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9781319484422

Fabric of a Nation A History with Skills and Sources, For the AP® U.S. History Course

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319484422

  • ISBN10:

    1319484425

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2023-12-01
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

The only AP® U.S. History book that weaves together content, skills, sources, and AP® exam practice is back and better than ever.

AP® U.S. History is about so much more than just events on a timeline. The Course Framework is designed to develop crucial reading, reasoning, and writing skills that help students think like historians to interpret the world of the past—and understand how it relates to the world of today. And Fabric of a Nation is still one of the only textbooks that covers every aspect of this course, seamlessly stitching together history skills, sources, and AP® Exam practice. In this new edition, we make it easier than ever to cover all of the skills and topics in the AP® U.S. History Course and Exam Description by aligning our content to the Unit Topics and Historical Reasoning Processes of each Period.


An Accessible, Balanced Narrative
There’s only so much time in a school year. To cover everything and leave enough time for skill development, you need more focused content, not just more content—and to be most effective, skills development should be accessible and placed just where it is needed. Within the narration are AP® Skills Workshops and AP® Working with Evidence features that support students as they learn the history and prepare to take the AP® Exam. Fabric of a Nation delivers a thorough, yet approachable historical narrative that perfectly aligns with all the essential content of the AP® course. An up-to-date historical survey based on current scholarship, this book is also easy to understand and fun to read, with plenty of interesting details and a crisp writing style that keeps things fresh.

Perfectly Aligned to the AP® Scope and Sequence
Fabric of a Nation has an easy-to-use organization that fully aligns with the College Board’s Course and Exam Description for AP® U.S. History. Instead of long, meandering chapters, this book is divided into smaller, approachable modules that pull together content, skills, sources, and AP® Exam practice into brief 1- to 2-day lessons. Each module corresponds with a specific unit topic in the course framework, including the contextualization and reasoning process topics that bookend each time period. This approach takes the guesswork out of when to introduce which skills and how to blend sources with content—all at a manageable pace that mirrors the scope and sequence of the AP® course framework.

Seamlessly Integrated AP® Skill Workshops for Thinking and Writing Skills
Inspired by the authors’ classroom experience and sound pedagogical principles, the instruction in Fabric of a Nation scaffolds learning throughout the course of the book. Every module offers an opportunity to either learn or practice new skills to prepare for each section of the AP® Exam in an AP® Skills Workshop. As the book progresses, the nature of these workshops moves from focused instruction early on, to guided practice in the middle of the book, and then finally, to independent practice near the end of the year.

Fabric of a Nation was designed to provide you and your students everything needed to succeed in the AP® US History course and on the exam. It’s all there.

AP® Exam Practice: We Boast the Most Material
Every period culminates with AP® Practice questions providing students a mini-AP® exam with approximately 15 stimulus-based multiple-choice questions, 4 short-answer questions, 1 document-based essay question, and 3 long-essay questions.


Additionally, a full-length practice exam is included at the end of the textbook. Because the modules in this book are divided into periods that perfectly align to the AP® U.S. History Course and Exam Description, it’s also easy to pair Fabric of a Nation with the resources on AP® Classroom. Each textbook module can be used with the corresponding AP® Daily Videos and Topic Questions while the AP® Exam Practice at the end of each period can be supplemented with the Personal Progress Checks from AP® Classroom.

Author Biography

JASON STACY is Professor of U.S. History and Social Science Pedagogy at Southern Illinois University–Edwardsville. Before joining the history department at SIU-Edwardsville, Stacy taught AP® U.S. History for eight years at Adlai E. Stevenson High School in Lincolnshire, Illinois. Stacy has served as an AP® U.S. History reader, table leader, exam leader, consultant, senior auditor, and question author for the AP® U.S. History exam. Author and editor of multiple books on authors like Walt Whitman and Edgar Lee Masters, his research has appeared in Social Education, the Walt Whitman Quarterly Review, and American Educational History. Stacy is also a contributing editor for the Walt Whitman Archive, where he edits Whitman’s journalism. Recently, he published Spoon River America: Edgar Lee Masters and the Myth of the American Small Town with the University of Illinois Press. Stacy has served as the president of the Illinois Council for the Social Studies, the editor of The Councilor: A Journal of the Social Studies, and a reviewer for many academic journals and presses.

MATTHEW ELLINGTON has taught AP® U.S. History at Ruben S. Ayala High School in Chino Hills, California, since 1998, where he has also served as an instructional coach, induction mentor for new teachers, social science department chairperson, and a member of his school district’s Teaching and Learning Taskforce. Ellington has been an active AP® U.S. History workshop consultant and exam reader for more than twenty years. He has also served as an AP® Mentor and as a member on the College Board’s Consultant Advisory Panel. Ellington co-authored The Survival Guide for AP® U.S. History and contributed to Teaching Ideas for AP® History: A Video Resource.

Ellington and Stacy have been featured together on C-SPAN’s AP® U.S. History televised annual review sessions since 2020.

