9781319035297

Focus on Writing: Paragraphs and Essays

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319035297

  • ISBN10:

    1319035299

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-10-14
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

Focus on Writing offers students clear, thorough coverage of writing college paragraphs and essays in a visually inviting format and with a unique tool for assessing and revising writing: the easy-to-grasp, easy-to-remember TEST method. Reinforcing the most important elements in academic writing--Topic sentence or Thesis statement, Evidence, Summary statement, and Transitions--this practical tool helps students self-edit their writing for unity, support, and coherence. In this edition, best-selling authors Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell have added even stronger support for academic and college success with a new introduction “How Writing Can Help You Succeed” and a new appendix chapter on Strategies for College Success.  

Author Biography

During their long collaboration, Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell have written a number of best-selling college texts for Bedford/St. Martin's, including Patterns for College Writing, Foundations First, Writing First, Focus on Writing, and, most recently, Practical Argument. Laurie Kirszner is a Professor of English, Emeritus at the University of the Sciences, where she has taught composition, literature, creative writing, and scientific writing, and served as coordinator of the first-year writing program.  Stephen Mandell is a Professor of English at Drexel University, where he founded and directed the basic writing program and has taught composition, literature, speech, and technical and business writing.

Table of Contents

Focus on Writing 4e
 
Contents
 
Preface 

Teaching with LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers

A Note to Students 

Thematic Table of Contents 

Introduction: How Writing Can Help You Succeed

BECOMING A CRITICAL READER
 
Unit 1

Unit 1 Becoming a Critical Reader 

1 READING TO WRITE
 
1a Previewing 
 
1b Highlighting 
1c Annotating 
 
1d Outlining 
1e Summarizing 
 
1f Writing a Response  
 
1g Reading in the Classroom, in the Community, and in the Workplace 
 Reading Textbooks  ■ Reading News Articles  ■ Reading on the Job 
 Review Checklist: Reading to Write 

WRITING PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS
 
Unit 2

Unit 2 Focus on Paragraphs 

2 Writing a Paragraph 

2a
 Focusing on Your Assignment, Purpose, and Audience 

2b Finding Ideas to Write About 
Freewriting  ■ Brainstorming  ■ Clustering  ■ Keeping a Journal 

2c Identifying Your Main Idea and Writing a Topic Sentence 

2d Choosing Supporting Points 

2e Developing Supporting Points 

2f Making an Outline 

2g Drafting Your Paragraph 

2h TESTing Your Paragraph 

2i Revising Your Paragraph

Using Self-Assessment              Using Peer Review

Self-Assessment Checklist: Revising Your Paragraph

2j Editing and Proofreading Your Paragraph 

Self-Assessment Checklist: Editing Your Paragraph 
Review Checklist: Writing a Paragraph

3 TESTing Your Paragraphs 

3a
 TESTing for a Topic Sentence 

3b TESTing for Evidence 

3c TESTing for a Summary Statement 

3d TESTing for Transitions 

Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: TESTing Your Paragraphs 
 
4 Exemplification Paragraphs 
4a Understanding Exemplification  
4b Case Study: A Student Writes an Exemplification Paragraph           82
TESTing an Exemplification Paragraph               86

5 Narrative Paragraphs 

5a
 Understanding Narration  
5b Case Study: A Student Writes a Narrative Paragraph
TESTing a Narrative Paragraph 

6 Process Paragraphs

6a Understanding Process

6b Case Study: A Student Writes a Process Paragraph 
TESTing a Process Paragraph 

7 Cause-and-Effect Paragraphs 

7a Understanding Cause and Effect  

7b Case Study: A Student Writes a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph 
TESTing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph 

8 Comparison-and-Contrast Paragraphs 

8a Understanding Comparison and Contrast  
8b Case Study: A Student Writes a Comparison-and-Contrast Paragraph 
TESTing a Comparison-and-Contrast Paragraph 
9 Descriptive Paragraphs 
9a Understanding Description 
9b Case Study: A Student Writes a Descriptive Paragraph 
TESTing a Descriptive Paragraph 
 
