First Peoples : A Documentary Survey of American Indian History

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-10-31
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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First Peoplesdistinctive approach to American Indian history has earned praise and admiration from its users. Created to fill the significant need for a survey text that acknowledges the diversity of Native peoples, respected scholar Colin G. Calloway provides a solid course foundation that still allows instructors to emphasize selected topics of interest to them and their students. The signature format ofFirst Peoplesstrikes the ideal balance between primary and secondary source material, combining narrative, written documents, and visual documents in each chapter.

Author Biography

Colin G. Calloway is a professor of history and Samson Occum Professor of Native American Studies at Dartmouth College. He served for two years as associate director of and editor at the D’Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago and taught for seven years at the University of Wyoming. Professor Calloway has written many books on Native American history, including The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America (2006); One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark (2003); and two books for the Bedford Series in History and Culture: Our Hearts Fell to the Ground: Plains Indians Views of How the West Was Lost (1996), and The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (1994).

Table of Contents

Note: Questions for Consideration precede every group of documents and follow every picture essay. Each chapter concludes with a list of Suggested Readings.

Introduction. American Indians In American History

Perspectives on the Past

America's Master Narrative

Indian History: A Shared Past

Working with Sources

A Note on Name Usage

1. American History Before Columbus

Determining What Came Before

Precontact Population

Creation Stories and Migration Theories

]The Kennewick Man Controversy

Glimpses of Precontact Societies

West Coast Affluence

Columbia Plateau Fishers

Great Basin Foragers

First Buffalo Hunters of the Plains

First Farmers of the Southwest

Farmers and Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands

Emerging Tribes and Confederacies

Seaborne Strangers


A Navajo Emergence Story

Hastin Tlo'tse hee, The Beginning

Corn and Game, Men and Women in Cherokee Society

]Ka'nati and Selu

The Iroquois Great League of Peace

Chiefs of the Six Nations, The Laws of the Confederacy (1900)

PICTURE ESSAY Early American Towns and Cities

]Aerial Photograph of the Ruins
of Pueblo Bonito. Cliff Palace
at Mesa Verde. Taos Pueblo.
Bird's-Eye View of Cahokia Mounds, ca. AD 1100-1150.
]Cahokia Village Life. Indian Village of Secoton. Hochelaga.

2. The Invasions of America, 1492–1680

First Contacts and Enduring Images

Columbian Exchanges

Changing New World Landscapes

Biological Catastrophes

Indians Confront the Spanish

A Mission for Gold and God

Conquest of the Aztecs

Searching for Other Empires

North American Attempts to Colonize and Christianize

The Pueblo War for Independence

Indians Confront the French

Commerce and Conflict

Pelts and Priests

Indians Confront the English

Securing a Beachhead in Virginia

Making a New England

King Philip's War


A Narrative of the De Soto Invasion

Rodrigo Rangel, Account of the Northern Conquest and Discovery of Hernando de Soto (c. 1546)

An Indian Explanation of the Pueblo Revolt

Declaration of the Indian Juan (1681)

Jesuits in New France

Jean de BrŽbeuf, The Mission to the Hurons (1635–37)

A Mi'kmaq Questions French ÒCivilizationÓ

]Chrestien LeClerq, ÒA Micmac Responds to the FrenchÓ (1677)

Two Views of King Philip

Increase Mather, From A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New England (1676)

William Apess, From ÒEulogy on King PhilipÓ (1836)

]PICTURE ESSAY Indian Images of the Invaders

]Invasion of Northwestern Mexico. Spaniards on Horseback.
]Wampum Belt Commemorating a Treaty of Friendship between the Delaware Indians and William Penn.
]Seneca Antler Comb with
an Effigy of a European.
]Haida Argillite Figure Group. The Last Supper.

