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Essentials of Instructional Design, The: Connecting Fundamental Principles with Process and Practice

by ;
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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div
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List Price: $56.00


This book is designed to introduce you to the foundational elements of instructional design-the fundamental principles, processes, and practices that currently shape and define the field. By not subscribing to any single ID model or approach, the authors are able to clearly articulate the principles of design (e.g., task analysis), and then they describe, compare, and contrast the processes of applying each principle as established by leaders in the field. Practical examples and application questions are woven throughout each chapter and present opportunities for you to check your understanding and apply what you've learned. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Before You Begin Designing Instructionp. 1
Defining Instructional Designp. 2
Key Termsp. 2
Guiding Questionsp. 3
Chapter Overviewp. 4
What Is Instructional Design?p. 5
Models of Instructional Design/Developmentp. 9
Professional Instructional Design Practicep. 13
Traditional Approaches (Analyze, Develop, Evaluate)p. 14
Nontraditional Approachesp. 16
Summaryp. 24
Connecting Process to Practicep. 24
Recommended Readingsp. 25
Referencesp. 25
Understanding How People Thinkp. 28
Key Termsp. 28
Guiding Questionsp. 29
Chapter Overviewp. 30
Cognition and Basic Cognitive Functionsp. 30
Cognitionp. 30
Basic Cognitive Functionsp. 31
Historical Perspectives on Thinking: A Brief Historyp. 32
Modern Views on Thinking: The Shift from Philosophy to Psychologyp. 34
Two Major Perspectivesp. 35
Two More Recent Perspectivesp. 37
Instructional Designers' Views on Thinkingp. 38
Summaryp. 40
Connecting Process to Practicep. 40
Recommended Readingsp. 41
Referencesp. 41
Understanding How People Learnp. 44
Key Termsp. 44
Guiding Questionsp. 45
Chapter Overviewp. 46
What Is Learning?p. 46
Two Major, Divergent Approaches to How People Learnp. 47
Behaviorismp. 47
Cognitivismp. 50
A Third Approach: Constructivismp. 51
Use of All Three Approachesp. 52
Types of Learningp. 52
Cognitive Domainp. 53
Affective Domainp. 54
Psychomotor Domainp. 54
Summaryp. 56
Connecting Process to Practicep. 57
Recommended Readingsp. 57
Referencesp. 57
Managing Instructional Media Productionp. 60
Key Termsp. 60
Guiding Questionsp. 61
Chapter Overviewp. 62
The Production Processp. 62
Organization of a Production Teamp. 63
Production Managementp. 66
Production Calendarp. 67
Style Guidesp. 71
Storyboardsp. 71
Prototypingp. 74
Communication and Conflict Resolutionp. 76
Product Evaluationp. 79
Usability Testingp. 80
A Final Thoughtp. 80
Summaryp. 81
Connecting Process to Practicep. 82
Recommended Readingsp. 82
Referencesp. 83
Examining the Situation: Needs, Task, and Learner Analysisp. 85
Conducting Needs Analysisp. 86
Key Termsp. 86
Guiding Questionsp. 87
Chapter Overviewp. 88
Needs Analysis: An Overviewp. 88
Needs Analysis Questionsp. 89
Popular Approaches to Needs Analysisp. 90
Mager's Performance Analysisp. 90
Morrison, Ross, and Kemp's Three Approachesp. 93
Rossett's Five-Step Approachp. 95
Smith and Ragan's Three Needs Assessment Modelsp. 97
Needs Analysis Procedurep. 98
Determination of the Desired Changep. 98
The Party Requesting the Desired Changep. 99
Implementation Location for the Desired Changep. 99
The Interventionp. 100
Evaluation of the Success of a Needs Analysisp. 100
Summaryp. 101
Connecting Process to Practicep. 102
Recommended Readingsp. 103
Referencesp. 103
Conducting Task Analysisp. 104
Key Termsp. 104
Guiding Questionsp. 105
Chapter Overviewp. 106
What Is Task Analysis?p. 106
Popular Approaches to Task Analysisp. 107
Jonassen, Hannum, and Tessmer's Approachp. 108
Morrison, Ross, and Kemp's Three Techniquesp. 108
Dick, Carey, and Carey's Instructional Analysisp. 110
Smith and Ragan's Analysis of the Learning Taskp. 110
Task Analysis Procedurep. 111
The Subject Matter Expertp. 112
Task Analysis Documentp. 112
Influencing Factorsp. 112
Evaluation of the Success of a Task Analysisp. 115
Summaryp. 117
Connecting Process to Practicep. 118
Recommended Readingsp. 118
Referencesp. 119
