Exploring Philosophy An Introductory Anthology

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-09
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology, Third Edition, is a remarkably accessible and engaging introduction to philosophy. Steven M. Cahn brings together extraordinarily clear, recent essays by noted philosophers and supplements them with influential historical sources. Most importantly, the articles have been carefully edited to make them understandable to every reader. The topics are drawn from across the major fields of philosophy and include knowledge and skepticism, mind and body, freedom and determinism, the existence of God, the problem of evil, ethical reasoning, abortion, euthanasia, world hunger, democracy, capital punishment, affirmative action, and the meaning of life. The readings are enhanced by concise introductions, explanatory notes, and suggestions for further reading. Featuring twenty-two new selections, the third edition has been expanded to include a separate section on free will containing articles by A.J. Ayer, Steven M. Cahn, Harry Frankfurt, Thomas Nagel, and Richard Taylor. It offers two sections on morality--Moral Theory and Moral Problems--with new selections by John Arthur, Virginia Held, Don Marquis, Bernard Mayo, Peter Singer, Judith Jarvis Thomson, and Christine Vitrano. This edition also adds historical sources by St. Anselm, William James, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, as well as contemporary essays by A.J. Ayer, Steven M. Cahn, Nicholas Everitt, Edmund L. Gettier, Carl G. Hempel, Alan Turing, and Ernest van den Haag.

Author Biography

Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at The City University of New York Graduate Center. He is the author or editor of more than forty books. Most recently, he wrote From Student to Scholar: A Candid Guide to Becoming a Professor (2008), Puzzles Perplexities: Collected Essays, Second Edition (2007), and God, Reason, and Religion (2006). Dr. Cahn is the coeditor of Ethics, Fourth Edition (OUP, 2008), The Elements of Philosophy (OUP, 2007), Happiness (OUP, 2007), and The Meaning of Life, Third Edition (OUP, 2007). He is the editor of Exploring Ethics (OUP, 2008), Exploring Philosophy of Religion (OUP, 2008), Classics of Western Philosophy, Seventh Edition (2006), Political Philosophy (OUP, 2005), Ten Essential Texts in the Philosophy of Religion (OUP, 2005), Philosophy for the 21st Century (OUP, 2003), and Classics of Political and Moral Philosophy (OUP, 2001).

Table of Contents

What Is Philosophy?p. 3
Historical Source: Defence of Socratesp. 13
The Scope of Logicp. 43
Improving Your Thinkingp. 50
Fixing Beliefp. 56
Scientific Inquiryp. 59
Science and Common Sensep. 65
Appearance and Realityp. 73
What Can I Know?p. 76
Knowledge and Beliefp. 82
The Problem of Inductionp. 86
Will the Future Be Like the Past?p. 88
What Is Knowledge?p. 93
Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?p. 96
Historical Sourcesp. 97
Meditations on First Philosophyp. 130
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understandingp. 135
The Ghost in the Machinep. 147
The Mind as a Function of the Bodyp. 151
What Is It Like to Be a Bat?p. 158
Computing Machinery and Intelligencep. 162
Do Computers Think?p. 166
Historical Source: Meditations on First Philosophyp. 169
Free Will
Free Willp. 179
Freedom and Determinismp. 184
Freedom and Necessityp. 191
Freedom or Determinism?p. 199
Alternative Possibilities and Moral Responsibilityp. 210
Historical Source: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understandingp. 212
Does God Exist?p. 223
Why God Allows Evilp. 231
Theology and Falsificationp. 242
Do Miracles Occur?p. 245
Pascal's Wagerp. 249
The Hiddenness of Godp. 252
God and Modern Sciencep. 257
God and Moralityp. 262
Historical Sources: Proslogionp. 265
Summa Theologiaep. 268
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understandingp. 270
The Will to Believep. 276
Moral Theory
The Challenge of Cultural Relativismp. 287
How Not to Answer Moral Questionsp. 298
The Nature of Ethical Disagreementp. 302
A Supreme Moral Principle?p. 307
Happiness and Moralityp. 312
Virtue Ethicsp. 315
The Ethics of Carep. 317
Historical Sources: Nicomachean Ethicsp. 322
Foundations of the Metaphysics of Moralsp. 327
Utilitarianismp. 332
Moral Problems
A Defense of Abortionp. 341
Why Abortion Is Immoralp. 356
Active and Passive Euthanasiap. 362
Active and Passive Euthanasia: A Replyp. 368
Famine, Affluence, and Moralityp. 374
World Hunger and Moral Obligation: The Case Against Singerp. 382
Democracyp. 391
Letter from a Birmingham Jailp. 396
Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Handsp. 403
The Ultimate Punishment: A Defensep. 407
Capital Punishmentp. 413
Two Concepts of Affirmative Actionp. 427
Are Quotas Sometimes Justified?p. 436
What Is a Liberal Education?p. 441
Historical Sources: Critop. 450
On Libertyp. 463
The Solitude of Selfp. 472
The Meaning of Lifep. 483
The Value of Philosophyp. 491
Historical Source: Phaedop. 495
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 499
Indexp. 503
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