Table of Contents

Contents

Period 1: 1491–1607 Europeans Make Claims in the Americas

Module 1.1 • Contextualizing Period 1
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Active Reading and Review
Period 1: What’s Inside

Module 1.2 Native American Societies
Focus
The Maya, Aztecs, and Incas
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Working with Evidence
Source: Anonymous Mixtec artisan, Necklace with Gold Frog Ornaments, Aztec empire, fifteenth-sixteenth century.
Native Cultures to the North
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Pueblo “Cliff Palace” at Mesa Verde, Colorado

Module 1.3 European Exploration in the Americas
Focus
Portugal and Spain Pursue Long-Distance Trade
Europeans Cross the Atlantic
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage, October 12, 1492
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Identifying Claims and Evidence in Primary Sources
Source: El Requerimiento, 1513

Module 1.4 Columbian Exchange, Spanish Exploration, and Conquest
Focus
The Columbian Exchange Transforms Four Continents
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Illustration by the Spanish missionary Bernardino de Sahagún of an Aztec woman with smallpox
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 1.5 Labor, Slavery, and Caste in the Spanish Colonial System
Focus
Spanish Incursions in the Americas
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Anonymous artists, Hernán Cortés Assisted by the Tlaxcalan People of Mexico, 1560
Spain Establishes Colonial Rule
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Identifying Connections in Primary Sources
Source: Las Castas, unknown artist, eighteenth century

Module 1.6 Cultural Interactions among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
Focus
European Encounters with West Africa
Spain Debates the Human Costs of Colonization
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Bartolomé de Las Casas, Catholic Dominican priest, Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, 1542
Source: Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, Catholic priest and theologian, Concerning the Just Causes of the War against the Indians, 1547
Spain’s Global Empire Declines
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Answering Multiple-Choice Questions with a Primary Source Stimulus

Module 1.7 Causation in Period 1
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source
Source: Unknown Spanish artist, sixteenth century

Period 1 Review 1491–1607
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 1 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions

Period 2: 1607–1754 Colonial America amid Global Change

Module 2.1 Contextualizing Period 2
PERIOD 2: What’s Inside

Module 2.2 European Colonization
Focus
The French Expand into North America
The Dutch Expand into North America
Spain’s Fragile North American Empire
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: King Philip IV of Spain, Letter to Don Luis Valdés, 1647
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Analyzing Developments and Processes in Secondary Sources
Source: Françoise Niellon, historian, “Que´bec in the Time of Champlain,” 2009

Module 2.3a The Regions of British Colonies: The South and the British West Indies
Focus
Economic Causes of English Colonization
The English Establish Jamestown
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Powhatan, Chief of Algonquian-Speaking Powhatan Confederation, Deerskin Cloak, c. 1608
Tobacco Fuels Growth in Virginia
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John Martin, Jamestown councilman, The manner how to bring the Indians into subjugation, 1622
The Second Chesapeake Colony: Maryland
Tobacco Economies, Class Rebellion, and the Emergence of Slavery
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Virginia House of Burgesses, Selected Statutes Passed 1662–1669
Daily Life in the Colonies
The British West Indies and South Atlantic Colonies
The British West Indies Influence South Carolina
South Carolina: Origins and Daily Life
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Analyzing Claims and Evidence in Secondary Sources
Source: Cara Anzilotti, “Autonomy and the Female Planter in Colonial South Carolina,” The Journal of Southern History, 1997

Module 2.3b The Regions of British Colonies: New England and the Middle Colonies
Focus
The Protestant Reformation
Pilgrims Arrive in Massachusetts
Puritans Form Communities in New England
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John Winthrop, A Model of Christian Charity,1630
Challenges Arise in the New England Colonies
Conflicts in England Echo in the Colonies
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John Locke, English political philosopher, Second Treatise on Civil Government, 1690
Conflict and Daily Life in Puritan New England
The Middle Colonies
Colonies Develop in New York and New Jersey
Penn’s Goal of a Peaceable Kingdom
Expansion and Conflict in Pennsylvania
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Claims and Evidence in Secondary Sources
Source: Elizabeth Reis, “The Devil, the Body, and the Feminine Soul in Puritan New England.” The Journal of American History 15–15.

Module 2.4 The Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Economy
Focus
Colonial Traders Join Global Networks
Imperial Policies Focus on Profits
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: British Parliament, Navigation Act, 1660
Mercantilism Changes Colonial Societies
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Secondary Source

Module 2.5 Interactions between American Indians and Europeans
Focus
American Indians Resist European Intrusion
European Rivalry and American Indian Alliances
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Thomas Oliver, writing on behalf of the colonial government of Massachusetts, Letter to Queen Anne, 1708
Imperial Conflicts on the Southern Frontier
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Comparing Developments in Secondary Sources
Source: Richard L. Haan. “The ‘Trade Dos Not Flourish As Formerly’: The Ecological Origins of the Yamassee War of 1715,” Ethnohistory, 1981
Source: William L. Ramsey, “‘Something Cloudy in Their Looks’: The Origins of the Yamasee War Reconsidered” The Journal of American History, 2003

Module 2.6 Slavery in the British Colonies
Focus
The Human Cost of the Atlantic Slave Trade
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: King Charles II, Royal African Company Charter, 1672
The Rise of Slavery Reshapes Southern Colonial Society
Africans Resist Enslavement
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: George Cato, great-great-grandson of Stono Rebellion leader Cato, Account of the Stono Rebellion, 1739, recording, 1937
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Making Connections in Secondary Sources
Source: Smith, Mark M. 2001. "Remembering Mary, Shaping Revolt: Reconsidering the Stono Rebellion." The Journal of Southern History. 67, no. 3: 513.