10 Classification Paragraphs 
10a Understanding Classification  
10b Case Study: A Student Writes a Classification Paragraph 
TESTing a Classification Paragraph 
11 Definition Paragraphs 
11a Understanding Definition  
11b Case Study: A Student Writes a Definition Paragraph 
TESTing a Definition Paragraph 
12 Argument Paragraphs 
12a Understanding Argument  
12b Case Study: A Student Writes an Argument Paragraph 
TESTing an Argument Paragraph 
 
Unit 3
Unit 3 Focus on Essays
13 Writing an Essay 
13a Understanding Essay Structure 
13b Moving from Assignment to Topic 
13c Finding Ideas to Write About 
Freewriting  ■ Brainstorming  ■ Keeping a Journal 
13d Stating Your Thesis 
13e Choosing Supporting Points 
13f Making an Outline 
13g Drafting Your Essay 
13h TESTing Your Essay 
13i Revising Your Essay 
Self-Assessment Checklist: Revising Your Essay 
13j Editing  and Proofreading Your Essay 
Self-Assessment Checklist: Editing and Proofreading Your Essay 
13k Checking Your Essay’s Format
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Writing an Essay 
14 Introductions and Conclusions 
14a Introductions
Beginning with a Narrative  ■ Beginning with a Question (or a Series of Questions) ■ Beginning with a Definition  ■ Beginning with a Quotation  ■ Beginning with a Surprising Statement 
14b Conclusions 
Concluding with a Narrative  ■ Concluding with a Recommendation ■ Concluding with a Quotation■ Concluding with a Prediction 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Introductions and Conclusions 
15 Patterns of Essay Development: EXEMPLIFICATION, NARRATION, PROCESS, CAUSE AND EFFECT, COMPARISON AND CONTRAST
15a Exemplification Essays 
TESTing an Exemplification Essay 
EXEMPLIFICATION IN ACTION: FARHAD MANJOO, “NO I DO NOT WANT TO PET YOUR DOG”
15b Narrative Essays 
TESTing a Narrative Essay 
NARRATION IN ACTION: LYNDA BARRY, “THE SANCTUARY OF SCHOOL”
15c Process Essays 
TESTing a Process Essay 
 PROCESS IN ACTION: RUSSELL BAKER, “SLICE OF LIFE”
15d Cause-and-Effect Essays 
TESTing a Cause-and-Effect Essay 
CAUSE AND EFFECT IN ACTION: KATHLEEN E. BACHYNSKI AND DANIEL S. GOLDBERG, “FACING THE CONCUSSION RISKS OF YOUTH FOOTBALL”
15e Comparison-and-Contrast Essays 
TESTing a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay 
COMPARISON AND CONTRAST IN ACTION: MICHAEL MARTINEZ, “MIGRANT VS. REFUGEE: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?”
CHAPTER 16      PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION, CLASSIFICATION, DEFINITION, ARGUMENT
 
16a Descriptive Essays 
TESTing a Descriptive Essay 
DESCRIPTION IN ACTION: ROBERT RAMIREZ, “THE BARRIO”
16b Classification Essays 
TESTing a Classification Essay 
CLASSIFICATION IN ACTION: AMY TAN, “MOTHER TONGUE”
16c Definition Essays 
TESTing a Definition Essay 
DEFINITION IN ACTION: JUDY BRADY, “I WANT A WIFE”
16d Argument Essays 
TESTing an Argument Essay 
ARGUMENT IN ACTION: BEN CARSON, “VACCINATIONS ARE FOR THE GOOD OF THE NATION”
Review Checklist: Patterns of Essay Development 
REVISING AND EDITING YOUR WRITING
Unit 4
 
