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9780190078850

Europe in the Modern World A New Narrative History

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190078850

  • ISBN10:

    0190078855

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-07-31
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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What is included with this book?

Summary

Europe in the Modern World, Second Edition, is an engaging narrative history of Europe since 1500. Written by an award-winning teacher and scholar, it highlights the major episodes of the European past and vividly connects those episodes to major international events. Each chapter opens with a
compelling biographical sketch that gives the book's ideas a vibrant, human face.

Europe in the Modern World pays considerably more attention to economic history than other textbooks do, demonstrating the role that economic developments--and the political, social, and cultural responses to them--play in shaping the political and social life of a given age. By taking politics and
economics seriously while doing justice to social and cultural life, this unique book explains the key phenomena of the Western past with clarity and verve. It reads not like a typical academic text, but more like the best narrative history.

Author Biography


Edward Berenson is Chair and Professor of History at New York University. He is an accomplished teacher, having received the American Historical Association's Eugene Asher Distinguished Teaching Award and UCLA's Distinguished Teaching Award. His contributions to French studies and to Franco-American understanding earned him a prestigious decoration from former French President Jacques Chirac: Knight in the Order of Merit (2006). Berenson has received fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Social Science Research Council, and he is the author or editor of eight books.

Table of Contents


List of Maps
Preface
About the Author

INTRODUCTION
Biography: Europa
What and Where Is Europe?
Why History?
Europe in 1450-1500
Agriculture, Industry, and Trade in 1450-1500
Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life in 1450-1500
The Structure of This Book

CHAPTER 1. THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS REFORM, 1490-1648
Biography: Martin Luther
The Beginnings of Religious Change
The Protestand Reformation
Luther and Religious Reforms in Germany
Zwingli and the Radicalization of Religious Reform
Thomas M:untzer's Radical Anabaptism
---Anabaptism and the Peasants' War
---The Politics of Religious Strife
Calvinism
Predestination and the Creation of a Calvinist Church
The French Religious Wars
Ohter Calvinist Gains
The Protestand Transformation in England
The Catholic Reformation
The Catholic Recovery
The Council of Trent
The Jesuits
The Counter-Reformation
The Thirty Years' War
Reformation Society and Culture
Witchcraft
The Visual Arts
Conclusion: The Reformation's Outcomes and Results

CHAPTER 2. STATES AND EMPIRES, 1500-1715
Biography: Roxelana, the Ottoman Queen
The Ottoman Empire
The Rise of the Ottoman Empire
The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Spain and the Spanish Empire
The Columbian Exchange
The Troubled Government of Spain
Portugal and the Portuguese Empire
The Netherlands and the Dutch Private Enterprise Empire
Dutch Independence
The Dutch Empire
England and the British Empire
England's Political Institutions
The Beginnings of the British Empire
The British Empire in North America
France and the French Empire
French Political Institutions: The Nobility and the King
A New Nobility
The French Empire
Slavery and Race
The Russian Empire
Sweden and the Swedish Empire
The Emergence of a Strong Swedish State
Sweden Becomes a Regional Power
Germany and the Holy Roman Empire
Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary: The Limits of Habsburg Authority
Poland-Lithuania
Prussia
Conclusion: The Rise and Decline of European Empires

CHAPTER 3. CRISES OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Biography: Louis XIV
Upheavals of the Seventeenth Century
The Little Ice Age
Wars of the Seventeenth Century
Germany and the Thirty Years' War
Russia in the Seventeenth Century
The Decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Rise and Fall of the Swedish Empire
The Ottoman Empire Confronts the Little Ice Age
France and the Crisis of the Seventeenth Century
The Fronde
Absolutism and Its Limits
The Wars of Louis XIV, 1660s to 1714
England's Road to Revolution and Civil War
English Protestantism Divides in Two
The English Civil War
The English Revolution
The Restoration
Conclusion: Global Cooling and Its Turbulent Effects

CHAPTER 4. SCIENCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT, 1600-1789
Biography: Galileo
A Scientific Revolution?
The World as Machine
The Experimental Method
Descartes and the Quest for Certainty
Isaac Newton: The Way Gravity Works
"Enlightenment": From the Natural World to the Study of Humankind
"What Is Enlightenment?"
Natural Law and the Nature of Human Beings
Locke, Mandeville, and the Scottish Enlightenment
Rousseau and Natural Man
Civilization and "Primitive" Man
Rationality and the Critique of Religion
National Differences in Enlightenment Thought
Voltaire and the Critique of Religion in France
The Theory and Practice of Government\
Women and the New Philosophy
Conclusion: The Accomplishments of the Enlightenment