Module 2.7 Colonial Society and Culture
Focus
Colonial Family Life and the Limits of Patriarchal Order
Enlightenment and Awakening
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard’s Almanack, 1739
Dissent and Resistance Rise
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Answering Multiple-Choice Questions with a Secondary Source Stimulus
Source: Indentured Servants and Enslaved People in Six Maryland Counties (1662–1717) (graph)
Source: Wealth Inequality in Northern Cities, 1690–1775 (graph)

Module 2.8 Comparison in Period 2
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Two Secondary Sources
Source: Richard Bushman, The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities, 1993
Source: T. H. Breen, The Marketplace of the Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence, 2005
Source: E. A. J. Johnson, “Some Evidence of Mercantilism in Massachusetts Bay,” The New England Quarterly, 1928
Source: Ellen Newell, “Putting the ‘Political’ Back in Political Economy (This Is Not Your Parents’ Mercantilism),” The William and Mary Quarterly, 2012

Period 2 Review 1607-1754
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 2 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions

Period 3: 1754–1800 A Revolutionary Era

Module 3.1 Contextualizing Period 3
PERIOD 3: What’s Inside
Module 3.2 The Seven Years’ War
Focus
The Seven Years’ War Begins
The Costs of Victory
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: North America before and after the French and Indian War
Unresolved Issues in the Colonies
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Creating a Thesis Statement

Module 3.3 Taxation without Representation
Focus
Intensifying Conflict and Resistance, 1763–1766
The Colonies Forge New Ties
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Patrick Henry, Virginia Resolves, 1765
Ongoing Tension, 1767–1773
Widening Resistance, 1773–1774
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: “Account of the Boston Tea Party,” Massachusetts Gazette, 1773
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Creating a Thesis Statement

Module 3.4 Philosophical Foundations of the American Revolution
Focus
The Continental Congress Convenes
Armed Conflict Erupts
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
Source: Charles Inglis, Anglican minister of Trinity Church in New York City, The true interest of America impartially stated, in certain [strictures] on a pamphlet [entitled] Common sense, 1776
The Colonies Declare Independence
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, 1776
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Phillis Wheatley, “On Being Brought from Africa to America” (poem), 1770
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 3.5 The American Revolution
Focus
Critical Years of Warfare, 1776–1777
Women Contribute to the Revolution
France Allies with the Patriots
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Treaty of Alliance between the United States and France, 1778
Patriots Achieve Victory
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Writing Body Paragraphs

Module 3.6 The Influence of Revolutionary Ideals
Focus
Veteran Farmers Struggle in a Post-War Economy
Revolutionary Women Seek Wider Roles
Slavery in the Revolutionary Era
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Petition of Enslaved Black Americans to the Massachusetts Legislature, 1777
Source: Thomas Cole, Peter Bassnett Matthewes, and Matthew Webb, free Black Americans, Petition to the South Carolina Senate, 1791
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Creating an Evaluative Thesis Statement

Module 3.7 The Articles of Confederation
Focus
States Form Their Own Governments, 1776–1786
A Revolutionary National Government, 1777–1781
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Articles of Confederation, 1781
New Economic Challenges, 1780–1783
The Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787
Indebted Farmers Fuel Political Crises, 1783–1787
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Correspondence between Daniel Shays and Benjamin Lincoln, Massachusetts, 1787
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Creating an Evaluative Thesis Statement

Modules 3.8 & 3.9 The Constitutional Convention & Debates over Ratification & the Constitution
Focus
Making a Constitution
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States, 1787
Americans Debate Ratification
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Argument at the New York State Convention, June 1788
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Incorporating Claims and Evidence from Sources into Body Paragraphs
Source: Melancton Smith, Antifederalist Delegate at the New York State Convention, June 1788

Module 3.10 Shaping a New Republic
Focus
Organizing the Federal Government
Hamilton Forges a Financial Plan
Foreign Trade and Foreign Wars
The Whiskey Rebellion
A Two-Party System Forms
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Anonymous, The Providential Detection, 1797
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Sedition Act, 1798
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Kentucky Resolution, 1799
The Election of 1800
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Incorporating Claims and Evidence from Sources into Body Paragraphs

Module 3.11 Developing an American Identity
Focus
Developing a Distinct American Culture
The Racial Limits of an American Culture
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782
A New Capital for a New Nation
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Benjamin Banneker, Letter to Thomas Jefferson, 1791
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source

Module 3.12 Movement in the Early Republic
Focus
Conflicts over Western Lands
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: United Indian Nations Council, Message to Congress, 1786
U.S. Population Growth and Migration
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Combining Reasoning Processes in an Evaluative Thesis Statement

Module 3.13 Continuity and Change in Period 3
AP® Writing Historically • Combining Reasoning Processes in an Essay

Period 3 Review 1754-1800
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 3 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Long Essay Questions

Period 4: 1800–1848 Democracy, Industrialization, and Reform

Module 4.1 Contextualizing Period 4
PERIOD 4: What’s Inside

Module 4.2 Political and Economic Transformations
Focus
A New Administration Faces Challenges
Acquiring the Louisiana Territory
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: William Clark, Journal Entry, October 12, 1804
The Supreme Court Defines Its Powers
Democratic-Republicans Expand Federal Powers
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Writing Body Paragraphs

Module 4.3 Politics, Economics, and Regional Interests
Focus
Governments Fuel Economic Growth
Regional Economic Development
The Panic of 1819
Slavery in Missouri
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Senator Rufus King (New York), Speech to Congress on the Admission of Missouri to the United States, 1819
Source: Senator Freeman Walker (Georgia), Speech to Congress on the Admission of Missouri to the United States, 1820
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Sourcing and Situating Primary Sources

Module 4.4 America on the World Stage
Focus
Tensions at Sea and on the Borderlands
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Chief Tecumseh, Address to Governor William Henry Harrison, 1810
War Erupts with Britain
Americans Expand the Nation’s Borders
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President James Monroe, Annual Address to Congress, later called the Monroe Doctrine, 1823
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Sourcing and Situating Primary Sources
Source: Chief Tecumseh, Address to Governor William Henry Harrison, 1810


Module 4.5 Market Revolution: Industrialization
Focus
Creating an Urban Landscape
Technology Reshapes Agriculture and Industry
Transforming Domestic Production
Technology, Cotton, and Enslavement
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, 1861
Factory Towns and Women Workers
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Harriet H. Robinson, Loom and Spindle or Life among the Early Mill Girls, 1898
The Decline of Craft Work
The Panic of 1837
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Using Outside Evidence to Create a Body Paragraph

