Foundations of Clinical Research : Applications to Practice

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1993-01-01
  • Publisher: Appleton & Lange
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This book serves as a comprehensive reference for a variety of research situations. This edition reflects the popular approaches to analysis and design, and addresses the focus of health-care related research through the 1990s and into the 21st century.

Expanded or added topics include outcomes research and the disablement model, validity and diagnostic screening, meta-analysis, scales used in survey and outcomes research, logistic regression, measures of reliability, and data management to prepare for computer analysis.

Table of Contents

Foundations of Clinical Researchp. 1
A Concept of Researchp. 3
A Definition of Clinical Researchp. 3
Contemporary Perspectivesp. 4
Sources of Knowledgep. 7
Types of Researchp. 12
The Research Processp. 15
Understanding Method, Content, and Philosophyp. 17
Commentary: Research and Clinical Problem Solvingp. 18
The Role of Theory in Clinical Researchp. 21
Purposes of Theoriesp. 22
Components of Theoriesp. 23
Types of Theoriesp. 25
Characteristics of Theoriesp. 26
Theory and Researchp. 27
Theory and Lawp. 29
Commentary: Applying Theoryp. 29
Ethical Issues in Clinical Researchp. 33
Integrity of the Researcherp. 33
Protection of Human Rights in Clinical Researchp. 34
Institutional Review Boardp. 39
Elements of Informed Consentp. 40
Commentary: A Patient Care Perspectivep. 45
Concepts of Measurementp. 47
Principles of Measurementp. 49
Quantification and Measurementp. 50
The Indirect Nature of Measurementp. 50
Rules of Measurementp. 52
Commentary: When Is an Ordinal Measure Not an Ordinal Measure?p. 57
Reliabilityp. 61
Measurement Errorp. 61
Reliability Coefficientsp. 64
Types of Reliabilityp. 66
Generalizabilityp. 73
Pilot Testingp. 75
Commentary: What Is the True Score?p. 75
Validity of Measurementsp. 79
Validity and Reliabilityp. 79
Validity of Inferencesp. 80
Face Validityp. 82
Content Validityp. 83
Criterion-Related Validityp. 84
Construct Validityp. 87
Evaluating Diagnostic Proceduresp. 92
Measuring Changep. 101
Criterion Referencing and Norm Referencingp. 105
Cross-Validationp. 107
Commentary: The Ongoing Pursuit of Validityp. 107
Designp. 111
The Research Questionp. 113
Selecting a Topicp. 114
The Research Problemp. 115
Importance and Feasibility of the Research Questionp. 117
Target Populationp. 119
The Research Rationalep. 119
Variablesp. 120
Research Objectivesp. 123
Reviewing the Literaturep. 127
Pilot Testingp. 133
Commentary: Putting the Horse before the Cartp. 133
Samplingp. 137
Populations and Samplesp. 137
Sampling Techniquesp. 140
Probability Samplingp. 141
Nonprobability Samplingp. 146
Recruitmentp. 149
Commentary: Sampling, Like Life, is a Compromisep. 150
Experimental Controlp. 153
Characteristics of Experimentsp. 154
The Research Protocolp. 157
Blindingp. 159
Design Strategies for Controlling Intersubject Differencesp. 159
Threats to Validityp. 163
Commentary: The Realities of Clinical Researchp. 173
Experimental Designp. 177
Selecting a Designp. 178
Design Notationp. 179
True Experimental Designsp. 179
Repeated Measures Designsp. 187
Quasi-Experimental Designsp. 193
Commentary: The Design Should Fit the Questionp. 199
Sequential Clinical Trialsp. 203
The Design of a Sequential Trialp. 204
Measuring Preferencesp. 205
Sequential Plans for Evaluating Preferencesp. 206
Limitations of Sequential Designsp. 215
Commentary: Try It, You'll Like Itp. 217
Single-Subject Designsp. 223
Structure of Single-Subject Designsp. 224
Target Behaviorp. 227
Reliabilityp. 231
Experimental Control: Limitations of the A-B Designp. 234
Withdrawal Designsp. 235
Multiple-Treatment Designsp. 238
Multiple-Baseline Designsp. 243
Changing Criterion Designp. 246
Data Analysis in Single-Subject Researchp. 249
Generalization of Findingsp. 258
Commentary: It's a Startp. 261
Descriptive and Exploratory Researchp. 265
Retrospective and Prospective Researchp. 266
Descriptive Researchp. 267
Exploratory Researchp. 277
Commentary: First Things Firstp. 281
Surveysp. 285
Interviews and Questionnairesp. 286
Design of Surveysp. 287
Constructing Survey Questionsp. 293
Scalesp. 299
Q-Sortp. 308
Delphi Surveyp. 310
Analysis of Survey Datap. 311
Informed Consentp. 312
Commentary: They Have a Thousand and One Usesp. 312
Epidemiologyp. 317
Descriptive Epidemiologyp. 319
Analytic Designs: Observational Studiesp. 324
Analytic Designs: Clinical Trialsp. 330
Measures of Associationp. 332
Evaluating Causality in Observational Studiesp. 341
Commentary: A New View of Outcomesp. 341
Other Research Approachesp. 345
Evaluation Researchp. 346
Methodological Researchp. 351
Secondary Analysisp. 353
Meta-Analysisp. 355
Historical Researchp. 358
Commentary: Moving Forwardp. 360
Analysisp. 365
Descriptive Statistics and Measures of Variabilityp. 367
Frequency Distributionsp. 367
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 372
Measures of Variabilityp. 374
The Normal Distributionp. 381
