9780137398973

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780137398973

  • ISBN10:

    0137398972

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1998-07-15
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Preface

This text has evolved from a need for a single volume that embraces a wide range of topics in fluid mechanics. The material consists of two parts — four chapters on macroscopic or relatively large-scale phenomena, followed by eight chapters on microscopic or relatively small-scale phenomena.

Throughout, we have tried to keep in mind topics of industrial importance to the chemical engineer.

Part I—Macroscopic fluid mechanics. Chapter 1 is concerned with basic fluid concepts and definitions, and also a discussion of hydrostatics. Chapter 2 covers the three basic rate laws, in the form of mass, energy, and momentum balances. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with fluid flow through pipes and other types of chemical engineering equipment, respectively.

Part II—Microscopic fluid mechanics. Chapter 5 is concerned with the fundamental operations of vector analysis and the development of the basic differential equations that govern fluid flow in general. Chapter 6 presents several examples that show how these basic equations can be solved to give solutions to representative problems in which viscosity is important, including polymer-processing, in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Chapter 7 treats the broad class of inviscid flow problems known as irrotational flows; the theory also applies to flow in porous media, of importance in petroleum production and the underground storage of natural gas. Chapter 8 analyzes two-dimensional flows in which there is a preferred orientation to the velocity, which occurs in situations such as boundary layers, lubrication, calendering, and thin films. Turbulence and analogies between momentum and energy transport are treated in Chapter 9. Bubble motion, two-phase flow in horizontal and vertical pipes, and fluidization — including the motion of bubbles in fluidized beds — are discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 introduces the concept of non-Newtonian fluids. Finally, Chapter 12 discusses the Matlab PDE Toolbox as an instrument for the numerical solution of problems in fluid mechanics.

In our experience, an undergraduate fluid mechanics course can be based on Part I plus selected parts of Part II. And a graduate course can be based on essentially the whole of Part II, supplemented perhaps by additional material on topics such as approximate methods, stability, and computational fluid mechanics.

There is an average of about five completely worked examples in each chapter. The numerous end-of-chapter problems have been classified roughly as easy (E), moderate (M), or difficult (D). Also, the University of Cambridge has very kindly given permission — graciously endorsed by Prof. J.F. Davidson, F.R.S. — for several of their chemical engineering examination problems to be reproduced in original or modified form, and these have been given the additional designation of “(C).”

The website http://www.engin.umich.edu/~fmche is maintained as a “ bulletin board” for giving additional information about Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers — hints for problem solutions, errata, how to contact the authors, etc. — as proves desirable.

I gratefully acknowledge the contributions of my colleague Stacy Bike, who has not only made many constructive suggestions for improvements, but has also written the chapter on non-Newtonian fluids. I very much appreciate the assistance of several other friends and colleagues, including Nitin Anturkar, Brice Carnahan, Kevin Ellwood, Scott Fogler, Lisa Keyser, Kartic Khilar, Ronald Larson, Donald Nicklin, Margaret Sansom, Michael Solomon, Sandra Swisher, Rasin Tek, and my wife Mary Ann Gibson Wilkes. Also very helpful were Joanne Anzalone, Barbara Cotton, Bernard Goodwin, Robert Weisman and the staff at Prentice Hall, and the many students who have taken my courses. Others are acknowledged in specific literature citations.

The text was composed on a Power Macintosh 8600/200 computer using the TeXtures “typesetting” program. Eleven-point type was used for the majority of the text. Most of the figures were constructed using the MacDraw Pro, Claris-CAD, Excel, and Kaleidagraph applications.

Professor Fox, to whom this book is dedicated, was a Cambridge engineering graduate who worked from 1933—1937 at Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Billingham, Yorkshire. Returning to Cambridge, he taught engineering from 1937—1946 before being selected to lead the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cambridge during its formative years after the end of World War II. As a scholar and a gentleman, Fox was a shy but exceptionally brilliant person who had great insight into what was important and who quickly brought the department to a preeminent position. He succeeded in combining an industrial perspective with intellectual rigor. Fox relinquished the leadership of the department in 1959, after he had secured a permanent new building for it (carefully designed in part by himself) before his untimely death in 1964.

Fox was instrumental in bringing Kenneth Denbigh, John Davidson, Peter Danckwerts and others into the department. Danckwerts subsequently wrote an appreciation (P.V. Danckwerts, “Chemical Engineering Comes to Cambridge,” The Cambridge Review, pp. 53—55, 28 February 1983) of Fox's talents, saying, with almost complete accuracy: “Fox instigated no research and published nothing.” How times have changed — today, unless he were known personally, his resume would probably be cast aside and he would stand little chance of being hired, let alone of receiving tenure! However, his lectures, meticulously written handouts, enthusiasm, genius, and friendship were a great inspiration to me, and I have much pleasure in acknowledging his impact on my career.