Unit 4 Writing Effective Sentences 
 
17 Writing Simple Sentences 
17a Identifying Subjects 
17b  Identifying  Prepositional Phrases
17c Identifying Verbs
Action Verbs  ■ Linking Verbs 364 ■ Helping Verbs 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Writing Simple Sentences 
18 Writing Compound Sentences 
18a Using Coordinating Conjunctions
18b Using Semicolons 
18c Using Transitional Words and Phrases 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Writing Compound Sentences 
19 Writing Complex Sentences 
19a Identifying Complex Sentences 
19b Using Subordinating Conjunctions
19c Using Relative Pronouns
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Writing Complex Sentences 
20 Writing Varied Sentences 
20a Varying Sentence Types 
20b Varying Sentence Openings 
Beginning with Adverbs  ■ Beginning with Prepositional Phrases 
20c Combining Sentences 
Using -ing Modifiers  ■ Using -ed Modifiers  ■ Using a Series of Words  ■ Using Appositives 
20d Mixing Long and Short Sentences 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Writing Varied Sentences 
21 Using Parallelism
21a Recognizing Parallel Structure 
21b Using Parallel Structure 
Paired Items  ■ Items in a Series  ■ Items in a List or in an Outline 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Using Parallelism 
22 Using Words Effectively
22a Using Specific Words 
22b Using Concise Language 
22c Avoiding Slang 
22d Avoiding Clichés 
22e Using Similes and Metaphors 
22f Avoiding Sexist Language 
22g Commonly Confused Words 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Using Words Effectively 
Unit Review 
Unit 5 Solving Common Sentence Problems 
23 Run-Ons
23a Recognizing Run-Ons 
23b Correcting Run-Ons 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Run-Ons 
24 Fragments
24a Recognizing Fragments 
24b Missing-Subject Fragments 
24c Phrase Fragments 
Appositive Fragments  ■ Prepositional Phrase Fragments■ Infinitive Fragments 
24d -ing Fragments 
24e Dependent-Clause Fragments 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Fragments 
25 Subject-Verb Agreement
25a Understanding Subject-Verb Agreement 
26b Compound Subjects 
25c Be, Have, and Do 
25d Words between Subject and Verb 
25e Collective Noun Subjects 
25f Indefinite Pronoun Subjects
 
25g Verbs before Subjects 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Subject-Verb Agreement 
26 Illogical Shifts 
26a Shifts in Tense
26b Shifts in Person
26c Shifts in Voice
Chapter Review
Review Checklist: Illogical Shifts 
27 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 
27a Correcting Misplaced Modifiers 
27b Correcting Dangling Modifiers 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 
Unit Review 
Unit 6 Understanding Basic Grammar 
28 Verbs: Past Tense
28a Regular Verbs 
28b Irregular Verbs 
28c Problem Verbs: Be 
28d Problem Verbs: Can/Could and Will/Would 
Can/Could  ■ Will/Would 
Chapter Review
Review Checklist: Verbs: Past Tense 
29 Verbs: Past Participles
29a Regular Past Participles 
29b Irregular Past Participles 
29c The Present Perfect Tense 

