Foreigners in Ancient Egypt Theban Tomb Paintings from the Early Eighteenth Dynasty

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-12-01
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

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In ancient Egypt, one of the primary roles of the king was to maintain order and destroy chaos. Since the beginning of Egyptian history, images of foreigners were used as symbols of chaos and thus shown as captives being bound and trampled under the king's feet. The early 18th dynasty (1550-1372 BCE) was the height of international trade, diplomacy and Egyptian imperial expansion. During this time new images of foreigners bearing tribute became popular in the tombs of the necropolis at Thebes, the burial place of the Egyptian elite.

This volume analyses the new presentation of foreigners in these tombs. Far from being chaotic, they are shown in an orderly fashion, carrying tribute that underscores the wealth and prestige of the tomb owner. This orderliness reflects the ability of the Egyptian state to impose order on foreign lands, but also crucially symbolises the tomb owner's ability to overcome the chaos of death and achieve a successful afterlife. Illustrated with colour plates and black-and-white images, this new volume is an important and original study of the significance of these images for the tomb owner and the functioning of the funerary cult.

Author Biography

Flora Brooke Anthony is Temporary Assistant Professor at Kennesaw State University, USA, where she teaches Art History and Egyptology. Her doctorate was from Emory University and she has received numerous awards and fellowships for her research on foreigners in ancient Egyptian paintings.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Background
I. Previous Research
II. Discussion of Problematic Terms
III. The Tomb Owners and their Titles

Chapter 3 The Cosmic Significance of the Tomb

Chapter 4 Foreigner Typologies
I. People Types
A. Nubians
B. Levantines
C. Libyans
D. Aegeans
E. Oases Dwellers
F. People from Wat-Hor
G. Puntites
II. Contrasting Foreigner Types

Chapter 5 Palatial Decorations
I. The Nine Bows
II. People Types Occurring with The Nine Bows
III. Fully Human Captives
IV. Associated Motifs
V. Surviving Palatial Objects
VI. The Purpose of Audience Halls
VII. Chapter Conclusions

Chapter 6 Underlying Egyptian Concepts in the Tribute Scenes
I. A Note on the Term "tribute"
II. Exchange in the Tribute Scenes
II. Symbolism in Fishing and Fowling Scenes
III. Visual Organizations of the Tribute Scenes
IV. Foreigners as Agents of Chaos
V. Dancing Girls
VI. The "International" Style in Egypt, the Aegean, and the Levant
VII. Hybridism
VIII. Captives and Tribute Bearer Motifs in the Same Tomb

Chapter 7 Funerary Symbolism in Tribute Scenes
Chapter introduction
I. Nubia
II. The Levant
III. The Aegean
IV. The Oases
V. Wat-Hor
VI. Punt

Chapter 8 Between Symbolism and Veracity
I. International Diplomacy and Trade
II. Campaigns of the Early 18th Dynasty

Chapter 9 Conclusions

Appendix 1
Appendix 2

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