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Financing Education in a Climate of Change

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  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2019-01-14
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

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A user-friendly, practical examination of the issues impacting education finance today
Retaining the practical tone and superior presentation that made the previous editions best sellers, this new edition of Financing Education in a Climate of Change presents the most up-to-date information and material available in the dynamic field of school finance. Easy-to-understand tables and figures, thought provoking end-of-chapter assignments, new chapter learning objectives, and practical budget and accounting examples help readers gain a firmer understanding of all facets of financing education. The 13th Edition adds information on classic and current topics, including the economics of education, recent court decisions, 50-state comparison tables, state taxes, and the ongoing debate about school vouchers, tax credits, church-state issues, and charter schools.

Author Biography

Deborah Verstegen, PhD, is a professor of educational leadership, College of Education, University of Nevada, Reno. She served as Edwin J. O'Leary Endowed Chair of Financial Management, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and was a professor of finance and policy in the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia for nearly two decades. Prior to joining the university community, she was a teacher, administrator, and legislative aide in state government.  She has had teaching experience at all levels, from pre-school, elementary, secondary, and community college, to university. Her administrative experience in education is also broad. She has been a central office administrator for a K-12 school system in Alaska's Iditarod Area School District, Director of the Mid-management Program at the University of Texas at Austin, and Department Chair in Educational Leadership at UNR. She is author or co-author of over 300 books, articles, monographs, and chapters, including Financing Education in a Climate of Change. Professor Verstegen has developed an equity statistic, later given her name by scholars–the "Verstegen Index." The focus of her scholarship is on equal opportunity and justice in the area of education finance, and the fiscal aspects of education policy at the state and national levels. Professor Verstegen has been active in school finance litigation, serving as an expert witness, as a consultant with government and education organizations, and in numerous professional organizations–she has served twice on the Board of Directors for the national education finance association. She is a past editor of the Journal of Education Finance and currently serves as policy editor. Her alma mater, the University of Wisconsin, awarded her an alumnae achievement award. She was named Distinguished National Fellow in Finance by the National Education Finance Academy, and a recent recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award.

Robert C. Knoeppel, PhD, is the Dean of the College of Education at the University of South Florida. In his position, Knoeppel plays a key role in shaping a distinctive vision for the future of the college that maintains alignment with USF’s strategic priorities. An experienced higher education leader and nationally recognized researcher, Knoeppel was previously a professor and chair of the Department of Educational and Organizational Leadership Development at Clemson University. Knoeppel’s work has been regularly published in the Journal of Education Finance and Educational Considerations, and he has authored over 100 refereed journal publications, book chapters, technical reports, and conference papers in the field of education finance, education reform, and educational leadership over the course of his career. Prior to his tenure at Clemson, Knoeppel held an academic appointment at the University of Kentucky, where he led courses in educational leadership studies. He also worked for several years in the Virginia public school system as a school counselor, administrator, and coach. Knoeppel serves as President Elect and a member of the board of trustees of the National Education Finance Academy where he earned the Scholarly Paper of the Year Award for three consecutive years.

Dr. Vern Brimley has been a public school administrator for over 30 years, retiring as administrative assistant to the superintendent of Provo City Schools. In the span of his career, he has been director of federal programs; involved in school purchasing, research, and public relations; a consultant for several school districts; and worked as an elementary teacher and principal. Additionally, he served on the State of Utah committee delegated by the Utah State Legislature to study the Utah School Finance system. Twelve major changes resulted from this study, including equalization of capital outlay budgets. Dr. Brimley also taught in a secondary modern school in Great Britain for a year on a Fulbright Exchange scholarship. He was selected as one of 40 educational administrators from throughout the U.S. and Canada to participate in the initial intensive two-month study program under the sponsorship of the National Academy for School Executives (NASE) – the training arm of the American Association of School Administrators (NASA) – and the Danforth Foundation. The Study-Leave Fellowship provided the opportunity for Dr. Brimley to study the financial structure of state educational systems and state departments of education. He was designated as an Innovative Educator by the Kettering Foundation. Dr. Brimley was a student of Professor Percy Burrup and did research for the first edition of Financing Education in a Climate of Change and was co-author of the third edition with Professor Burrup. After Dr. Burrup’s death, he teamed with Dr. Rulon Garfield to write the fourth through eleventh edition, and with Dr. Deborah Verstegen as co-author for the eleventh and twelfth edition. Dr. Brimley served as an Adjunct Professor at Brigham Young University and has taught many education leadership courses, but specialized in school finance and school business management. He has presented papers at conferences including the American Education Finance Association and has written articles on various education issues. He is married to Dawn Baker Brimley. They are the parents of three daughters and have ten grandchildren.