29d The Past Perfect Tense 
29e Past Participles as Adjectives 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Verbs: Past Participles 
30 Nouns and Pronouns
30a Identifying Nouns 
30b Forming Plural Nouns 
30c Identifying Pronouns 
30d Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 
30e Special Problems with Agreement 
Compound Antecedents  ■ Indefinite Pronoun Antecedents  ■ Collective Noun Antecedents 
30f Vague and Unnecessary Pronouns 
Vague Pronouns  ■ Unnecessary Pronouns 
30g Pronoun Case 
Subjective Case ■ Objective Case ■ Possessive Case 
30h Special Problems with Pronoun Case 
Pronouns in Compounds  ■ Pronouns in Comparisons  ■ Who and Whom, Whoever and Whomever 
30i Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns 
Reflexive Pronouns  ■ Intensive Pronouns 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Nouns and Pronouns 
31 Adjectives and Adverbs
31a Identifying Adjectives and Adverbs 
31b Comparatives and Superlatives 
Forming Comparatives and Superlatives  ■ Solving Special Problems with Comparatives and Superlatives 
Chapter Review
Review Checklist: Adjectives and Adverbs 
32 Grammar and Usage for ESL Writers 
32a Subjects in Sentences
32b Plural Nouns
32c Count and Noncount Nouns
32d Determiners with Count and Noncount Nouns
32e Articles
The Definite Article  ■ Indefinite Articles  ■ No Article  ■ Articles with Proper Nouns
32f Negative Statements and Questions
Negative Statements  ■ Questions 
32g Verb Tense 
32h Stative Verbs
32i Modal Auxiliaries
32j Gerunds
32k Placing Modifiers in Order
Required Order ■ Preferred Order 
32l Choosing Prepositions 
32m Prepositions in Familiar Expressions 
32n Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs

Separable Phrasal Verbs  ■ Inseparable Phrasal Verbs 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Grammar and Usage for ESL Writers 
Unit Review 
Unit 7 Understanding Punctuation and Mechanics 
33 Using Commas
33a Commas in a Series 
33b Commas with Introductory Phrases and Transitional Words and Phrases 
Introductory Phrases  ■ Transitional Words and Phrases 
33c Commas with Appositives 
33d Commas with Nonrestrictive Clauses 
33e Commas in Dates and Addresses 
Dates ■ Addresses 
33f Unnecessary Commas 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Using Commas 
34 Using Apostrophes
34a Apostrophes in Contractions 
34b Apostrophes in Possessives 
Singular Nouns and Indefinite Pronouns  ■ Plural Nouns 
34c Incorrect Use of Apostrophes 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Using Apostrophes 
35 Understanding Mechanics 
35a Capitalizing Proper Nouns
35b Punctuating Direct Quotations 
Identifying Tag at the Beginning ■ Identifying Tag at the End  ■ Identifying Tag in the Middle ■ Identifying Tag between Two Sentences 
35c Setting Off Titles 
35d Hyphens 
35e Abbreviations 
35f Numbers 
35g Using Minor Punctuation Marks 
The Semicolon  ■ The Colon  ■ The Dash  ■ Parentheses 
Chapter Review 
Review Checklist: Understanding Mechanics 
Unit Review 
 
Unit 8
 
Unit 8 Reading Essays 
36 Readings for Writers 
Naomi S. Baron, “The Case Against E-Readers: Why Reading Paper Books Is Better For Your Mind”
Jennine Capó Crucet, “Taking My Parents to College”
John Gray, “Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus”
Tom Hanks, “I Owe It All to Community College”
LeBron James, “I’m Coming Home”
Marina Keegan, “Stability in Motion”
Caroline Knapp, “How to Have a Dog’s Life”
Nicholas Kristof, “Our Blind Spot about Guns”
Ben Mattlin, “An Act That Enabled Acceptance”
Christopher Monks, “Group Mobilization as a Desperate Cry for Help”
Eileen Pollack, “What’s Really Keeping Women Out of Tech”
Estelle Tang, “An Open Letter to All My Male Friends”
APPENDIX A: STRATEGIES FOR COLLEGE SUCCESS
A1 MANGING YOUR TIME
A2 TAKING NOTES IN CLASS
A3 DOING HOMEWORK
A4 TAKING EXAMS
APPENDIX B: STRATEGIES FOR DOING RESEARCH
B1 FINDING AND EVALUATING INFORMATION
 
B2 USING SUMMARY, PARAPHRASE, AND QUOTATION
B3 USING SOURCES RESPONSIBLY

B4 DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES
B5 MODEL MLA-STYLE  ESSAY
 
Acknowledgments 
Index 
Parts of Speech 
 
 

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