Module 4.6 Market Revolution: Society and Culture
Focus
The Lure of Urban Life
Immigrants in the Cities
The New Middle Class
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: 1850 U.S. Census of the Isaac and Amy Post Household
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Linking Primary Sources to Create a Body Paragraph
Source: 1850 U.S. Census of the Isaac and Amy Post Household
Source: Shoe Shopping from Godey’s Lady’s Book 1848
Source: Portion of “Five Points,” George Catlin (1827)
Source: The Rights of Man to Property! Thomas Skidmore (1829)

Module 4.7 Expanding Democracy
Focus
Voting Rights Expand
Racial Restrictions and Antiblack Violence
Political Realignments
The Presidential Election of 1828
A Democratic Spirit?
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Alexis de Tocqueville, Letter to Louis de Kergorlay, 1831
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Connecting Developments Across Primary Sources to Create a Body Paragraph
Source: Pennsylvania State Constitution (1838), Article III, Sec. I
Source: The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper, August 12, 1842

Module 4.8 Jackson and Federal Power
Focus
Confrontations over Tariffs and the Bank
The Battle for Texas
American Indians Resist Removal
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Indian Removal Act, 1830
Van Buren and the Panic of 1837
The Whigs Win the White House
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Creating Historical Context in an Essay Introduction

Module 4.9 Development of an American Culture
Focus
Building a National Culture
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Horace Mann, “The Necessity of Education in a Republican Government,” (1839)
AP Thinking Historically • Sourcing, Situating, and Evaluating the Significance of Primary Sources
Source: Horace Mann, Massachusetts Secretary of Education, “The Necessity of Education in a Republican Government,” (1839)

Module 4.10 The Second Great Awakening
Focus
The Roots of the Second Great Awakening
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Charles G. Finney, An Influential Woman Converts, 1830
New Visions of Faith and Reform
Transcendentalism
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Creating Historical Context in an Essay Conclusion

Module 4.11 An Age of Reform
Focus
Varieties of Reform
The Problem of Poverty
The Temperance Movement
Utopian Communities
Abolitionism
Abolition Gains Ground, Faces Conflict, and Inspires Women
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself, 1845
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments, 1848
Source: Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, 1776
The Rise of Antislavery Parties
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Using Claims and Evidence in Sources to Create a Body Paragraph
Source: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments, 1848
Source: Matthew Carey, Appeal to the Wealthy of the Land, 1833

Modules 4.12 & 4.13 African Americans & The Society of the South in the Early Republic
Focus
A Plantation Society Develops in the South
Urban Life in the Slaveholding South
The Consequences of Slavery’s Expansion
Enslaved Labor Fuels the Southern Economy
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, 1853
Source: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, 1861
Resistance and Rebellion
White Southerners Who Were Not Slaveholders
Planters Seek to Unify White Southerners
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John C. Calhoun, Slavery a Positive Good, 1837
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Using Claims and Evidence in Sources to Create a Body Paragraph
Source: David Walker, Walker’s Appeal … to the Coloured Citizens of the World, 1830
Source: Elizabeth Emery and Mary P. Abbott, Letter to The Liberator, 1836

Module 4.14 Causation in Period 4
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Outlining an Essay
Source: Harriet H. Robinson, Loom and Spindle or Life among the Early Mill Girls, 1898
Source: 1850 U.S. Census of the Isaac and Amy Post Household
Source: Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave, 1853

Period 4 Review 1800-1848
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 4 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Document-Based Question
Long Essay Questions

Period 5:1844–1877 Expansion, Division, and Civil War

Module 5.1 Contextualizing Period 5
PERIOD 5: What’s Inside

Module 5.2 Manifest Destiny
Focus
Traveling the Overland Trails
The Gold Rush
The Politics of Expansion
American Progress
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: New York Daily Times, “Commodore Perry at the Loo Choo Isles,” 1853
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Using AP® Course Themes to Brainstorm and Organize an Essay

Module 5.3 The Mexican-American War
Focus
Pursuing War with Mexico
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President James K. Polk, War Message, 1846
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Illinois Whig Representative, Spot Resolutions, 1847
A Crowded Land
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Using AP® Course Themes to Brainstorm and Organize an Essay

Module 5.4 The Compromise of 1850
Focus
Debates over Slavery Intensify
California and the Compromise of 1850
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John C. Calhoun, The Clay Compromise Measures, 1850
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Writing an Essay Introduction, Revisited

Module 5.5 • Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
Focus
The Fugitive Slave Act Inspires Northern Protest
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: William C. Nell, Meeting of Colored Citizens of Boston, 1850
Source: President Millard Fillmore, Proclamation 56 Calling on Citizens to Assist in the Recapture of a Fugitive Slave, 1851
Further Expansion under President Pierce
Popularizing the Antislavery Movement
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Sourcing a Document’s Historical Situation, Revisited
Source: Anti-Fugitive Slave Law Convention, Cazenovia, New York, 1850
Source: William C. Nell, Meeting of Colored Citizens of Boston, 1850

Module 5.6 Failure of Compromise
Focus
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Stirs Dissent
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: American (Know-Nothing) Party Platform, 1856
Source: Republican Campaign Song, 1856
The Dred Scott Decision
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Edwardsville, Illinois, 1858
Source: Republican Campaign Song, 1856
From Crisis to Secession
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Writing Body Paragraphs for a Long Essay Question

Module 5.7 Election of 1860 and Secession
Focus
Lincoln Wins the Presidency in 1860
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Jefferson Davis, Inaugural Address, 1861
The South Chooses Secession
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Writing Essay Conclusions, Revisited