CHAPTER 5. THE ERA OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, 1750-1815
Biography: Toussaint Louverture
Origins of the French Revolution
The Financial Crisis
The Political Crisis
The Public Opinion Crisis
The Crisis of Frustrated Expectations
France's New Social Structure
The Revolution
The Revolution Takes Off
The Great Fear
The Revolution Settles In
Religion and Revolution
The End of the Monarchy
Civil War and Terror
The End of the Terror
The Directory, 1794-1799
Britain, Russia, and the French Revolution
Revolution in the French Empire
Napoleon's European Empire
Conclusion: The Legacy of the French Revolution

CHAPTER 6. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, 1750-1850
Biography: Richard Arkwright
Origins of the Industrial Revolution: Why Britain?
Britain's Urban, Market-Oriented, High-Wage Economy
The Agricultural Revolution
Coal: The Revolution in Energy
The Rise of Cotton
The Mechanization of Industry
The Industrial Revolution Moves Beyond Cotton
Economic Development Outside of Britain
The Cultural and Political Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution
The Lives of Working People
Economic Instability and Its Consequences
Changes in Family Life
The Factory, Workers, and the Rise of the Labor Movement
Economic Liberalism
Conclusion: The Limits of Britain's Industrial Revolution

CHAPTER 7. CONSERVATION, REFORM, AND REVOLUTION, 1815-1852
Biography: George Sand
Restoration?
The Congress of Vienna
The Peace Settlement
The Slave Trade
New Ideologies of the Post-Revolutionary Period
Conservatism
Liberalism
Romanticism
Democracy
Socialism
Feminism
Nationalism
Political Systems and the Quest for Reform
The Autocracies: Austria, Russia, and Prussia
Prussia and the Non-Habsburg German States
Revolution in Spain and Italy
France: The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy
The French Revolution of 1830
Rebellions in the Low Countries, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, and the Ottoman Empire
Britain: Social Change and Political Reform
1848: Europe in Revolution
The Revolution Begins
The Spread of Revolution
Conclusion: The Meaning of 1848

CHAPTER 8. FROM NATIONAL UNIFICATION TO RELIGIOUS REVIVIAL, 1850-1880
Biography: Otto von Bismarck
The New Industrialization
A New Prosperity?
Urbanization and the Urban World
The Redevelopment of Paris
Europe's Worldwide Economic Role
Political Change
Prosperity and Empire in France
The Crimean War
The Eclipse of Russia
National Unification
The Unification of Italy
The Unification of Germany
Consequences of the German Unification
--The Creation of Austria-Hungary, 1867
--The New French Republic
Marxism and the Opposition to Capitalism
Trade Unions, Women's Rights, and the Rise of Socialist Parties
Positivism, Evolution, and the Hegemony of Science
Religion in the Modern World
Popular Culture
Conclusion: A New European Balance of Power

CHAPTER 9. EUROPEAN SOCIETY AND THE ROAD TO WAR, 1880-1914
Biography: Maria Montessori
Life and Death and the Movement of People
Economic Change during the Long Depression, 1873-1893
The Agricultural Crisis
The Industrial Economy Matures
Britain's Relative Decline
Technology and the Flurry of Inventions
Tariffs and the Rise of Economic Nationalism
Politics and Political Change
Britain: The Practice of Liberalism
France: The Achievement of a Democratic Republic
Germany: The Persistence of Authoritarian and Aristocratic Rule
Social Reform in Germany
Imperialism and Empire
Why Imperialism?
Nationalist Reactions to Imperialism
The Empire at Home
From Missionaries to the "Civilizing Mission"
Russia, Austria, and the Balkans
Austria-Hungary: Nationalism and the Empire
"Politics in a New Key": Anti-Semitism and the Extreme Right
Anti-Semitism in Russia and France
The Dreyfus Affair
Feminism and the New Woman
Origins of the First World War
The Road to War
Morocco and the Balkans
Conclusion: Europe Plunges into the Abyss

CHAPTER 10. THE FIRST WORLD WAR, 1914-1919
Biography: Siegfried Sassoon
The Outbreak of War
The Battles of the Marne and Ypres
The Western Front
Trench Warfare
The Battles of Verdun and the Somme
The Eastern Front
The War Outside Europe and at Sea
War in Africa and the Ottoman Empire
The Middle Eastern Campaign
The War against Civilians
German Responses to the Economic Blockade
Consent for the War
The Home Front
Women's Contributions to the War
Wartime Propaganda
From Protest to Mutiny
The American Intervention
Both Sides Prepare for All-Out Victory
The Allied Victory
Germany's Aborted Revolution
The Treaty of Versailles
Conclusion: Results of the First World War

CHAPTER 11. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE RISE OF THE SOVIET UNION, 1905-1940
Biography: Aleksandra Kollontai
Origins of the Russian Revolution
The Travails of Agricultural and Industrial Life
The Radical Intelligentsia
The Revolution of 1905
The Russian Revolution
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
The Failure of the Moderate Revolution
The New Soviet Regime
The Russian Civil War
Outcome of the Russian Civil War
The Rise of the Soviet Union
The New Economic Policy
Stalin and the End of NEP
Stalin's Revolution
The Five-Year Plans
The Social Consequences of Stalin's Revolution
The Cultural Revolution
The Great Purge
Conclusion: The Rise of a Powerful Communist State

