9781319102678

The Everyday Writer

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781319102678

  • ISBN10:

    1319102670

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2019-10-18
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

Empowering and inspiring, Andrea Lunsford offers a handbook for our times. The Everyday Writer, Seventh Edition, invites students to think rhetorically, communicate ethically, listen respectfully, experiment with language, and adopt openness as a habit of mind necessary for democracy.


The seventh edition introduces new chapters on college expectations and on language and identity as well as substantial new advice for reading and interrogating sources, seeking common ground with opponents, using varieties of English, and being open to new approaches in common academic genres. New student models of rhetorical analysis, researched argument, speech, and translingual narrative invigorate the book. As always, Lunsford’s Top Twenty--now its own tabbed section--serves as a guide for building students’ confidence as editors of their own writing. 


Table of Contents

Writing Rhetorically
1 Expectations for College Writing: Open your book, open your mind
a Choose openness
b Use social media wisely
c Position yourself as an academic writer
d Read and listen respectfully, actively, and critically
e Plan research
f  Use digital tools effectively

2 Rhetorical Situations
a Make good choices for your rhetorical situation
b Plan your text’s topic and message
c Consider your purpose and stance as a communicator
d Analyze your audience
e Think about genres and media
f  Consider language and style
g A SAMPLE RHETORICAL SITUATION

3 Exploring, Planning, and Drafting
a Explore your topic
b Narrow your topic
c Craft a working thesis
d Gather information
e Organize information
f  Make a plan
g Create a draft

4 Developing Paragraphs
a Focus on a main idea
b Provide details
c Use effective methods of development
d Make paragraphs flow
e Work on opening and closing paragraphs


5 Reviewing, Revising, and Editing
a Review your writing
b Get the most from peer review
c Consult instructor comments
d Revise
e Edit


6 Reflecting
a Reflect to present your work effectively
A STUDENT’s REFLECTIVE STATEMENT
b Reflect to learn
A STUDENT’s REFLECTIVE BLOG POST
 
Critical Thinking and Argument
7 Critical Reading
a Consider reading collaboratively 
b Preview the text; consider the source
c Read and annotate the text
d Summarize the main ideas
e Analyze and reflect on the text
f Think critically about visual texts
g A STUDENT’S CRITICAL READING


8 Analyzing Arguments
a Think critically about argument
b Recognize cultural contexts
c Identify an arguments’s basic appeals
d Recognize the use of stories in argument
e Understand Toulmin’s elements of argument
f Think critically about fallacies
g A STUDENT’S RHETORICAL ANALYSIS


9 Constructing arguments
a Understand purposes for argument
b Determine whether a statement can be argued
c Make a claim and draft a working thesis
d Examine your assumptions
e Shape your appeal to your audience
f  Consider the use of narratives or stories
g Establish credibility through ethical appeals
h Use effective logical appeals
i Use appropriate emotional appeals
j Consult sources
k Organize your argument
l  Consider design and delivery
m A STUDENT’S ARGUMENT ESSAY
 
Research
10 Doing research
a  Preparefor a research project
b  Form a research question and hypothesis
c  Plan your research
d  Move from hypothesis to working thesis
e  Understand different kinds of sources
f   Use web and library resources
g  Consulting your library’s staff, databases, and other resources
h  Conduct field research


11  Evaluating Sources
a  Understand why writers use sources
b  Create a working bibliography or an annotated bibliography
c  Evaluate a source’s usefulness and credibility
d  Read critically, and interpret sources
e  Synthesize sources

12  Integrating Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
a  Decide whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize
b  Integrate quotations, paraphrases, and summaries effectively
c  Integrate visuals and media effectively and ethically
d  Understand why acknowledging sources matters
e  Know which sources to acknowledge
f   Recognize patch writing
g  Uphold your academic integrity, and avoid plagiarism
h  Write and revise a research project
 
Academic, Professional, and Public Writing
13 Writing Well in Any Discipline or Profession
a Consider genres across disciplines and professions
b Consider expectations for academic assignments
c Learn specialized vocabularies and styles
d Use evidence effectively
e Pay attention to ethical issues
f  Collaborate effectively and with an open mind

14  Writing for the Humanities
a Read texts in the humanities
b Write texts in the humanities
c A STUDENT’S CLOSE READING OF POETRY


15  Writing for the Social Sciences
a Read texts in the social sciences
b Write texts in the social sciences
c EXCERPT FROM A STUDENT’S PSYCHOLOGY LITERATURE REVIEW                       