Module 5.8 Military Conflict in the Civil War
Focus
Both Sides Prepare for War
Wartime Roles of Black Americans and American Indians
Union Politicians and Emancipation
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: The Charleston Mercury, “President Lincoln and His Scheme of Emancipation,” 1862
The Front and the Homefront
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Union Soldiers in Camp, c. 1863 (photograph)
Source: Battlefield Dead at Antietam, 1862 (photograph)
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 5.9 Government Policies during the Civil War
Focus
Key Victories for the Union
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863
Black Americans Contribute to Victory
The Final Battles of a Hard War
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 04, 1865
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Sourcing Document-Based Questions Using the Claim, Support, Explain Approach
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 04, 1865

Module 5.10 Reconstruction
Focus
Black Americans Embrace Freedom
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Colonel Eliphalet Whittlesey, Report on the Freedmen’s Bureau, 1865
Lincoln and Johnson’s Reconstruction Plans
Congressional Reconstruction and Resistance
The Struggle for Universal Suffrage
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Speech to the American Equal Rights Association, 1869
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Writing Body Paragraphs for Document-Based Questions
Source: Colonel Eliphalet Whittlesey, Report on the Freedmen’s Bureau, 1865
Source: Photograph at the Site of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson’s Grave, 1866
Source: Freedmen’s Bureau School, North Carolina, late 1860s
Source: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Speech to the American Equal Rights Association, 1869

Module 5.11 The Failure of Reconstruction
Focus
Early Reconstruction in the South
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Sharecropping Agreement, 1870
White Resistance
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Abram Colby, a formerly enslaved Black person and Georgia state legislator, Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, 1872
The Retreat from Reconstruction
The Presidential Compromise of 1876
The Legacies of Reconstruction
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources

Module 5.12 Comparison in Period 5
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Document-Based Question
Source: Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Edwardsville, Illinois, 1858
Source: A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union, 1861
Source: New York Herald, “What to Do with the Slaves When Emancipated,” 1862
Source: Civil Rights Act, 1866
Source: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, American Equal Rights Association: Stanton-Anthony Resolutions, 1869
Source: Senator Hiram Revels (Mississippi), On Readmission of Georgia to the Union, 1870
Source: Thomas Nast, This Is a White Man’s Government, 1874

Period 5 Review 1844-1877
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 5 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Document-Based Question
Long Essay Questions

Period 6: 1865–1898 A Gilded Age

Module 6.1 Contextualizing Period 6
PERIOD 6: What’s Inside

Module 6.2 Westward Expansion: Economic Development
Focus
The Great Plains
Federal Policy and Foreign Investment
Homesteaders Farm the Great Plains
Women in the West
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Ida Lindgren, Swedish homesteader, Letter, August 25, 1874
Farmers Unite
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Sourcing a Document to Establish Significance
Source: Ida Lindgren, Swedish homesteader, Letter, August 25, 1874

Module 6.3 Westward Expansion: Social and Cultural Developments
Focus
The Mining and Lumber Booms
Prostitution in the West
The Life of a Cowboy
The Rise of Commercial Ranching
American Indian Civilizations and Resistance to U.S. Expansion
Conflict Escalates in the West
Reforming American Indian Policy
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Zitkala-Ša, The School Days of an Indian Girl, 1921
American Indian Assimilation and Resistance
Mormons, Californios, and the Chinese in the West
AP® Thinking Historically • Tracing Developments and Processes to Create Context in an Essay Conclusion

Module 6.4 The New South
Focus
Building a New South
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Henry Grady, The New South, 1886
Black America and Jim Crow
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Tracing Developments and Processes to Create Context in an Essay Conclusion

Module 6.5 Technological Innovation
Focus
The New Industrial Economy
Expansion of the Railroad System, 1870–1900
Innovations and Inventions
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Chicago Tribune, “The Telephone,” December 12, 1880
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Making Connections Across Time in an Essay Conclusion

Module 6.6 The Rise of Industrial Capitalism
Focus
Industrial Consolidation
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: U.S. Workforce by Industry in 1870 and 1900
The Growth of Corporations
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Making Connections Across Time in an Essay Conclusion

Module 6.7 Labor in the Gilded Age
Focus
The Industrialization of Labor
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John Morrison, Testimony of a Machinist before the Senate Committee on the Relations between Labor and Capital, 1883
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Bernhard Gillam, “Hopelessly Bound to the Stake,” Puck magazine, 1883
Organizing Labor Unions
Labor Clashes Escalate
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Long-Essay Question with Historical Complexity Using the GEM Approach

Module 6.8 Immigration and Migration in the Gilded Age
Focus
Immigrants Arrive from Many Lands
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: F. Victor Gillam, “The Immigrant. Is He an Acquisition or a Detriment?” Judge, 1903
Creating Immigrant Communities
Hostility toward Recent Immigrants
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Saum Song Bo, A Chinese View of the Statue of Liberty, 1885
Source: United States Supreme Court, Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 1886
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source
Source: F. Victor Gillam, “The Immigrant. Is He an Acquisition or a Detriment?” Judge, 1903

Module 6.9 Responses to Immigration in the Gilded Age
Focus
The New Industrial City
Black Migration to Northern Cities
Cities Expand Upward and Outward
How the Other Half Lived
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Jacob Riis, “‘Knee Pants’ at forty-five cents a dozen — A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop,” How the Other Half Lives, 1890 (photograph)
Reformers and Elite Reaction
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Responding to a Long-Essay Question with Historical Complexity, Revisited

