anode Design

Temperature and Voltage Measurements in Hall Cell Anodes.....500
R. Peterson

Studies of Stub to Carbon Voltage.....510
R. Peterson

Factors in the Design of Reduction Cell Anodes.....516
D. Brooks and V. Bullough

Anode Cast Iron Thickness Optimization.524
M. Ohlswager, G. Goeres, and R. Peterson

Drilling of Stub Holes in Prebaked Anodes.....529
B. Aga, I. Holden, H. Linga, and K. Solbu

Problems of the Stub-Anode Connection.. 534
S. Wilkening and J. Côté

Challenges in Stub Hole Optimisation of Cast Iron Rodded Anodes ..543
D. Richard, P. Goulet, O. Trempe, M. Dupuis, and M. Fafard

Real Time Temperature Distribution during Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air Gap Measurements of a Hall- Héroult Cell Anode549
O. Trempe, D. Larouche, D. Ziegler, M. Guillot, and M. Fafard

Effects of Carbonaceous Rodding Mix Formulation on Steel-Carbon Contact Resistance ....555
P. Rhedey and L. Castonguay

Anode Performance: Reactivity Fundamentals

Anode Carbon Reactivity.....564
S. Jones and R. Hildebrandt

Studies on Anode Reactivity to Oxidant Gases 580
J. Rey Boero

Some Practical Consequences of Analyses of the Carboxy and Airburn Reactions of Anode Carbons......589
N. Bird, B. McEnaney, and B. Sadler

A Porosimetric Study of Sub-Surface Carboxy Oxidation in Anodes .594
B. Sadler and S. Algie

Studies of the Impact of Vanadium and Sodium on the Air Reactivity of Coke and Anodes.606
J. Rolle and Y. Hoang

Anode Performance: Dusting

A Review of Factors Affecting Carbon Anode Consumption in the Electrolytic Production of Aluminum......611
P. Rhedey

Reflections on the Carbon Consumption of Prebaked Anodes .....623
S. Wilkening

Anode Dusting in Hall-Heroult Cells 633
T. Foosnaes, T. Naterstad, M. Bruheim, and K. Grjotheim

The Influence of Low Current Densities on Anode Performance.643
S. Hume, M. Utley, B. Welch, and R. Perruchoud

Dust Generation and Accumulation for Changing Anode Quality and Cell Parameters .649
R. Perruchoud, K. Hulse, W. Fischer, and W. Schmidt-Hatting

Anode Dusting from a Potroom Perspective at Nordural and Correlation with Anode Properties657
H. Gudmundsson

The Reduction in Anode Airburn with Protective Covers .....663
A. Fitchett, D. Morgan, and B. Welch

Reactivity and Electrolytic Consumption of Anode Carbon with Various Additives......667
T. Müftüo_lu and H. Øye

Bath Impregnation of Carbon Anodes ......673
R. Perruchoud, M. Meier, and W. Fischer

Anode Performance: Thermal Shock

Effects of Coke and Formulation Variables on Cracking of Bench Scale Prebaked Anode Specimens......680
D. Belitskus

Thermal Shock in Anodes for the Electrolytic Production of Aluminium..687
E. Kummer and W. Schmidt-Hatting

Operating Parameters Affecting Thermal Shock Cracking of Anodes in the Valco Smelter .694
N. Ambenne and K. Ries

Thermal Shock of Anodes _ A Solved Problem? ....700
M. Meier, W. Fischer, R. Perruchoud, and L. Gauckler

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Aspects of Anode Cracking.710
T. Liu, L. Edwards, C. Hughes, B. Mason, and R. McMellon

An Approach for a Complete Evaluation of Resistance to Thermal Shock (Part 1): Applying to the Case of
Anodes and Cathodes ...717
C. Dreyer and B. Samanos

Finite Element Modelling of Thermal Stress in Anodes.723
P. Cook

Recommended Reading 731

Part 2: Hall-Héroult Cell Cathodes

Section Introduction...... 739

Cell Lining: Cathodes

ISO Standards for Testing of Cathode Materials .....741
H. Øye

Laboratory Testing of Carbon Cathode Materials at Operational Temperatures ......747
M. Sørlie and H. Øye