16 Writing for the Natural and Applied Sciences
a Read texts in the natural and applied sciences
b Write texts in the natural and applied sciences
c EXCERPT FROM A STUDENT’S CHEMISTRY LAB REPORT

17 Writing in Professional Settings
a Read texts for business
b Write texts for business
STUDENT MEMO
TRADITIONAL RÉSUMÉ
CREATIVE RÉSUMÉ


18 Making Design Decisions
a Choose a type of text
b Plan a visual structure
c Format print and digital texts appropriately
d Consider visuals and media
  
19 Creating Presentations
a Consider assignment, purpose, and audience for presentations
b Write to be heard and remembered
c Create slides or other visuals
d Practice and deliver the presentation
e Consider other kinds of presentations


20 Communicating in Other Media
a Consider your rhetorical context
b Consider types of multimodal texts
c Plan features of texts


21  Writing to Make Something Happen in the World
a Decide what should happen
b Connect with your audience
c SAMPLE WRITING TO MAKE SOMETHING HAPPEN IN THE WORLD
 
Language and Style
22  Language and Identity
a Recognize how the language of others can shape identity
b Use language to shape your own identity


23  Language Varieties
a  Use “standard” varieties of English appropriately
b  Use varieties of English to evoke a place or community
c  Build credibility within a community with language variety
d  Bring in other languages appropriately


24 Writing to the World
a  Think about what seems “normal”
b  Clarify meaning
c  Meet audience expectations


25  Language That Builds Common Ground
a  Examine assumptions and avoid stereotypes
b  Examine assumptions about gender
c  Examine assumptions about race and ethnicity
d  Consider other kinds of difference


26  Style Matters
a Use effective words and figures of speech
b Use powerful verbs
c Use varied sentence lengths and openings


27 Coordination, Subordination, and Emphasis
a Use coordination to relate equal ideas
b Use subordination to distinguish main ideas
c Use closing and opening positions for emphasis


28 Consistency and Completeness
a Revise faulty sentence structure
b Match up subjects and predicates
c Use elliptical structures carefully
d Check for missing words
e Make comparisons complete, consistent, and clear


29 Parallelism
a Make items in a series parallel
b Make paired ideas parallel
c Include all necessary words


30 Shifts
a Revise unnecessary shifts in verb tense
b Revise unnecessary shifts in mood
c Revise unnecessary shifts in voice
d Revise unnecessary shifts in person and number
e Revise shifts between direct and indirect discourse
f Revise shifts in tone and word choice


31 Conciseness
a Eliminate unnecessary words
b Simplify sentence structure
 
The Top Twenty
32 The Top Twenty: A Quick Guide to Editing Your Writing
Wrong word
Missing comma after an introductory element
Incomplete or missing documentation
Vague pronoun reference
Spelling (including homonyms)
Mechanical error with a quotation
Unnecessary comma
Unnecessary or missing capitalization
Missing word
Faulty sentence structure
Missing comma with nonrestrictive element
Unnecessary shift in verb tense
Missing comma in a compound sentence
Unnecessary or missing apostrophe (including its/it’s)
Fused (run-on) sentence
Comma splice
Lack of pronoun-antecedent agreement
Poorly integrated quotation
Unnecessary or missing hyphen
Sentence fragment
 
Sentence Grammar
33 Parts of Speech
a Verbs
b Nouns
c Pronouns
d Adjectives
e Adverbs
f Prepositions
g Conjunctions
h Interjections


34 Parts of Sentences
a The basic grammar of sentences
b Subjects
c Predicates
d Phrases
e Clauses
f Types of sentences


35 Verbs and Verb Phrases
a Understand the five forms of verbs
b Form verb phrases appropriately
c Use appropriate forms of irregular verbs
d Choose between lie and lay, sit and set, rise and raise
e Use verb tenses appropriately
f Sequence verb tenses effectively
g Use active and passive voice effectively
h Understand mood and conditional sentences


36 Nouns and Noun Phrases
a Use count and noncount nouns appropriately
b Use determiners appropriately
c Use articles conventionally


37 Subject-Verb Agreement
a Understand subject-verb agreement
b Make separated subjects and verbs agree
c Make verbs agree with compound subjects
d Make verbs agree with collective nouns
e Make verbs agree with indefinite pronouns
f Make verbs agree with who, which, and that
g Make linking verbs agree with subjects
h Make verbs agree with subjects ending in -s
i Make verbs agree with subjects that follow
j Make verbs agree with titles and words used as words