Module 6.10 Development of the Middle Class
Focus
Wealthy and Middle-Class Leisure Pursuits
Working-Class Leisure in Industrial America
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Sheet Music for Piano and Singers, “New York and Coney Island Cycle March: Two Step,” 1896
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 6.11 Reform in the Gilded Age
Focus
Challenges to Industrial Capitalism
Charitable Reform
Changing Gender Roles
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: The Delineator, a women’s magazine, 1900
Source: Theodore Roosevelt, Professionalism in Sports, 1890
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 6.12 Controversies over the Role of Government in the Gilded Age
Focus
Doctrines of Success
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth, 1889
Source: “A Workingman’s Prayer,” The Coming Nation, 1894
Seeking International Markets
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source
Source: Thomas Nast, “Uncle Sam,” The President’s Message, 1887

Module 6.13 Politics in the Gilded Age
Focus
Weak Presidencies and an Inefficient Congress
The Business of Politics
Political Machines and City Bosses
The Farmers’ Revolt
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Mary Elizabeth Lease, Monopoly Is the Master, 1890
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Bernhard Gillam, “Party of Patches: Grand Balloon Ascension — Cincinnati, May 20th, 1891,” Judge, 1891
Populists and Depression Politics
Political Realignment in the Election of 1896
AP® Skills Workshop: Thinking Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R., 1955
Source: Charles Postel, The Populist Vision, 2007

Module 6.14 Continuity and Change in Period 6
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Responding to a Document-Based Question with Historical Complexity Using the GEM Approach
Source: Charles Loring Brace, The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Years Among Them, 1872
Source: Ida Lindgren, Swedish homesteader, Letter, August 25, 1874
Source: Mary Elizabeth Lease, Monopoly Is the Master, 1890
Source: F. J. Kingsbury, “The Tendency of Men to Live in Cities,” Journal of Social Science, No. 33, 1895
Source: Sheet Music for Piano and Singers, “New York and Coney Island Cycle March: Two Step.,” 1896
Source: Royal Melendy, The Saloon in Chicago, 1900
Source: Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie, 1900

Period 6 Review 1865-1898
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 6 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Document-Based Question
Long Essay Questions


Period 7: 1890–1945 New Imperialism and Global Conflicts

Module 7.1 Contextualizing Period 7
PERIOD 7: What’s Inside

Module 7.2 Imperialism: Debates
Focus
The Economics of Expansion
Cultural Justifications for Imperialism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Rudyard Kipling, British author, “The White Man’s Burden” (poem), 1899
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Albert Beveridge, The March of the Flag, 1898
Source: Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden,” 1898
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 7.3 The Spanish-American War
Focus
The War with Spain
The Philippine War
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President William McKinley, Remarks to a Methodist Delegation, 1899
Source: Albert Beveridge, The March of the Flag, 1898
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, The Commons, 1899
Extending U.S. Imperialism, 1899–1913
Opening the Door in China
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source

Module 7.4a The Progressives: Social Reform
Focus
The Roots of Progressivism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities, 1904
Female Progressives and the Poor
Fighting for Women’s Suffrage
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: National American Woman Suffrage Association, “Where Women Vote — Wyoming,” Woman Suffrage: History, Arguments, Results, 1917
Progressivism and the Fight for Racial Equality
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Committee on the Negro “Call” for a National Conference, Founding Document of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1909
Morality, Prohibition, and Social Control
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877-1913, 1971
Source: Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina: 1896-1920, 1996

Module 7.4b The Progressives: Political Reform
Focus
New Immigrants and New Challenges
Municipal and State Reform
Conservation and Preservation of the Environment
Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, 1906
Source: Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities, 1904
Taft’s Limited Progressivism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Woodrow Wilson, The New Freedom: A Call For the Emancipation of the Generous Energies of a People, 1913
Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom Agenda
The Progressive Legacy
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 7.5 World War I: Military and Diplomacy
Focus
Wilson and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1912–1917
Making the World Safe for Democracy
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Woodrow Wilson, Remarks to the Senate, 1917
Waging Peace after World War I
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Woodrow Wilson, Address at Pueblo, Colorado, 1919
The Creation of a U.S. Empire
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: Arthur S. Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917, 1963
Source: John Whiteclay Chambers II, The Tyranny of Change: America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1920, 2000

Module 7.6 World War I: The Home Front
Focus
Fighting the War at Home
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Eugene V. Debs, Antiwar Speech in Canton, Ohio, 1918
Postwar Social Turmoil
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: A. Mitchell Palmer, “The Case against the Reds,” Forum, 1920
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 7.7 1920s: Innovations in Communication and Technology
Focus
Government’s Role in the Economy
Americans Become Consumers
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Westinghouse Appliance Advertisement, 1924
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 7.8 1920s: Cultural and Political Controversies
Focus
Urban Growth and Perilous Prosperity
Challenges to Social Conventions
The Harlem Renaissance and Black Nationalism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: A. Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen, The New Negro — What Is He?, 1919
Prohibition, Fundamentalism, and Modern American Life
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan, Transcript from The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes, 1925
Restriction of Immigration
The Resurrection of the Ku Klux Klan
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Gerald W. Johnson, “The Ku Kluxer,” American Mercury, 1924
Politics and the Fading of Prosperity
The Transitional Twenties
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Document-Based Question
Source: Marcus Garvey, Address to the Second United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Convention, 1921
Source: Blood and Sand (film advertisement), 1922
Source: Sinclair Lewis, Babbit, 1922
Source: Edythe Turnham and Her Knights of Syncopation, Seattle, Washington, 1925
Source: Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan, Transcript from The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes, 1925
Source: The Brox Sisters Listening to the Radio, c. 1925
Source: Women of the Ku Klux Klan, 1927

