Exam 65 Portable Command Guide

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  • Edition: 4th
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  • Copyright: 2016-01-01
  • Publisher: PEARSON
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Here are all the CCNA-level Routing and Switching commands you need in one condensed, portable resource. CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide is filled with valuable, easy-to-access information–and it’s portable enough to use whether you’re in the server room or the equipment closet.

The guide summarizes all CCNA certification-level Cisco IOS Software commands, keywords, command arguments, and associated prompts, providing you with tips and examples of how to apply the commands to real-world scenarios. Throughout, configuration examples give you a better understanding of how these commands are used in simple network designs.

This book has been completely updated to cover all topics in the new ICND1 100-105, ICND2 200-105, and CCNA 200-125 exams. Use this quick reference resource to help you memorize commands and concepts as you work to pass the CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam. Coverage includes

Network Fundamentals: Subnetting, VLSM, route summarization, cables/connections, CLI

LAN Switching: Switch configuration, VLANs, VLAN trunking protocol, inter-VLAN communication, STP, EtherChannel

Routing (IPv4/IPv6): Router configuration, static routing, RIPng, EIGRP/EIGRPv6, OSPFv2/OSPFv3

WAN: Point-to-point protocols, eBGP, GRE tunnels, QoS

Infrastructure Services: DHCP, FHRP, HSRP, NAT

Infrastructure Security: Switch port security, ACL traffic management, device hardening

Infrastructure Management: Backup/restore, password recovery, CDP, LLDP, IOS tools, device monitoring, IOS licensing, troubleshooting


Quick, offline access to all CCNA Routing and Switching commands for research and solutions

--Logical how-to topic groupings for a one-stop resource

--Great for review before CCNA Routing and Switching certification exams

--Compact size makes it easy to carry with you wherever you go

--“Create Your Own Journal” section with blank, lined pages enables you to personalize the book for your needs

--“What Do You Want to Do?” chart inside the back cover helps you to quickly reference specific tasks

This book is part of the Cisco Press Certification Self-Study Product Family, which offers readers a self-paced study routine for Cisco® certification exams. Titles in the Cisco Press Certification Self-Study Product Family are part of a recommended learning program from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press.


Author Biography

Scott Empson is the chair of the Bachelor of Applied Information Systems Technology degree program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, where he has taught Cisco routing, switching, network design, and leadership courses in a variety of different programs (certificate, diploma, and applied degree) at the postsecondary level. Scott is also the program coordinator of the Cisco Networking Academy Program at NAIT, an Area Support Centre for the province of Alberta. He has a master of education degree along with three undergraduate degrees: a bachelor of arts, with a major in English; a bachelor of education, again with a major in English/language arts; and a bachelor of applied information systems technology, with a major in network management. He currently holds several industry certifications, including CCNP, CCDP, CEH and Network+. Before instructing at NAIT, he was a junior/senior high school English/language arts/computer science teacher at different schools throughout northern Alberta. Scott lives in Edmonton, Alberta, with his wife, Trina, and two children, Zachariah and Shaelyn.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxii

Part I Network Fundamentals

Chapter 1 How to Subnet 1

Class A—E Addresses 1

Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary 2

Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 2

Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 5

Binary ANDing 9

    So Why AND? 10

    Shortcuts in Binary ANDing 11

The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting (or How to Subnet

Anything in Under a Minute) 12

Chapter 2 VLSM 15

IP Subnet Zero 15

VLSM Example 16

    Step 1: Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to Satisfy the Largest Network 16