James O. Wilkes 1 August 1998

Author Biography

JAMES O. WILKES is a faculty member of the College of Engineering, University of Michigan. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Cambridge and a master's and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. He was awarded a King George VI Memorial Fellowship to the University of Michigan, where he has served as department chairman as well as Assistant Dean for Admissions in the College of Engineering. He was named an Arthur F. Thurnau Professor from 1989 to 1992. His co-authorship of previous books includes Applied Numerical Methods (Wiley, 1969) and Digital Computing and Numerical Methods (Wiley, 1973). His research interests are in polymer processing and computational fluid mechanics.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Module Organization xiii
Hardware and Software Requirements xiv
Instructor's Manual xiv
World Wide Web Page xiv
Acknowledgments xv
Author Biographies xvii
Introduction to the Process Control Modules
1(14)
Objective
1(1)
Installing PCM
1(1)
Start-Up Matlab
2(1)
What is Matlab?
2(3)
Using MATLAB as a calculator.
2(1)
Using MATLAB for matrix calculations.
3(1)
Using MATLAB elementary math functions
3(2)
Simulink
5(4)
Glossary of Useful MATLAB Commands
7(2)
Introduction to the Process Control Modules
9(4)
Overview of PCM
9(1)
Summary Of Module Objectives
10(2)
Ending Session
12(1)
Summary
13(2)
Steady State Analysis
15(28)
Objective
15(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
15(1)
Things to Think About---Furnace
15(1)
Things to Think About---Column
16(1)
Introduction
17(1)
Procedure---Furnace
17(14)
Furnace Operation
18(5)
Steady State Process Modeling---Furnace
23(3)
Steady State System Gains
26(2)
Manual Control of the Furnace
28(3)
Procedure---Column
31(11)
Column Operation
32(1)
Steady State Process Modeling---Column
32(6)
Steady State System Gains
38(1)
Manual Control of the Column
39(3)
Summary
42(1)
First-Order Dynamic System Analysis
43(8)
Objective
43(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
43(1)
Things to Think About
43(1)
Introduction
43(1)
Procedure
44(6)
System Identification Problem
47(3)
Summary
50(1)
Second-Order Dynamic System Analysis
51(8)
Objective
51(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
51(1)
Things to Think About
51(1)
Introduction
52(1)
Procedure
53(5)
System Identification Problem
55(3)
Summary
58(1)
Frequency Domain Analysis
59(8)
Objective
59(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
59(1)
Things to Think About
59(1)
Introduction
60(1)
Procedure---Both Units
60(3)
Frequency Response of a First-order System
61(1)
General Pulse Testing Procedure
62(1)
Frequency Response of Unknown Systems
62(1)
Procedure---Furnace
63(1)
Procedure---Column
64(1)
Summary
64(1)
Appendix: plot_bode AND pcmfft COMMANDS
65(2)
plot_bode
65(1)
pcmfft
65(2)
Transient Response Analysis
67(20)
Objective
67(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
67(1)
Things to Think About
67(1)
Introduction
68(1)
Procedure---Furnace
68(9)
Data Collection
68(2)
Modeling the Furnace
70(4)
Validation of Furnace Models
74(3)
Procedure---Column
77(9)
Data Collection
78(2)
Modeling the Column
80(2)
Validation of Column Models
82(4)
Summary
86(1)
Steady State Feedback Control
87(12)
Objective
87(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
87(1)
Things to Think About---Both Units
87(1)
Introduction
88(1)
Procedure---Furnace
89(4)
Proportional Control
89(1)
Proportional Control for a Disturbance
90(1)
Proportional-Integral (PI) Control
91(1)
Proportional-Integral (PI) Control for a Disturbance
92(1)
Procedure---Column
93(5)
Proportional Control
93(1)
Proportional Control for a Disturbance
94(1)
Proportional-Integral (PI) Control
95(2)
Proportional-Integral (PI) Control for a Disturbance
97(1)
Summary
98(1)
Controller Tuning
99(8)
Objective
99(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
99(1)
Things to Think About
99(1)
Introduction
100(1)
Procedure---Furnace
101(3)
Closed-Loop Auto Relay Tuning Method
103(1)
Procedure---Column
104(2)
Closed-Loop Auto Relay Tuning Method
105(1)
Summary
106(1)
Feedforward Control
107(8)
Objective
107(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
107(1)
Things to Think About
107(1)
Introduction
108(1)
Procedure---Furnace
109(2)
Procedure---Column
111(3)
Summary
114(1)
IMC and Multivariable Control
115(8)
Objective
115(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
115(1)
Things To Think About
115(1)
Introduction
116(1)
Internal Model Control (IMC)
116(1)
Decoupling Control
117(1)
Procedure---Furnace
117(3)
Decoupling
119(1)
Procedure---Column
120(2)
Decoupling
121(1)
Summary
122(1)
Discrete Time System Modeling
123(6)
Objective
123(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
123(1)
Things to Think About
123(1)
Introduction
124(1)
Procedure
125(3)
Summary
128(1)
Discrete Control
129(10)
Objective
129(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
129(1)
Things to Think About
129(1)
Introduction
130(1)
Procedure---Furnace
131(4)
Discrete Internal Model Control
133(2)
Procedure---Column
135(3)
Discrete Internal Model Control
137(1)
Summary
138(1)
Model Predictive Control
139(8)
Objective
139(1)
Open-Ended Module Procedure
139(1)
Things to Think About
139(1)
Introduction
140(1)
Procedure-Furnace
141(3)
Procedure---Column
144(2)
Summary
146(1)
About The CD 147