Analyzing the Learnersp. 120
Key Termsp. 120
Guiding Questionsp. 121
Chapter Overviewp. 122
Analysis of Learnersp. 122
Human Needsp. 123
Captive Audience or Willing Volunteers?p. 124
Popular Approaches to Analyzing Learnersp. 125
Mager's Approachp. 125
Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino's Approachp. 127
Dick, Carey, and Carey's Methodp. 129
Smith and Ragan's Approachp. 129
Morrison, Ross, and Kemp's Approachp. 133
Learner Analysis Procedurep. 133
Charting Learner Characteristics Datap. 133
Creating a Fictitious Profile of the Typical Learnerp. 134
Comparing the Learner Ability Chart and the Learner Profilep. 134
Evaluation of the Success of a Learner Analysisp. 136
Summaryp. 137
Connecting Process to Practicep. 137
Recommended Readingsp. 138
Referencesp. 138
Creating Instruction: Planning, Designing, and Implementing the Interventionp. 141
Developing Instructional Goals and Objectivesp. 142
Key Termsp. 142
Guiding Questionsp. 143
Chapter Overviewp. 144
Instructional Goals and Objectivesp. 144
The Difference Between Goals and Objectivesp. 144
Popular Approaches to Setting Goals and Objectivesp. 146
Mager's Approachp. 146
Dick, Carey, and Carey's Approachesp. 146
"ABCD" Approachp. 146
Morrison, Ross, and Kemp's Approachp. 147
Goal Settingp. 147
Translation of Goals into Objectivesp. 149
Evaluation of the Success of Instructional Goal Setting and Objective Specificationp. 153
Summaryp. 154
Connecting Process to Practicep. 155
Recommended Readingsp. 156
Referencesp. 156
Organizing Instructionp. 158
Key Termsp. 158
Guiding Questionsp. 159
Chapter Overviewp. 160
Scope and Sequence of Instructionp. 160
Levels of Organization: Macro, Micro, Vertical, and Horizontalp. 162
Organizational Structures: Content and Mediap. 162
Events of Instructionp. 162
Continuum of Learning Experiencesp. 164
Instructional Deliveryp. 167
Methods of Instructional Deliveryp. 167
Two Categories of Instructional Deliveryp. 169
Instructional Activities in Noneducational Situationsp. 170
Job Aidsp. 171
Effective Instructionp. 171
Summaryp. 172
Connecting Process to Practicep. 173
Recommended Readingsp. 174
Referencesp. 174
Creating Learning Environments and Producing Instructional Activitiesp. 176
Key Termsp. 176
Guiding Questionsp. 177
Chapter Overviewp. 178
Development of Instructionp. 178
Teaching Pitfallp. 178
Learning Environmentsp. 180
Four Perspectives on the Design of Learning Environmentsp. 180
Directed and Open-Ended Learning Environmentsp. 181
Research Support for Instructional Practicesp. 186
Activities Based on Proven Effective Practicesp. 189
Identifying Similarities and Differencesp. 189
Summarizing and Note Takingp. 192
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognitionp. 193
Homework and Practicep. 194
Nonlinguistic Representationsp. 194
Cooperative Learningp. 196
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedbackp. 196
Generating and Testing Hypothesesp. 197
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizersp. 198
Summaryp. 198
Connecting Process to Practicep. 199
Recommended Readingsp. 200
Referencesp. 200
Evaluating Learner Success and the Instructional Design: Determining the Effect of the Interventionp. 203
Evaluating Learner Achievementp. 204
Key Termsp. 204
Guiding Questionsp. 206
Chapter Overviewp. 206
Evaluation, Assessment, and Measurementp. 206
Purpose of Evaluationp. 207
Goal of Learner Evaluationp. 208
Development of Learner Evaluationsp. 210
Validity and Reliabilityp. 210
Criterion Referenced and Norm Referenced: Simplifiedp. 211
The Starting Point: Instructional Objectivesp. 212
Implementation of Learner Evaluationsp. 229
Preinstructionp. 229
During Instructionp. 230
Postinstructionp. 230
Determination of the Success of Learner Evaluationsp. 231
Instructional Designer's Rolep. 231
Summaryp. 232
Connecting Process to Practicep. 233
Recommended Readingsp. 234
Referencesp. 235
Determining the Success of the Instructional Design Product and Processp. 236
Key Termsp. 236
Guiding Questionsp. 237
Chapter Overviewp. 238
Formative and Summative Evaluationp. 238
Formative Evaluationp. 238
Summative Evaluationp. 248
Group Processing: Evaluating the Instructional Design Teamp. 255
Summaryp. 256
Connecting Process to Practicep. 257
Recommended Readingsp. 258
Referencesp. 258
Indexp. 261
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