    Step 2: Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 17

    Step 3: Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 18

    Step 4: Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 20

    Step 5: Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 21

Chapter 3 Route Summarization 25

Example for Understanding Route Summarization 25

    Step 1: Summarize Winnipeg’s Routes 26

    Step 2: Summarize Calgary’s Routes 27

    Step 3: Summarize Edmonton’s Routes 27

    Step 4: Summarize Vancouver’s Routes 28

Route Summarization and Route Flapping 30

Requirements for Route Summarization 30

Chapter 4 Cables and Connections 31

Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch 31

Using a USB Cable to Connect to Your Router or Switch 31

Terminal Settings 32

LAN Connections 33

Serial Cable Types 33

Which Cable to Use? 35

568A Versus 568B Cables 35

Chapter 5 The Command-Line Interface 37

Shortcuts for Entering Commands 37

Using the Tab Key to Complete Commands 37

Console Error Messages 38

Using the Question Mark for Help 38

enable Command 39

exit Command 39

disable Command 39

logout Command 39

Setup Mode 39

Keyboard Help 40

History Commands 41

terminal Commands 41

show Commands 41

Using the Pipe Parameter () with the show Command 42

Part II LAN Switching Technologies

Chapter 6 Confi guring a Switch 43

Help Commands 43

Command Modes 44

Verifying Commands 44

Resetting Switch Configuration 44

Setting Host Names 45

Setting Passwords 45

Setting IP Addresses and Default Gateways 45

Setting Interface Descriptions 46

The mdix auto Command 46

Setting Duplex Operation 47

Setting Operation Speed 47

Managing the MAC Address Table 47

Configuration Example 48

Chapter 7 VLANs 51

Creating Static VLANs 51

    Using VLAN Configuration Mode 52

    Using VLAN Database Mode 52

Assigning Ports to VLANs 53

Using the range Command 53

Configuring a Voice VLAN 53

    Configuring Voice and Data with Trust 54

    Configuring Voice and Data Without Trust 54

Verifying VLAN Information 55

Saving VLAN Configurations 56

Erasing VLAN Configurations 56

Configuration Example: VLANs 57

    2960 Switch 58

Chapter 8 VLAN Trunking Protocol and

Inter-VLAN Communication 61

Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) 61

Setting the VLAN Encapsulation Type 62

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 63

Verifying VTP 64

Inter-VLAN Communication Using an External Router: Router-on-a-Stick 64

Inter-VLAN Communication on a Multilayer Switch Through a Switch Virtual Interface 65