Structural Changes in Carbon by Heat Treatment ...754
S. Brandtzaeg, H. Linga, and H. Øye

Low Electrical Resistivity and High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Products: The Solution for Cell Lining....762
D. Dumas and C. Michel

Aluminium Pechiney Experience with Graphitized Cathode Blocks ..773
D. Lombard, T. Béhérégaray, B. Fève, and J. Jolas

Some Experiments in Cathode Carbon .....779
S. Wilkening

How to Improve the Pig Iron Sealing of Metallic Bars in Cathode Carbon Blocks .787
I. Letizia, C. Bizzarri, and M. Lezzerini

Stress Analysis of Cathode Bottom Blocks ......793
B. Larsen and M. Sørlie

Experimental Comparison of Cathode Rodding Practices.....799
L. Caruso, K. Rye, and M. Sørlie

Cell Lining: Ramming Paste

Compaction of Room Temperature Ramming Paste ......804
M. Sørlie and H. Øye

Densification of Ramming Paste in Cathodes..814
M. Sørlie, B. Faaness , and J. Belmonte

Investigation into the Expansion/Contraction Behaviour of Cold Ramming Pastes during Baking Using a Horizontal
Dilatometer Method...... 821
B. Hocking

Ramming Paste Related Failures in Cathode Linings.....827
B. Faaness, H. Gran, M. Sørlie, and H. Øye

Cell Lining: Refractories

Corrosion and Behaviour of Fireclay Bricks of Varying Chemical Composition Used in the Bottom Lining of Reduction

Cells .. 834
F. Brunk

Experiences with Dry Barrier Powder Materials in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells .. 840
O.-J. Siljan, O. Junge, T. Svendsen, and K. Thovsen

Cathode Refractory Materials for Aluminium Reduction Cells....849
C. Schøning, T. Grande, and O. Siljan

Evaluation of Silicon Carbide Bricks 857
A. Tabereaux and A. Fickel

Quality Evaluation of Nitride Bonded Silicon Carbide Sidelining Materials ....866
E. Skybakmoen, L. Stoen, J. Kvello, and O. Darell

SiC in Electrolysis Pots: An Update ..872
R. Pawlek

Thermal Insulation Materials for Reduction Cell Cathodes ..876
A. Tabereaux

Cathode Performance: Failure Modes

Use of Cell Autopsy to Diagnose Potlining Problems ....888
R. Jeltsch

Processes Occurring in the Carbon Lining of an Aluminum Reduction Cell ....894
J. Waddington

A Study of Some Aspects of the Influence of Cell Operation on Cathode Life 903
C. Clelland, J. Keniry, and B. Welch

Potlining Failure Modes909
M. Dell

Design of Highly Reliable Pot Linings .....914
J. Peyneau

Early Failure Mechanisms in Aluminium Cell Cathodes ......921
M., J. Hvistendahl, and H. Øye

A Comparative Examination of Ageing of Cathodes: Amorphous Versus Graphitic Type ...931
E. Berhauser and J. Mittag

Property Changes of Cathode Lining Materials during Cell Operation......936
M. Sørlie, H. Gran, and H. Øye

Cathode Performance: Chemical Reactions

Reaction Between Carbon Lining and Hall Bath.....946
M. Dell

Penetration of Sodium and Bath Constituents into Cathode Carbon Materials Used in Industrial Cells..... 953
C. Krohn, M. Sorlie, and H. Øye

Chemical Resistance of Cathode Carbon Materials during Electrolysis.....960
M. Sørlie and H. Øye

The Effect of Current Density on Cathode Expansion during Start-Up......966
A. Ratvik, A. Støre, A. Solheim, and T. Foosnaes

Reactions in the Bottom Lining of Aluminium Reduction Cells ..972
A. Solheim, C. Schøning, and E. Skybakmoen