38 Pronouns
a Consider a pronoun’s role in the sentence
b Use who, whoever, whom, and whomever appropriately
c Consider case in compound structures
d Consider case in elliptical constructions
e Use we and us appropriately before a noun
f Make pronouns agree with antecedents
g Make pronouns refer to clear antecedents


39 Adjectives and Adverbs
a Understand adjectives and adverbs
b Use adjectives after linking verbs
c Use adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
d Choose appropriate comparative and superlative forms
e Consider nouns as modifiers
f Understand adjectives ending in -ed and -ing
g Put adjectives in order
h Avoid overuse of adverbs and adjectives


40 Modifier Placement
a Revise misplaced modifiers
b Revise disruptive modifiers
c Revise dangling modifiers


41 Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases
a Use prepositions idiomatically
b Use two-word verbs idiomatically


42 Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
a Identify comma splices and fused sentences
b Separate clauses into two sentences
c Link the clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction
d Link the clauses with a semicolon
e Rewrite the clauses as one independent clause
f Rewrite one independent clause as a dependent clause
g Link the two clauses with a dash


43 Sentence Fragments
a Identify sentence fragments
b Revise phrase fragments
c Revise compound-predicate fragments
d Revise dependent-clause fragments
 
Punctuation and Mechanics
44 Commas
a Use commas to set off introductory words, phrases, and clauses
b Use commas with conjunctions that join clauses in compound sentences
c Use commas to set off nonrestrictive elements
d Use commas with items in a series
e Use commas to set off parenthetical and transitional expressions
f Use commas to set off contrasting elements, interjections, direct address, and tag questions
g Use commas with dates, addresses, titles, and numbers
h Use commas to set off most quotations
i Use commas to prevent confusion
j Eliminate unnecessary commas


45 Semicolons
a Use semicolons to link independent clauses
b Use semicolons to separate items in a series containing other punctuation
c Revise misused semicolons


46 End Punctuation
a Use periods appropriately
b Use question marks appropriately
c Use exclamation points appropriately
d Consider end punctuation in informal writing


47 Apostrophes
a Use apostrophes appropriately to show possession
b Use apostrophes in contractions
c Avoid apostrophes in most plural forms


48 Quotation Marks
a Use quotation marks to identify direct quotations
b Punctuate block quotations and poetry appropriately
c Use quotation marks for titles of short works
d Use quotation marks appropriately for definitions
e Use quotation marks to identify irony and invented terms
f Follow conventions for other punctuation with quotation marks
g Revise misused quotation marks


49 Other Punctuation Marks
a Use parentheses appropriately
b Use brackets appropriately
c Use dashes appropriately
d Use colons appropriately
e Use slashes appropriately
f Use ellipses appropriately


50 Capital Letters
a Capitalize the first word of a sentence or line of poetry
b Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives
c Capitalize titles of works
d Revise unnecessary capitalization


51 Abbreviations and Numbers
a Abbreviate some titles before and all titles after proper names
b Abbreviate years and hours appropriately
c Abbreviate some business, government, and science terms
d Use abbreviations in official company names
e Use Latin abbreviations appropriately
f Use symbols and unit abbreviations appropriately
g Use other abbreviations according to convention
h Spell out numbers expressed in one or two words
i Spell out numbers that begin sentences
j Use figures according to convention


52 Italics
a Italicize titles of long works
b Italicize words, letters, and numbers used as terms
c Italicize non-English words and phrases


53 Hyphens
a Use hyphens with compound words
b Use hyphens with prefixes and suffixes
c Avoid unnecessary hyphens
 
MLA Documentation
54 The Basics of MLA Style
a Think about what readers need from you
b Consider the context of your sources
c Plan and connect your citations
d Include notes as needed
e Format MLA manuscripts appropriately


55 MLA Style for In-Text Citations
Directory: In-text citations


56 MLA Style for a List of Works Cited
Directory: Works-cited entries


57 A Student Research Essay, MLA Style
 
APA Documentation
58 The Basics of APA Style
a Think about what readers need from you
b Identify the type of source you are using
c Plan and connect your citations
d Include notes as needed
e Format APA manuscripts appropriately


59 APA Style for In-Text Citations
Directory: In-text citations


60 APA Style for a List of References
Directory: References


61 A Student Research Essay, APA Style
 
Chicago Documentation
62 The Basics of Chicago Style
a Consider what readers need from you
b Connect parts of citations
c Format Chicago manuscripts appropriately


63 Chicago Style for Notes and Bibliographic Entries
Directory: Notes and bibliographic entries


64 An Excerpt from a Student Research Essay, Chicago Style
 
Glossaries and Index
Glossary of Usage
Index with Glossary of Terms



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