    Remove L2 Switchport Capability of an Interface on an L3 Switch 65

    Configuring Inter-VLAN Communication on an L3 Switch 65

Inter-VLAN Communication Tips 66

Configuration Example: Inter-VLAN Communication 66

    ISP Router 67

    CORP Router 68

    L2Switch2 (Catalyst 2960) 70

    L3Switch1 (Catalyst 3560) 72

    L2Switch1 (Catalyst 2960) 73

Chapter 9 Spanning Tree Protocol 75

Spanning Tree Protocol Definition 75

Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol 76

Configuring the Root Switch 76

Configuring a Secondary Root Switch 77

Configuring Port Priority 77

Configuring the Path Cost 78

Configuring the Switch Priority of a VLAN 78

Configuring STP Timers 78

Verifying STP 79

Cisco STP Toolkit 79

    PortFast 79

    BPDU Guard 80

Changing the Spanning-Tree Mode 80

Extended System ID 81

Enabling Rapid Spanning Tree 81

Troubleshooting Spanning Tree 82

Configuration Example: PVST+ 82

    Core Switch (3560) 83

    Distribution 1 Switch (3560) 83

    Distribution 2 Switch (3560) 84

    Access 1 Switch (2960) 84

    Access 2 Switch (2960) 85

Spanning-Tree Migration Example: PVST+ to Rapid-PVST+ 86

    Access 1 Switch (2960) 86

    Access 2 Switch (2960) 86

    Distribution 1 Switch (3560) 87

    Distribution 2 Switch (3560) 87

    Core Switch (3560) 87

Chapter 10 EtherChannel 89

EtherChannel 89

    Interface Modes in EtherChannel 89

    Guidelines for Configuring EtherChannel 90

    Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannel 90

    Configuring L3 EtherChannel 91

    Verifying EtherChannel 92

Configuration Example: EtherChannel 92

    DLSwitch (3560) 93

    ALSwitch1 (2960) 94

    ALSwitch2 (2960) 95

Part III Routing Technologies: IPv4 and IPv6

Chapter 11 Configuring a Cisco Router 97

Router Modes 98

Entering Global Configuration Mode 98

Configuring a Router Name 98

Configuring Passwords 98

Password Encryption 99

Interface Names 99

Moving Between Interfaces 102

Configuring a Serial Interface 103

Configuring a Fast Ethernet Interface 103

Configuring a Gigabit Ethernet Interface 103

Assigning IPv6 Addresses to Interfaces 104

Creating a Message-of-the-Day Banner 104

Creating a Login Banner 105

Setting the Clock Time Zone 105

Mapping a Local Hostname to a Remote IP Address 105

The no ip domain-lookup Command 105

The logging synchronous Command 106

The exec-timeout Command 106

Saving Configurations 106

Erasing Configurations 107

show Commands 107

EXEC Commands in Configuration Mode: The do Command 108

Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration 108

    Boston Router 108

Chapter 12 Static Routing 111

Configuring an IPv4 Static Route on a Router 111

Static Routes and Recursive Lookups 112

The permanent Keyword (Optional) 112

Floating Static Routes and Administrative Distance (Optional) 113

Configuring an IPv4 Default Route on a Router 114

Verifying IPv4 Static Routes 114

Configuration Example: IPv4 Static Routes 114

    Boston Router 115

    Buffalo Router 116

    Bangor Router 116

Static Routes in IPv6 116

Floating Static Routes in IPv6 117

Default Routes in IPv6 118

Verifying and Troubleshooting IPv6 118

Chapter 13 RIP Next Generation (RIPng) 119

Implementing RIP Next Generation 119

Verifying and Troubleshooting RIPng 120

Configuration Example: RIPng 121

    Austin Router 122

    Houston Router 123

Chapter 14 EIGRP and EIGRPv6 125

Configuring Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) for IPv4 125

    Adjusting the EIGRP for IPv4 Metric Weights 126

    Adjusting the EIGRPv6 Metric Weights 127

    Configuring EIGRPv6 on an Interface 127

EIGRP Router ID 128

EIGRP Timers 128

EIGRP Auto-Summarization for IPv4 129

EIGRP Manual Summarization for IPv4 129

    EIGRPv6 Summary Addresses 130

Passive EIGRP Interfaces 130

Equal-Cost Load Balancing: Maximum Paths 130

Unequal-Cost Load Balancing: Variance 131

Bandwidth Use 131

Verifying EIGRP and EIGRPv6 132

Troubleshooting EIGRP and EIGRPv6 134

Configuration Example: EIGRP 134

    Austin Router 135

    Houston Router 135

Configuration Example: EIGRPv6 136

    R3 Router 136

    R2 Router 137

    R1 Router 138

Chapter 15 OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 139

OSPFv2 Versus OSPFv3 140

Configuring OSPF 140

Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 140

Configuring Multiarea OSPF 141

Multiarea OSPF Router Types 142

Loopback Interfaces 143

Router ID 143

DR/BDR Elections 144

Passive Interfaces 144

Modifying Cost Metrics 144

OSPF auto-cost reference-bandwidth 145

Timers 145

Propagating a Default Route 145

Route Summarization 146

    Interarea Route Summarization 146

    External Route Summarization 146

IPv6 and OSPFv3 147

    Enabling OSPF for IPv6 on an Interface 147

    Interarea OSPFv3 Route Summarization 147

    Enabling an IPv4 Router ID for OSPFv3 148

Verifying OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 Configurations 148

Troubleshooting OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 149

Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF 150

    Austin Router 151

    Houston Router 151

    Galveston Router 152

Configuration Example: Multiarea OSPF 153

    ASBR Router 153

    ABR-1 Router 155

    ABR-2 Router 156

    Internal Router 157

Configuration Example: IPv6 and OSPFv3 157

    R3 Router 158

    R2 Router 159

    R1 Router 160

    R4 Router 161

Part IV WAN Technologies

Chapter 16 Understanding Point-to-Point Protocols 163

Configuring High-Level Data Link Control Encapsulation on a Serial Line 163

Configuring Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands) 164

Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Compression 164

Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Link Quality Monitoring 164

Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication 165

Verifying and Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP Encapsulation 166