Chemical Degradation Map for Sodium Attack in Refractory Linings ......978
K. Tschöpe, J. Rutlin, T. Grande

Cathode Performance: Erosion

Physical and Chemical Wear of Carbon Cathode Materials ..984
X. Liao and H. Øye

Carbon Cathode Corrosion by Aluminium Carbide Formation in Cryolitic Melts...992
X. Liao and H. Øye

Erosion of Cathode Blocks in 180 kA Prebake Cells .....999
A. Tabereaux, J. Brown, I. Eldridge, and T. Alcorn

Graphite Cathode Wear Study at Alouette.....1005
P. Reny and S. Wilkening

Electrolytic Degradation within Cathode Materials......1011
P. Rafiei, F. Hiltmann, M. Hyland, B. James, and B. Welch

Influence of Internal Cathode Structure on Behavior during Electrolysis Part II: Porosity and Wear Mechanisms in
Graphitized Cathode Materials .1017
P. Patel, M. Hyland, and F. Hiltmann

Influence of Internal Cathode Structure on Behavior during Electrolysis Part III: Wear Behavior in Graphitic Materials...1023
P. Patel, M. Hyland, and F. Hiltmann

Spent Pot Lining

Formation and Distribution of Cyanide in the Lining of Aluminum Reduction Cells...1029
R. Peterson, L. Blayden, and E. Martin

Potlining Flux in Making Steel.1037
D. Augood, R. Schlager, and P. Belding

Thermal Treatment of Spent Potliner in a Rotary Kiln.1044
D. Brooks, E. Cutshall, D. Banker, and D. Strahan

Treatment and Reuse of Spent Pot Lining, an Industrial Application in a Cement Kiln ......1049
P. Personnet

Co-Processing at Cement Plant of Spent Potlining from the Aluminum Industry.. 1057
V. Gomes, P. Drumond, J. Neto, and A. Lira

Development Status of Processing Technology for Spent Potlining in China.1064
W. Li and X. Chen

Recommended Reading .....1067

Part 3: Inert Anodes and Wettable Cathodes

Section Introduction....1071

Inert Anodes

Solubilities of Oxides for Inert Anodes in Cryolite-Based Melts ......1073
D. DeYoung

Corrosion and Passivation of Cermet Inert Anodes in Cryolite-Type Electrolytes 1082
G. Tarcy

Testing of Cerium Oxide Coated Cermet Anodes in a Laboratory Cell ...1094
J. Gregg, M. Frederick, H. King, and A. Vaccaro

A Non-Consumable Metal Anode for Production of Aluminum with Low Temperature Fluoride Melts.1104
T. Beck

The Behaviour of Nickel Ferrite Cermet Materials as Inert Anodes .1110
E. Olsen and J. Thonstad

Tin Dioxide-Based Ceramics as Inert Anodes for Aluminium Smelting: A Laboratory Study...1119
A. Vecchio-Sadus, D. Constable, R. Dorin, E. Frazer, I. Fernandez, G. Neal, S. Lathabai, and M. Trigg

Inert Anodes: An Update ...1126
R. Pawlek

Wettable Cathodes

The Application of the Refractory Carbides and Borides to Aluminum Reduction Cells ....1134
C. Ransley

Use of TiB2 Cathode Material: Application and Benefits in Conventional VSS Cells..1145
L. Boxall, A. Cooke, and H. Hayden

Use of TiB2 Cathode Material: Demonstrated Energy Conservation in VSS Cells 1153
A. Cooke and W. Buchta

A Review of RHM Cathode Development .....1164
C. McMinn

Properties of a Colloidal Alumina-Bonded TiB2 Coating on Cathode Carbon Materials.....1171
H. Øye, V. de Nora, J. Duruz, and G. Johnston

Sodium and Bath Penetration into TiB2-Carbon Cathodes during Laboratory Aluminium Electrolysis ...1179
J. Xue and H. Øye

Wettable Cathodes: An Update.1185
R. Pawlek

Recommended Reading .....1191

Author Index. 1193

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