CHAPTER 12. FASCISM AND NAZISM: MASS POLITICS AND MASS CULTURE, 1919-1939
Biography: Leni Riefenstahl
The Failure of Liberalism and Democracy after World War I
The Fragility of Postwar Parliamentary Regimes
Intellectuals' Disillusionment with Liberalism and Democracy
The Dangers of Mass Politics
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
Italy's Fascist Regime
Hitler and the Origins of the Nazi Movement
Weimar Politics and the Rejection of Democracy
Weimar's Undemocratic Institutions
The Economic Crisis of 1923
The Resolution of the German Crisis
Media and Mass Culture in the Interwar Period
The Cinema
Radio
Sports
Women: Work, Domesticity, and the New "New Woman"
The Great Depression
Nazism
The Nazi Takeover
The Nazi Regime
The Consolidation of Nazi Power
The Nazi Dictatorship
The New Regime: Dissent and Consent
The Persecution of the Jews
Economic Achievements
Leisure for the Masses
Conclusion: The Fascist "Revolution"?

CHAPTER 13. THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 1939-1945
Biography: Primo Levi
The Enormity of the Second World War
The Origins of the Second World War
Political and Economic Decline in Britain
Economy and Politics in France
Germany Overturns the Treaty of Versailles
The Spanish Civil War
The Incorporation of Austria, the Munich Pact, and the Seizure of Czechoslovakia
Prelude to the Second World War
The War-Phase I: Hitler's Quest for Domination
Hitler's Attack on the West
From the Battle of Britain to the Early Campaigns in Greece, North Africa, and the Middle East
Operation Barbarossa: The Invasion of Russia
The War in Asia and the Pacific
Hitler's Europe
The Nazi Plans
The Terrible Results
The Exploitation of Europe
Collaboration and Resistance
The Case of France
The Netherlands and Scandinavia
Eastern Europe
Communists and the Resistance: The Cases of Yugoslavia and Greece
The Home Front in Britain and Germany
The Holocaust
The War--Phase II: The Allies Turn the Tide
Stalingrad: The Great Turning Point of the War
The Pacific War Turns Definitively Against Japan
The Allied Invasions of the Continent
The War-Phase III: From the Liberation of France to the Surrender of Germany
The Atom Bomb and the End of the War in the Pacific
Conclusion: The Consequences of the War

CHAPTER 14. THE POSTWAR, 1945-1970
Biography: Ho Chi Minh
The Toll of the War
Assessing Responsibility for the War
The "German Question"
The Cold War and the Division of Europe
Economic Recovery
The Marshall Plan
The "Economic Miracle"
The Communist Takeover in Eastern Europe
The Hardening of the Cold War
The Beginnings of European Cooperation
Stalinist Politics and the Command Economy in Eastern Europe
European Integration
European Politics in the 1950s
The End of Empire
Southeast Asia
South Asia
Africa
Algeria
The Middle East
The Soviet Union and Its Satellites, 1956-1970s
The Consumer Society
Religious Reform
Disillusionment with Democracy and Consumerism
The Student Revolt
The 1960s in the East
The End of the Postwar Economic Miracle
Conclusion: A European Continent Reshaped

CHAPTER 15. ECONOMIC DILEMMAS, EUROPEAN UNITY, AND THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM, 1970-2010
Biography: Mikhail Gorbachev
Stagnation and Decline: The 1970s
Stagflation
Immigration and the Mounting Hostility to Workers from Abroad
Fixing Stagflation
The Politics of Terror
The New Democracy in Greece, Portugal, and Spain
New Political Movements: Feminism, Gay Rights, and Environmentalism
Dissent and Decline in Eastern Europe
The Helsinki Accords
Economic Stagnation in the East
The Collapse of Communism
Gorbachev's Dramatic Reforms
1989: The End of Communism in Eastern Europe
European Unification and Its Discontents
The Break-up of the Soviet Union
The Violent Collapse of Yugoslavia
The Challenges of Post-Communism
German Reunification
The Transformation in Eastern Europe and Russia
Conclusion: A Fragile European Unity
EPILOGUE. EUROPE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
Biography: Ayaan Hirsi Ali
The New Terrorism in Europe
Islam and the Russian Federation
Russian Interventions in the Former Soviet Union
The Crisis of the Eurozone
Globalization and Neoliberalism
The Financial Collapse of 2008 and the Great Recession
Changing Attitudes Toward the European Union
Brexit
Mass Immigration and the Refugee Crisis

Glossary
Table of Contents for Sources for Europe in the Modern World
About the Writing History Exercises
Suggested Readings
Credits
Index

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