Configuration Example: PPP with CHAP Authentication 166

    Boston Router 167

    Buffalo Router 167

Configuring Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol 168

    Branch Router 168

    HQ Router 169

Verifying and Troubleshooting MLPPP 170

Configuring a DSL Connection Using Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet 170

    Step 1: Configure PPPoE (External Modem) 172

    Step 2: Configure the Dialer Interface 172

    Step 3: Define Interesting Traffic and Specify Default Routing 173

    Step 4: Configure NAT (Choose 1 Method Only) 173

    Step 4a: Configure NAT Using an ACL 173

    Step 4b: Configure NAT Using a Route Map 173

    Step 5: Configure DHCP Service 174

    Step 6: Apply NAT Programming 175

    Step 7: Verify a PPPoE Connection 175

Chapter 17 External Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) 177

Configuring Border Gateway Protocol 177

BGP and Loopback Addresses 178

Configuration Example: eBGP 178

eBGP Multihop 179

Verifying BGP Connections 180

Troubleshooting BGP Connections 181

Chapter 18 Configuring Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnels 183

Configuring a GRE Tunnel 183

    Branch Router 184

    HQ Router 184

Verifying a GRE Tunnel 184

Chapter 19 Quality of Service (QoS) 185

High Availability for Voice and Video 185

Configuring Basic QoS 185

Verifying Basic QoS 187

Auto-QoS 187

    Restrictions for Auto-QoS 187

    Configuring Auto-QoS: 2960-X/3650/3750 188

    Verifying Auto QoS: 2960-X/3650/3750 189

    Configuring Auto-QoS: 6500 190

    Verifying Auto-QoS Information: 6500 191

Part V Infrastructure Services

Chapter 20 DHCP 193

Configuring a DHCP Server on an IOS Router 193

Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server 194

Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 194

Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 195

DHCP Client on a Cisco IOS Software Ethernet Interface 195

Configuration Example: DHCP 195

    Edmonton Router 196

    Gibbons Router 198

Chapter 21 First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP): Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 199

First Hop Redundancy 199

HSRP 199

Configuring HSRP on a Router 200

Default HSRP Configuration Settings 200

Verifying HSRP 201

HSRP Optimization Options 201

    Preempt 201

    HSRP Message Timers 201

    Interface Tracking 202

Debugging HSRP 202

Configuration Example: HSRP 202

    Router 1 203

    Router 2 204

Chapter 22 Network Address Translation (NAT) 205

Private IP Addresses: RFC 1918 205

Configuring Dynamic Network Address Translation: One Private to One Public Address Translation 205

Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation 207

Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public Address Translation 208

Verifying NAT and PAT Configurations 209

Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configurations 210

Configuration Example: PAT 210

    ISP Router 210

    Company Router 211

Part VI Infrastructure Security

Chapter 23 Switch Port Security 213

Setting Passwords on a Switch 213

Configuring Static MAC Addresses 214

Switch Port Security 214

Verifying Switch Port Security 215

Sticky MAC Addresses 215

Recovering Automatically from Error-Disabled Ports 216

Verifying Autorecovery of Error-Disabled Ports 216

Configuration Example 216

Chapter 24 Managing Traffi c Using Access Control Lists (ACL) 219

Access List Numbers 219

Using Wildcard Masks 220

ACL Keywords 220

Creating Standard ACLs 221

Applying Standard ACLs to an Interface 222

Verifying ACLs 222

Removing ACLs 222

Creating Extended ACLs 222

Applying Extended ACLs to an Interface 223

The established Keyword 224

The log Keyword 224

Creating Named ACLs 225

Using Sequence Numbers in Named ACLs 226

Removing Specific Lines in Named ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 227