Module 7.9 The Great Depression
Focus
Financial Crash and Depression
Hoovervilles and Dust Storms
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Ann Marie Low, Dust Bowl Diary, 1934
Challenges for Minorities
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John Vachon, Picket Line, Chicago, 1941 (photograph)
Financial Strain and Organized Protest
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 7.10 The New Deal
Focus
Steps toward Relief
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President Franklin Roosevelt, Message to Congress on Making the Civilian Conservation Corps a Permanent Agency, 1937
Critics of the New Deal
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Huey Long, Every Man a King, 1934
The New Deal Moves to the Left
Organized Labor Strikes Back
A Half Deal for Minorities
Decline of the New Deal
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Clifford K. Berryman, Old Reliable, 1938
New Deal Liberalism Appraised
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940, 1963
Source: Barton J. Bernstein, “The New Deal: The Conservative Achievements of Liberal Reform,” Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, 1969

Module 7.11 Interwar Foreign Policy
Focus
The Road to War
The Challenge to Isolationism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Charles Lindbergh, Who Are the War Agitators?, September, 1941
The United States Enters the War
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source
Source: Winsor McCay, Let Sam Do It, 1931

Module 7.12 World War II: Mobilization
Focus
Managing the Home-Front Economy
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Anonymous, “The Case of the Negro Officer in the United States Army,” Baltimore Afro-American, 1943
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President Franklin Roosevelt, State of the Union Address, 1944
New Opportunities for Women
Everyday Life on the Home Front
Fighting for Equality at Home
The Ordeal of Japanese Americans
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Charles Kikuchi, Diary Entry, 1942
Source: Justice Hugo Black, Korematsu v. United States, 1944
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Modules 7.13 & 7.14 World War II: Military & Postwar Diplomacy
Focus
Global War Erupts
War in the Pacific
Ending the War
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Father Johannes Siemes, Eyewitness Account of the Hiroshima Bombing, 1945
Evidence of the Holocaust
The Impact of World War II
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 7.15 Comparison in Period 7
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Document-Based Question
Source: “War Autos Only Now,” Stars and Stripes, August 15, 1918
Source: W.E.B. DuBois, “Returning Soldiers,” The Crisis, May 1919
Source: George Creel, How We Advertised America, 1920
Source: Magazine Advertisement, 1944
Source: Korematsu v. United States, 1944
Source: Unemployment Rate, 1915–1945 (graph)
Source: Mary Anne Read, oral interview about her childhood during World War II, June 2012

Period 7 Review 1890-1945
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 7 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Document-Based Question
Long Essay Questions

Period 8: 1945–1980 Cold War America

Module 8.1 Contextualizing Period 8
Period 8: What’s Inside

Module 8.2 The Cold War
Focus
Mutual Misunderstandings
The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and Economic Containment
Military Containment
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: John N. Wheeler, Letter Home from Korean War, 1950
The Cold War Thaws
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, 1959
Source: John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1972

Module 8.3 The Second Red Scare
Focus
Loyalty and the Second Red Scare
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Paul Robeson, Statement on the Un-American Activities Committee, 1949
McCarthyism
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source

Module 8.4 The Economy after 1945
Focus
Economic and Political
Challenges, 1945–1948
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Representative Homer D. Angell, Speech Supporting the Taft-Hartley Bill, April 1947
The Boom Years
Changes in Living Patterns
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Restrictive Housing Covenant for Labadie Avenue between Taylor Avenue and Core Avenue in St. Louis Missouri, 1911.
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 8.5 Culture after 1950
Focus
The Rise of Television and a New Teenage Culture
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, Interim Report on Comic Books and Juvenile Delinquency, 1955
Social Changes of the 1950s
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, 1963
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 8.6 Early Steps in the Civil-Rights Movement (1940s and 1950s)
Focus
The Rise of the Southern Civil-Rights Movement
School Segregation and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Combatting White Resistance to Desegregation
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: The Southern Manifesto, 1956
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Ella Baker, “Bigger Than a Hamburger,” Southern Patriot, June 1960
Source: The Southern Manifesto, 1956
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past,” Journal of American History, 2005
Source: Steven F. Lawson, “Long Origins of the Short Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1968,” in Freedom Rights: New Perspectives on the Civil Rights Movement, 2011

Module 8.7 America as a World Power
Focus
Nuclear Weapons and Containment
Interventions in the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address, 1961
Modern Republicanism and the Election of 1960
Kennedy, the Cold War, and Cuba
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President John F. Kennedy, Address before the American Society of Newspaper Editors, April 20, 1961
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source
Source: Edward Valtman, “This hurts me more than it hurts you!” Hartford Times, October 1962

Module 8.8 The Vietnam War
Focus
Early Intervention in Vietnam, 1954–1963
Johnson Escalates the War in Vietnam
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War, 1977
Nixon and the Failure of Vietnamization
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 8.9 The Great Society
Focus
Federal Efforts toward Social Reform, 1960–1968
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Michael Harrington, The Other America, 1962
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source
Source: President Lyndon Johnson, Remarks at the University of Michigan, 1964

Module 8.10 The Civil-Rights Movement (1960s)
Focus
Freedom Rides
Kennedy Supports Civil Rights
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail, April 1963
Freedom Summer and Voting Rights
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Prospectus for the Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964
From Civil Rights to Black Power
Racial Struggles Continue
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Document-Based Question
Source: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954
Source: Martin Luther King Jr., Speech at Holt Street Baptist Church, December 5, 1955
Source: Sit-in at a Woolworth’s Lunch Counter, Jackson, Mississippi, May 28, 1963
Source: Malcolm X, Speech to Mississippi Youth, December, 1964
Source: Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, Black Panther Party Platform and Program, October 1966
Source: Chicago Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee Leaflet, 1967
Source: Kerner Commission Report, 1968