Commentary: Description Only Goes So Farp. 385
Statistical Inferencep. 387
Probabilityp. 387
Sampling Errorp. 389
Confidence Intervalsp. 392
Hypothesis Testingp. 397
Errors in Hypothesis Testingp. 399
Type I Error: Level of Significancep. 400
Type II Error: Statistical Powerp. 402
Concepts of Statistical Testingp. 404
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statisticsp. 409
Commentary: Statistical versus Clinical Significancep. 410
The t-Testp. 413
The Conceptual Basis for Comparing Group Meansp. 413
The t-Test for Independent Samplesp. 416
The t-Test for Paired Samplesp. 422
Inappropriate Use of Multiple t-Testsp. 423
Use of Confidence Intervals to Test Differences between Meansp. 425
Commentary: The Significance of Significancep. 426
Analysis of Variancep. 427
Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples: One-Way Classificationp. 427
Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Classificationp. 432
Analysis of Variance: Three-Way Classificationp. 441
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variancep. 442
Commentary: Beyond Analysis of Variancep. 450
Multiple Comparison Testsp. 453
Type I Error Rate: Per Comparison versus Familyp. 454
Statistical Ratios for Multiple Comparison Testsp. 455
Tukey's Honestly Significant Differencep. 456
Newman-Keuls Methodp. 457
Scheffe's Comparisonp. 460
Bonferroni t-Testp. 461
Simple and Complex Contrastsp. 462
Presentation of Results of Multiple Comparisonsp. 463
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Factorial Designsp. 463
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Repeated Measuresp. 466
Trend Analysisp. 467
Commentary: Choices, Choices, Choicesp. 471
Nonparametric Tests for Group Comparisonsp. 473
Criteria for Choosing Nonparametric Testsp. 473
Procedure for Ranking Scoresp. 475
Test for Two Independent Samples: Mann-Whitney U-Testp. 475
Test for More than Two Independent Samples: Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranksp. 478
Tests for Two Correlated Samples: Sign Test and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Testp. 482
Test for More than Two Correlated Samples: Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranksp. 486
Commentary: Decisions, Decisions, Decisionsp. 489
Correlationp. 491
Scatter Plotsp. 492
Correlation Coefficientsp. 493
Linear versus Curvilinear Relationshipsp. 493
Criteria for Evaluating Correlation Coefficientsp. 494
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficientp. 496
Correlation of Ranks: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficientp. 497
Correlation of Dichotomiesp. 500
Interpreting Correlation Coefficientsp. 505
Commentary: The Stork Was Busyp. 507
Regressionp. 509
Linear Regressionp. 509
Assumptions for Regression Analysisp. 515
Outliersp. 517
Accuracy of Predictionp. 519
Analysis of Variance of Regressionp. 521
Restrictions on the Interpretation of Linear Regression Analysisp. 523
Nonlinear Regressionp. 523
Analysis of Covariancep. 527
Commentary: It's Not That Simplep. 534
Analysis of Frequencies: Chi-squarep. 537
The Chi-square Statisticp. 538
Goodness of Fitp. 539
Interpreting Significant Effects: Standardized Residualsp. 543
Tests of Independencep. 544
McNemar Test for Correlated Samplesp. 551
Coefficients of Associationp. 552
Commentary: Uses of Chi-squarep. 554
Statistical Measures of Reliabilityp. 557
Reliability Theory and Measurement Errorp. 557
Intraclass Correlation Coefficientp. 560
Agreementp. 568
Internal Consistency: Cronbach's Alphap. 575
Response Stabilityp. 577
Alternate Forms: Limits of Agreementp. 581
Commentary: Know Your Reliability Coefficientp. 584
Multivariate Analysisp. 587
Partial Correlationp. 587
Multiple Regressionp. 589
Logistic Regressionp. 597
Discriminant Analysisp. 603
Factor Analysisp. 607
Multivariate Analysis of Variancep. 615
Commentary: Can We Keep It Simple?p. 618
Data Managementp. 621
Recording Datap. 621
Data Codingp. 622
Data Entryp. 623
Data Modificationp. 626
Data Managementp. 628
Commentary: "Anyone can analyze data, but to really mess things up takes a computer."p. 629
Communicationp. 631
Writing a Research Proposalp. 633
Components of the Research Planp. 635
Plan for Administrative Supportp. 639
Presentation of the Proposalp. 642
Commentary: Review, Revise, Edit, Revise, Reviewp. 642
Reporting the Results of Clinical Researchp. 645
The Journal Articlep. 645
The Poster Presentationp. 656
The Oral Presentationp. 658
Commentary: Taking the Final Stepp. 661
Evaluating Research Reportsp. 663
Analyzing Content of an Articlep. 663
Commentary: The Reader's Viewp. 671
Statistical Tablesp. 673
Summary of Statistical Proceduresp. 699
Power and Sample Sizep. 705
The Effect Size Indexp. 705
Power Analysis for the t-Testp. 707
Power Analysis for the Analysis of Variancep. 710
Power Analysis for Correlationp. 714
Power Analysis for Regressionp. 715
Power Analysis for Chi-squarep. 717
Transformation of Datap. 731
Sample Informed Consent Formp. 735
Glossary of Statistical Symbols and Abbreviationsp. 739
Indexp. 743
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