Sequence Number Tips 227

Including Comments About Entries in ACLs 228

Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 228

Tips for Configuring ACLs 229

IPv6 ACLs 230

Verifying IPv6 ACLs 230

Configuration Examples: IPv4 ACLs 230

Configuration Examples: IPv6 ACLs 233

Chapter 25 Device Hardening 235

Securing Cisco Device According to Recommended Practices 235

Securing Cisco IOS Routers Checklist 235

Components of a Router Security Policy 236

Configuring Passwords 236

Password Encryption 237

Configuring SSH 238

Verifying SSH 239

Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 239

Disabling Unneeded Services 240

Part VII Infrastructure Management

Chapter 26 Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and Configurations 241

Boot System Commands 241

The Cisco IOS File System 242

Viewing the Cisco IOS File System 242

Commonly Used URL Prefixes for Cisco Network Devices 242

Deciphering IOS Image Filenames 243

Backing Up Configurations to a TFTP Server 244

Restoring Configurations from a TFTP Server 244

Backing Up the Cisco IOS Software to a TFTP Server 245

Restoring/Upgrading the Cisco IOS Software from a TFTP Server 245

Restoring the Cisco IOS Software from ROM Monitor Mode Using Xmodem 246

Restoring the Cisco IOS Software Using the ROM Monitor Environmental Variables and tftpdnld Command 248

Secure Copy 248

Configuring a Secure Copy Server 249

Verifying and Troubleshooting Secure Copy 249

Configuration Example: Using Secure Copy 249

Chapter 27 Password Recovery Procedures and the Confi guration Register 251

The Configuration Register 251

A Visual Representation of the Configuration Register 251

What the Bits Mean 252

The Boot Field 252

Console Terminal Baud Rate Settings 253

Changing the Console Line Speed: CLI 253

Changing the Console Line Speed: ROM Monitor Mode 254

Password-Recovery Procedures for Cisco Routers 255

Password Recovery for 2960 Series Switches 256

Chapter 28 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) and Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) 259

Cisco Discovery Protocol 259

Configuring CDP 259

Verifying and Troubleshooting CDP 260

CDP Design Tips 260

Link Layer Discovery Protocol (802.1AB) 261

Configuring LLDP (802.1AB) 261

Verifying and Troubleshooting LLDP 262

Chapter 29 IOS Tools 263

Configuring a Device to Accept a Remote Telnet Connection 263

Using Telnet to Remotely Connect to Other Devices 264

Verifying Telnet 264

Internet Control Message Protocol Redirect Messages 265

The ping Command 265

Examples of Using the ping and the Extended ping Commands 266

The traceroute Command 268

Chapter 30 Device Monitoring 269

Device Monitoring 269

Simple Network Management Protocol 269

Configuring SNMP 271

Securing SNMPv1 or SNMPv2 271

Securing SNMPv3 272

Verifying SNMP 273

Configuration Backups 273

Implementing Logging 274

Configuring Syslog 274

Syslog Message Format 275

Syslog Severity Levels 275

Syslog Message Example 276

Configuring NetFlow 276

Verifying NetFlow 277

Network Time Protocol 277

Network Time Protocol Configuration 277

Verifying NTP 278

Setting the Clock on a Router 279

Using Time Stamps 283

Chapter 31 Cisco IOS Licensing 285

Cisco Licensing Earlier Than IOS 15.0 285

Cisco Licensing for the ISR G2 Platforms: IOS 15.0 and Later 287

Verifying Licenses 287

Cisco License Manager 287

Cisco Smart Software Manager 288

Installing a Permanent License 288

Installing an Evaluation License 289

Backing Up a License 289

Uninstalling a License 290

Chapter 32 Basic Troubleshooting 291

Viewing the Routing Table 291

Clearing the Routing Table 292

Determining the Gateway of Last Resort 292

Determining the Last Routing Update 292

OSI Layer 3 Testing 293

OSI Layer 7 Testing 293

Interpreting the show interface Command 293

Clearing Interface Counters 293

Using CDP to Troubleshoot 294

The traceroute Command 294

The show controllers Command 294

debug Commands 294

Using Time Stamps 294

Operating System IP Verification Commands 295

The ip http server Command 295

The netstat Command 296

The arp Command 296

Part VIII Appendixes

Appendix A Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 297

Appendix B Create Your Own Journal Here 305



9781587205880   TOC   5/16/2016

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