Table of Contents

1. The Economics of Education

    Education as Human Capital

    Creation of Wealth and Education

    Education: An Important Industry

    A Public-Sector Responsibility

    Economics and Social Progress

    Economic Benefits of Education

    Noneconomic Benefits of Education

    Cost-Quality Relationship in Education: Does Money Matter?

2. The Need for Adequate Funds

    Adequacy and the Factors Impacting It

    Education Deserves High Priority

    The Public Wants Good Schools

    The Increasing Costs of Education

    Spending on Education and the Size of the Enterprise

    Impacts on the Cost of Providing an Adequate Education

    What is the Cost of an Adequate Education?

    A Failure to Provide Opportunity and Associated Costs

    Society Suffers the Effects of Poor Education

3. Financing Education Equitably

    Inequalities in Financing Education

    Equity: An Objective of School Finance Reform

    Measures of School District Wealth

    Income Tax

    Historical Influences on Equity    

    The Equalization Principal

    Improving State Equalization Practices

    Foundation Programs and  Variations

    The Impact of Average Daily Attendance on Equity

    The Changing Climate and Current School Finance Practices

4. Patterns for School Finance Systems

    Developing Patterns

    Determining the Best Finance Plan

    Full State Funding

    District Power Equalization

    Property Reassessment and Local District Revenues

    Emphasis on Weighting Factors

    Principal Types of Weights

5. Sources of Revenue

    Education- Financed by Government

    The Taxation System

    Characteristics of a Good Tax System

    Taxes for Education

    Income Tax

    Sales Tax

    Property Tax

    Excise Tax

    Severance Tax

    Other Funding Sources

    Potential New Taxes

6. Education: A State Function

    Early Development of State Responsibility

    Development of Decentralized Educational Systems

    Development of School Finance Policies

    Developmental Stages of School Finance

    The Varying State Programs

    State Ability to Support Education

7. Eroding Local Control

    Changing Rural-Urban Influence on Education

    Basic School District Administrative Units

    The Administration of Local School Districts

    Advantages of Local Control

    Fiscal Independence of School Districts

    Trends in Local Taxation Practices

    Measures of Local Taxpaying Ability

    Local, State, and Federal Tax Responsibility

8. Federal Interest in Education


    Historical Role of the Federal Government

    U.S. Department of Education

    Constitutional Role

    Block Grants, Categorical Aid, and General Aid

    Federal Expenditures

    Fiscal Advantages and Disadvantages

    Increased Government Service

    The Future of Federal Aid to Education

9. The Influence and Climate of the Courts

    Three Waves of School Finance Litigation

    The First Wave of School Finance Litigation

    The Second Wave of School Finance Litigation

    The Third Wave of School Finance Litigation: A Shift from Equity to Adequacy?

    Second-Generation Adequacy Cases

    Impact of School Finance Litigation over Time

    Pressure for Reform

    Finance Reform or Tax Reduction?

    Court Decision Guidelines

10. Public Funds and Nonpublic Schools


    Educational Choice

    The Law and Church-State Relations

11. Financing School Facilities

    The Need

    Early Capital-Outlay Programs

    Capital-Outlay Court Decisions

    State Support

    Equity in Financing Educational Facilities

    The Federal Government and Capital Outlays

    Capital-Outlay Finance Plans

    School Bonding Practices

    Other Alternatives

    Impact Fees

    Sales Taxes

    Future Policies for School Facilities

12. Administering the District and School Budget

    Evolution of Budgetary Practices

    Development of a Systems Approach to Budgeting

    District and School Budgetary Approaches

    District-Level Budgetary Practices

    Administering the District Budget

    School/District Coordination

    Budgeting at the School Level

    Challenge of Leadership

13. Accounting and Auditing

    The School Accounting System

    The Changing Accounting Environment

    Comprehensive Annual Financial Report

    Characteristics of Governmental (Fund) Accounting

    Encumbrance Accounting

    Cost Accounting

    Accrual Accounting

    Receiving and Depositing Funds

    Expending School Funds


    Protecting School Funds

14. Business Aspects of the School Community

    Increased Safety Hazards

    The Business Office

    Supplies and Equipment


    Supply Management

    Risk Management


    School Food Services

15. Human Resources and School Finance

    The Expanded Role of Human Resources Administration

    Teacher Compensation


    Pay-for-Performance-- Merit Pay

    Additional Issues

    Teachers and School Finance

    The Changing Assignments of Teachers

    Administrative and Supervisory Salaries

    Noncertified Personnel Salaries

    Payroll Policies and Procedures

    Government Influence

16. The Road Ahead in School Finance

    The Future of Public School Finance

    Unresolved Issues

    Some Characteristics of Educational Structure

    School Finance Goals

    The Challenge

    Some Characteristics of Educational Structure

    School Finance Goals

    The Challenge

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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