3. Indians in Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1680–1783

Economic and Cultural Exchanges

Indians in Colonial Society

Colonists in Indian Societies

The Impact of the Fur Trade

The Cost of the Fur Trade

War and Diplomacy in Colonial America

The Language and Lessons of Diplomacy

Wars for America

Division within Tribal Communities

Captives Taken, Captives Returned

Indians and the American Revolution

Attempting to Draw a Line

Taking Sides

Peace Treaties


Franciscans and Caddos in Texas

]Father Francisco Casanas de JŽsus Maria, Report from the Caddo Indians (1691)

An English Treaty and a Penobscot Response

]Treaty between the Abenaki Indians and the English at Casco Bay (1727)

]Loron Sauguaarum, An Account of Negotiations Leading to the Casco Bay Treaty, 1727

A Captive with the Senecas

Mary Jemison, A Narrative of Her Life (1824)

The Revolution Comes to the Cherokees

Henry Stuart, Report from Cherokee Country (1776)

PICTURE ESSAY Painting the Past: Indians in the Art of an Emerging Nation

Penn's Treaty with the Indians. The Abduction of Daniel Boone's Daughter by the Indians. The Death of Jane McCrea. The Last of Their Race.

4. American Indians and the New Nation, 1783–1838

The New Nation Expands

Developing an Indian Policy

Regulating an Indian — and a Land — Policy

Indians Confront Expansion

Building a United Defense

Accommodating and Resisting Change

The Last Phases of United Indian Resistance

Indian Removals

Roots of Removal Policy

The Cherokee Resistance

Implementing Removal

Surviving behind the Frontier


The Treaty of Fort Finney with the Shawnees

Richard Butler, The Journal of General Richard Butler at the Treaty of Fort Finney (1786)

The Lewis and Clark Expedition

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, A Winter with the Mandans (1804–1805)

Foundations of Federal Indian Law and a Native Response

John Marshall, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia 1832)

John Ross, Reactions to Worcester v. Georgia: Letter to Richard Taylor, John Baldridge, Sleeping Rabbit, Sicketowee, and Wahachee (April 28, 1832)

PICTURE ESSAY Indian Life on the Upper Missouri: A Catlin/Bodmer Portfolio

The Interior of the Hut of a Mandan Chief. Diagram of the Interior of an Earth Lodge. Mint, a Pretty Girl. Ptihn-Tak-Ochata, Dance of the Mandan Women. Pehriska-Ruhpa,Moennitarri Warrior, in the Costume of the Dog Danse.Mandeh-Pahchu, Mandan Man. Pigeon's Egg Head (The Light) Going to and Returning from Washington.

5. Defending the West, 1830–90

The Indian West before 1830

Horses Transform the Plains

Jostling for Position on the Plains

At the Confluence of Guns and Horses

Invaders from the East

The Ravages of Smallpox

]Ethnic Cleansing in Texas and California

Losing the West

Wars and Treaties, 1861–68

Battles for the Black Hills

Different Strategies for Survival

The End of Apache Resistance

Return of the Prophets


Sixty Years of Kiowa History

The Dohasan Calendar (1832–92)

Protection and Exploitation in the State of California

]An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians (1850)

The Treaty of Fort Laramie and the Struggle for the Black Hills

Council with the BrulŽ Sioux, April 28, 1868

Council with the Oglala Sioux, May 24-25, 1868

Council with the Miniconjous, May 27, 1868

Treaty with the Sioux — BrulŽ, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arc, and Santee — and Arapaho, 1868

Chief Joseph's Plea for Freedom

Chief Joseph, ÒAn Indian's View of Indian AffairsÓ (1879)

PICTURE ESSAY The Battle of the Little Big Horn in Myth and History

The Death Struggle of General Custer. Custer's Last Fight. Custer's Last Stand. They Died with Their Boots On. Custer of the West. Little Big Man. Lakotas Fighting Custer's Command. Custer's Dead Cavalry.

6. ÒKill the Indian and Save the Man,Ó 1870s–1930

Americanizing the American Indian

Policies of Detribalization

Resistance Takes New Forms

The Dawes Allotment Act (1887)

Indian Territory Becomes Oklahoma

The Educational Assault on Indian Children

Removing Children from the Tribe

Life in the Schools

Surviving the Schools, Using the Education

The Two Worlds of Ohiyesa and Charles Eastman

A Changing World

ÒI Still LiveÓ: Indians in American Society

A New Generation of Leaders

Soldiers and Citizens

Indian Affairs on the Eve of the Great Depression


Dismantling Tribes and Their Homelands

Merrill E. Gates, From the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners

An Indian View of the Indian Bureau

Carlos Montezuma, ÒWhat Indians Must DoÓ (1914)

Sioux School Experiences

Luther Standing Bear, ÒWhat a School Could Have Been EstablishedÓ (1933)

Zitkala-Ša, ÒThe Melancholy of Those Black DaysÓ (1921)

PICTURE ESSAY The Fort Marion Artists

Cheyenne Warrior Striking an Enemy. Gathering for a Dance. Courtship Scene. On the Parapet at Ft. Marion Next Day after Arrival. Distribution of Goods.
]Education of the Fort Marion Prisoners. Wohaw, Self-Portrait.

7. From Indian New Deal to Self-determination, 1930–1980

Shifting Policies and Indian Activism

John Collier and the Indian New Deal

The Indian Reorganization Act

Opposing and Disputing the IRA

Indians and World War II


Indian Claims Commission

Removing the Government's Trust Responsibilities


Drowning Homelands

A Younger Generation Responds

Urban Indians

Rise of Indian Militancy

Siege at Wounded Knee

Legacies of Wounded Knee

Moving beyond Failed Policies

From Paternalism to Partnership

Sovereignty Goes to Court

The Struggle for Natural Resources: Black Mesa and Laguna Pueblo


Two Views of the Indian Reorganization Act

John Collier, An ÒIndian Renaissance,Ó From the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1935)

Robert Burnette and John Koster, ÒA Blueprint for Elected TyrannyÓ (1974)

Indians in the Cities

Anonymous, Life in the City: Chicago (c. 1970)

Ignatia Broker, ÒBrought to a BrotherhoodÓ (1983)

Documents of Indian Militancy

Clyde Warrior, ÒWe Are Not Free,Ó from Testimony before the President's National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty (1967)

Proclamation to the Great White Father and to All His People (1969)

]Mary Crow Dog, ÒI Would Have My Baby at Wounded KneeÓ (1991)

The Supreme Court and Tribal Sovereignty

Supreme Court of the United States, Oliphant v. Suquamish Tribe (1978)

PICTURE ESSAY Indian Artists Depict Twentieth Century Indian Life

]The Visit. Land of Enchantment. Reflections: Tribute to Our Iron Skywalkers. When Coyote Leaves the Reservation (A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Coyote). Osage with Van Gogh or Collector #5.

8. Nations Within A Nation: Indian Country Since 1980

Changes at the BIA

]Self-Rule and Self-Help

Numbers, Identities, and Images

Census 2000: A Profile of Indian America

Who Is an Indian?

ÒRecognizedÓ and ÒNonrecognizedÓ Tribes

Stereotypes Old and New

Choosing Homelands over Wastelands

Building Prosperity in Indian Country: Gaming, a Devil's Bargain?

Taking Back Education

Building Well Nations

Confronting Drugs and Alcohol

Balancing Ways of Healing


Indian America in the Twenty-First Century


Indian Leadership for the Modern World

Vine Deloria, Jr., ÒThe Popularity of Being Indian: A New Trend in Contemporary Indian SocietyÓ (1984)

Wilma Mankiller, ÒReturning the BalanceÓ (1993)

Tribal Colleges: Indian Education for Indian People

The Carnegie Foundation, From Tribal Colleges: Shaping the Future of Native America (1989)

Playing Indian and Fighting Over Mascots

Tim Giago, Mascots, Spirituality, and Insensitivity (1991)

]S. L. Price, ÒThe Indian WarsÓ (2002)

A New Museum, A New Era?

]W. Richard West, Jr., Remarks on the Occasion of the Grand Opening Ceremony, National Museum of the American Indian (2004)

]PICTURE ESSAY History, Tradition, and Innovation in Contemporary Indian Art

]Manly Heart Woman Stealing
Back Horses.
]The Drinker.
]Pursuit of Civilization #4.
]When We Become Our Role
Models #2.
]Twinkle Twinkle Little Star Now I Know Who You Really Are.
]The End of Innocence.
]Indian Men Wear Shirts and Ties.

APPENDIX I: General Reference Works

APPENDIX II: Film Resources

] new to this edition

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