European Democracies

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-01-28
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Organized thematically rather than country-by-country,European Democraciesis an introduction to the politics and governments of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. Considering the countries of Europe from both the "supranational" level of the European Union and the "subnational" level of regions, this text employs a comparative approach to survey issues ranging from parties and policy to democratization and globalization. These issues are illustrated with in-depth examples from a variety of European countries as well as examples from politics in the United States. Throughout, Markus Crepaz and Jurg Steiner treat Europe as a single but diverse entity and ask students what European politics can teach them about politics in their own country.

Author Biography

Markus Crepaz is Professor of Political Science at the University of Georgia.


Jürg Steiner is Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and the University of Bern.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
About the Authorsp. xvii
Becoming Modern in Europe and America: Different History, Different Politicsp. 1
How Do We Know that Europe Is Different?p. 1
Explaining Differences: The Impact of History, Geography, and Culturep. 8
Structure of the Bookp. 12
Key Termsp. 14
Discussion Questionsp. 14
Notesp. 14
Political Partiesp. 16
Political Parties-The "Children of Democracy"p. 16
Functions of Political Partiesp. 17
Differences between Political Parties and Interest Groupsp. 19
Socialistsp. 20
Liberalsp. 25
Conservativesp. 26
Christian Democratsp. 30
New Radical Rightp. 31
Greensp. 36
Regional Partiesp. 40
A Multidimensional Political Spacep. 41
Membership in Political Partiesp. 43
Stability and Change of Parties and Party Systemsp. 44
Key Termsp. 45
Discussion Questionsp. 46
Notesp. 46
Parliaments: How They Are Elected and How They Workp. 48
Winner-Take-All: Great Britainp. 49
Party List Proportional Representation: The Netherlandsp. 52
Personalized Proportional Representation: Switzerland, Ireland, and Germanyp. 55
Switzerlandp. 55
Irelandp. 57
Germanyp. 60
Changing the Electoral System: France and Italyp. 62
Francep. 62
Italyp. 67
Voter Turnoutp. 72
Legislative Behaviorp. 73
Key Termsp. 74
Discussion Questionsp. 74
Notesp. 75
Cabinet Formation and Heads of Statep. 76
Single-Party Majority Cabinetsp. 78
Minimal-Winning Cabinetsp. 85
Oversized Cabinetsp. 89
Minority Cabinetsp. 93
Cabinet Instabilityp. 94
Semipresidential Systemsp. 100
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parliamentary and Presidential Systemsp. 107
Advantages and Disadvantages of Presidentialismp. 107
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parliamentarismp. 109
Heads of Statep. 110
Monarchial Head of Statep. 110
Civilian Heads of Statep. 111
Key Termsp. 112
Discussion Questionsp. 113
Notesp. 113
Courtsp. 115
Great Britainp. 116
Switzerlandp. 118
Germanyp. 119
Francep. 121
Hungaryp. 122
Key Termsp. 122
Discussion Questionsp. 123
Notesp. 123
Federalism and Referendap. 124
Switzerland: Prototypical Case of a Federalist Country with a Strong Referendump. 124
European Trend toward Federalism and Referendap. 129
Arguments against Federalism and Referendap. 133
Key Termsp. 135
Discussion Questionsp. 135
Notesp. 135
Social Movementsp. 136
Environmental Movementp. 136
Peace, Third-World, and Antiglobalization Movementsp. 138
Women's Movementp. 140
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Movementp. 143
Youth Movementp. 147
Key Termsp. 151
Discussion Questionsp. 151
Notesp. 152
The State and Economic Interest Groupsp. 153
The State as a Political Actorp. 153
Economic Interest Groupsp. 155
Pluralism and Corporatismp. 157
The Theory of Corporatismp. 160
The Future of Corporatismp. 163
Comparing European and American Responses to the Great Meltdown of 2008p. 165
The Paternalist Role of the Statep. 168
Attitudes toward Riskp. 169
Class Consciousnessp. 169
Civil Service in Europep. 169
Family, History Mattersp. 169
Key Termsp. 170
Discussion Questionsp. 170
Notesp. 171
Policy Outcomesp. 172
Explaining Variation in Poverty Ratesp. 175
Explaining Further Policy Outcomesp. 179
Key Termsp. 192
Discussion Questionsp. 192
Notesp. 192
The End of the Cold Warp. 193
Classical Marxismp. 194
Neo-Marxismp. 196
Communism in Central and Eastern Europep. 200
Polandp. 202
Hungaryp. 203
East Germanyp. 204
Communism in Western Europep. 207
Key Termsp. 210
Discussion Questionsp. 210
Notesp. 210
Transitions to Democracyp. 211
The Federal Republic of Germany After 1945p. 211
Italy After 1945p. 213
Spain After 1975p. 214
Hungary After 1989p. 215
Poland After 1989p. 219
Ukraine in 2004p. 224
Explanationsp. 226
Russiap. 227
Key Termsp. 227
Discussion Questionsp. 228
Notesp. 229
Nationalism and Ethnicityp. 230
War in Former Yugoslaviap. 231
Northern Irelandp. 239
Basque Countryp. 240
Immigrationp. 244
Sports Eventsp. 245
More Benign Aspectsp. 245
Key Termsp. 248
Discussion Questionsp. 248
Notesp. 249
Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Societiesp. 250
Development of the Theory of Power Sharingp. 250
Critique of the Theory of Power Sharingp. 254
Northern Irelandp. 260
Former Czechoslovakiap. 266
Former Yugoslaviap. 270
Power Sharing and Deliberationp. 277
Normative Evaluation of Power Sharingp. 278
Key Termsp. 280
Discussion Questionsp. 280
Notesp. 280
The European Unionp. 283
History of European Integrationp. 283
Council of Ministersp. 286
European Councilp. 287
European Commissionp. 288
European Parliamentp. 289
European Court of Justicep. 293
European Bureaucracyp. 296
What Does the European Union Do?p. 296
Agricultural Policyp. 297
Regional and Development Policyp. 298
Common Currency-the Europ. 298
Continued Expansion: Where Does "Europe" End?p. 299
Turkey's EU Membership Prospectsp. 300
A Constitution for Europe? "Non" and "Nee"p. 302
Key Termsp. 306
Discussion Questionsp. 306
Notesp. 307
Globalization and European Democraciesp. 308
What Is Globalization?p. 309
How Should Globalization Be Measured?p. 313
The Challenges of Globalization for European Democraciesp. 315
The Welfare State and Globalizationp. 317
Immigration and Globalizationp. 319
Globalization and the Fragility of Communityp. 323
Is Globalization a Threat or an Opportunity for European Democracies?p. 324
Key Termsp. 325
Discussion Questionsp. 325
Notesp. 326
Indexp. 327
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