Module 8.11 The Civil-Rights Movement Expands
Focus
The Women’s Liberation Movement
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Gloria Steinem, Testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing on the Equal Rights Amendment, May 6, 1970
Source: The Phyllis Schlafly Report 5, no. 7, February 1972
Latino Activism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Dolores Huerta, Statement before U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Migratory Labor, 1969
American Indian Activism
Asian American Activism
The Gay Liberation Movement
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 8.12 The Youth Culture
Focus
The New Left
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Tom Hayden, among others, “The Port Huron Statement,” 1962
The Counterculture
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Photograph Taken Outside the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, August 26, 1968
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 8.13 The Environment and Natural Resources from 1968 to 1980
Focus
Environmentalism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Michael McCloskey, Ecotactics: The Sierra Club Handbook for Environmental Activists, 1970
Health, Safety, and Natural Resources
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 8.14 Society in Transition
Focus
The Revival of Conservatism
The Election of 1968
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Richard M. Nixon, Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention, August 8, 1968
Pragmatic Conservatism
The Nixon Landslide and Watergate Scandal, 1972–1974
The Carter Presidency and the World
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Warren Christopher, Deputy Secretary of State, Presidential Review Memorandum on Human Rights, May 20, 1977
Challenges in the Middle East
New Forms of Conservatism
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: Dan T. Carter, From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counterrevolution, 1963–1994, 1996
Source: Daniel Williams, God’s Own Party: The Making of the Christian Right, 2010

Module 8.15 Continuity and Change in Period 8
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Document-Based Question
Source: Senator Joseph McCarthy, Speech on Communists in the State Department, 1950
Source: Barry Goldwater, Acceptance Speech, Republican Presidential Nomination, 1964
Source: Confidence and Concern: Citizens View American Government, 1973
Source: Articles of Impeachment Adopted by the House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary, July 27, 1974
Source: President Carter, Address to the Nation on Energy and National Goals (also known as “The Malaise Speech”), July 15, 1979
Source: U.S. Embassy Workers Being Held Hostage in Tehran, Iran, November 4, 1979 (photograph)
Source: United States Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate (the “Misery Index”), 1970–1980 (graph)

Period 8 Review 1945-1980
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 8 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Document-Based Question
Long Essay Questions


Period 9: 1980–The Present Challenges in a Globalized World

Module 9.1 Contextualizing Period 9
Period 9: What’s Inside

Module 9.2 Reagan and Conservatism
Focus
Reagan and Reaganomics
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address, January 20, 1981
Social Conservatism
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Senate Testimony by Susan Baker [wife of Treasury Secretary James Baker] and Tipper Gore [wife of Senator and later Vice President Al Gore], members of the Parents Music Resource Center, September 19, 1985
“Kinder and Gentler” Conservatism
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Long-Essay Question

Module 9.3 The End of the Cold War
Focus
Reagan and the Cold War, 1981–1988
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Ronald Reagan, Tear Down This Wall (speech at the Berlin Wall), 1987
Human Rights and the Fight against Communism
Fighting International Terrorism
The Road to Nuclear Deescalation
The Breakup of the Soviet Union
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Francis Fukuyama, The End of History?, 1989
Managing Conflict after the Cold War
Conservative Ascendancy and the End of the Cold War
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with Secondary Sources
Source: John Spanier, American Foreign Policy Since World War II, 1992
Source: Beth A. Fischer, The Reagan Reversal: Foreign Policy and the End of the Cold War, 1997

Modules 9.4 & 9.5 A Changing Economy & Migration and Immigration in the 1990s and 2000s
Focus
Globalization
The Clinton Presidency
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President Bill Clinton, Address to Congress on Health Care Reform, 1993
The Computer Revolution
The Changing American Population
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Bo Yee, interview of her experiences working in an American factory, 2014
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question

Module 9.6 Challenges of the Twenty-First Century
Focus
Bush and Compassionate Conservatism
International and Domestic Challenges
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: President George W. Bush, News Conference on Iraq, 2003
The Great Recession
Obama and Domestic Politics
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Frederick C. Harris, The Price of the Ticket: Barack Obama and the Rise and Decline of Black Politics, 2012
Obama and the World
AP® Working with Evidence
Source: Edward Snowden, Interview, The Guardian, July 18, 2014
The 2016 Election
The Trump Presidency
Polarization Persists
From a Pandemic to the Polls
The 2020 Election and the Biden Presidency
An Era of Anxiety and Hope
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Short-Answer Question with a Primary Source

Module 9.7 Causation in Period 9
AP® Skills Workshop: Writing Historically • Additional Practice in Responding to a Document-Based Question
Source: President George H. W. Bush, Address to the Nation Announcing Allied Military Action in the Persian Gulf, January 16, 1991
Source: Anthony Lake, National Security Advisor to President Clinton, “From Containment to Enlargement,” September 21, 1993
Source: Stephen M Walt, “Two Cheers for Clinton’s Foreign Policy,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2000
Source: Senator Robert Byrd, Speech on the floor of the U.S. Senate, February 12, 2003
Source: President Barack Obama, Remarks at the Department of State, May 19, 2011
Source: Donald Trump, Republican Presidential Candidate, Foreign Policy Speech, April 27, 2016
Source: Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs at Brown University, U.S. Counterterrorism Operations 2018–2020 Infographic, 2021

Period 9 Review 1980-The Present
Key Concepts and Events
Key People
Chronology

Period 9 AP® Exam Practice
Multiple-Choice Questions
Short-Answer Questions
Document-Based Question
Long Essay Questions

Practice AP® Exam
Glossary/Glosario
Credits
Index

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