Excerpts

Preface This text has evolved from a need for a single volume that embraces a wide range of topics in fluid mechanics. The material consists of two parts four chapters on macroscopic or relatively large-scale phenomena, followed by eight chapters on microscopic or relatively small-scale phenomena. Throughout, we have tried to keep in mind topics of industrial importance to the chemical engineer. Part IMacroscopic fluid mechanics. Chapter 1 is concerned with basic fluid concepts and definitions, and also a discussion of hydrostatics. Chapter 2 covers the three basic rate laws, in the form of mass, energy, and momentum balances. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with fluid flow through pipes and other types of chemical engineering equipment, respectively. Part IIMicroscopic fluid mechanics. Chapter 5 is concerned with the fundamental operations of vector analysis and the development of the basic differential equations that govern fluid flow in general. Chapter 6 presents several examples that show how these basic equations can be solved to give solutions to representative problems in which viscosity is important, including polymer-processing, in rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Chapter 7 treats the broad class of inviscid flow problems known as irrotational flows; the theory also applies to flow in porous media, of importance in petroleum production and the underground storage of natural gas. Chapter 8 analyzes two-dimensional flows in which there is a preferred orientation to the velocity, which occurs in situations such as boundary layers, lubrication, calendering, and thin films. Turbulence and analogies between momentum and energy transport are treated in Chapter 9. Bubble motion, two-phase flow in horizontal and vertical pipes, and fluidization including the motion of bubbles in fluidized beds are discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 introduces the concept of non-Newtonian fluids. Finally, Chapter 12 discusses the Matlab PDE Toolbox as an instrument for the numerical solution of problems in fluid mechanics. In our experience, an undergraduate fluid mechanics course can be based on Part I plus selected parts of Part II. And a graduate course can be based on essentially the whole of Part II, supplemented perhaps by additional material on topics such as approximate methods, stability, and computational fluid mechanics. There is an average of about five completely worked examples in each chapter. The numerous end-of-chapter problems have been classified roughly as easy (E), moderate (M), or difficult (D). Also, the University of Cambridge has very kindly given permission graciously endorsed by Prof. J.F. Davidson, F.R.S. for several of their chemical engineering examination problems to be reproduced in original or modified form, and these have been given the additional designation of "(C)." The website http://www.engin.umich.edu/~fmche is maintained as a " bulletin board" for giving additional information about Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers hints for problem solutions, errata, how to contact the authors, etc. as proves desirable. I gratefully acknowledge the contributions of my colleague Stacy Bike, who has not only made many constructive suggestions for improvements, but has also written the chapter on non-Newtonian fluids. I very much appreciate the assistance of several other friends and colleagues, including Nitin Anturkar, Brice Carnahan, Kevin Ellwood, Scott Fogler, Lisa Keyser, Kartic Khilar, Ronald Larson, Donald Nicklin, Margaret Sansom, Michael Solomon, Sandra Swisher, Rasin Tek, and my wife Mary Ann Gibson Wilkes. Also very helpful were Joanne Anzalone, Barbara Cotton, Bernard Goodwin, Robert Weisman and the staff at Prentice Hall, and the many students who have taken my courses. Others are ack

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