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9781119083900

Foundations of College Chemistry

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119083900

  • ISBN10:

    1119083907

  • Edition: 15th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2016-08-02
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This text is an unbound, three hole punched version.

Used by over 750,000 students, Foundations of College Chemistry, Binder Ready Version, 15th Edition is praised for its accuracy, clear no-nonsense approach, and direct writing style. Foundations’ direct and straightforward explanations focus on problem solving making it the most dependable text on the market. Its comprehensive scope, proven track record, outstanding in-text examples and problem sets, were all designed to provide instructors with a solid text while not overwhelming students in a difficult course.

Foundations fits into the prep/intro chemistry courses which often include a wide mix of students from science majors not yet ready for general chemistry, allied health students in their 1st semester of a GOB sequence, science education students (for elementary school teachers), to the occasional liberal arts student fulfilling a science requirement. Foundations was specifically designed to meet this wide array of needs.

Author Biography

Morris Hein is the author of Foundations of College Chemistry, Binder Ready Version, 15th Edition, published by Wiley. Susan Arena is the author of Foundations of College Chemistry, Binder Ready Version, 15th Edition, published by Wiley.

Table of Contents

1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1

1.1 The Nature of Chemistry 2

Thinking Like a Chemist 2

1.2 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3

Chemistry in action Egyptians, the First Medicinal Chemists 4

The Scientific Method 4

1.3 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5

Physical States of Matter 6

1.4 Classifying Matter 7

Distinguishing Mixtures from Pure Substances 9

Review 10

Review Questions 11

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 11

Answers to Practice Exercises 13

2 Standards for Measurement 14

2.1 Scientific Notation 15

2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 16

2.3 Significant Figures 17

Rounding Off Numbers 18

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 19

Multiplication or Division 19

Addition or Subtraction 20

2.5 The Metric System 22

Measurement of Length 23

Unit Conversions 24

Measurement of Mass 25

Chemistry in action Keeping Track of Units 26

Measurement of Volume 26

2.6 Dimensional Analysis: A Problem-Solving Method 27

2.7 Percent 31

2.8 Measurement of Temperature 34

Chemistry in action Setting Standards 35

2.9 Density 37

Review 40

Review Questions 41

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 41

Answers to Practice Exercises 47

3 Elements and Compounds 48

3.1 Elements 49

Natural States of the Elements 49

Distribution of Elements 50

Names of the Elements 51

Symbols of the Elements 51

Chemistry in action Naming Elements 52

3.2 Introduction to the Periodic Table 53

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 54

Diatomic Elements 55

Chemistry in action Smartphone Elements 56

3.3 Compounds and Formulas 56

Molecular and Ionic Compounds 57

Writing Formulas of Compounds 58

Composition of Compounds 60

Review 62

Review Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 63

Answers to Practice Exercises 67

4 Properties of Matter 68

4.1 Properties of Substances 69

Chemistry in action Making Money 70

4.2 Physical and Chemical Changes 71

4.3 Learning to Solve Problems 74

4.4 Energy 74

Energy in Chemical Changes 75

Conservation of Energy 76

4.5 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 76

4.6 Energy in the Real World 78

Chemistry in action Popping Popcorn 79

Review 81

Review Questions 82

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 82

Answers to Practice Exercises 85

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 86

5.1 Dalton’s Model of the Atom 87

5.2 Electric Charge 88

Discovery of Ions 88

5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 89

5.4 The Nuclear Atom 91

General Arrangement of Subatomic Particles 92

Atomic Numbers of the Elements 93

5.5 Isotopes of the Elements 93

Chemistry in action Isotope Detectives 95

5.6 Atomic Mass 95

Review 97

Review Questions 98

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 98

Answers to Practice Exercises 101

6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 102

6.1 Common and Systematic Names 103

6.2 Elements and Ions 103

Chemistry in action What’s in a Name? 105

6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 107

6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 109

Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal Forming Only One Type of Cation 109

Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Can Form Two or More Types of Cations 110

Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals 112

6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 113

6.6 Acids 115

Binary Acids 115

Naming Oxy-Acids 116

Review 118

Review Questions 119

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 120

Answers to Practice Exercises 122

7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 123

7.1 The Mole 124

7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 128

7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 131

Percent Composition from Formula 132

Chemistry in action Feeling the Molecular Heat? 134

Percent Composition from Experimental Data 134

7.4 Calculating Empirical Formulas 135

7.5 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 138

Review 141

Review Questions 142

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 142

Answers to Practice Exercises 146

8 Chemical Equations 147

8.1 The Chemical Equation 148

Conservation of Mass 149

8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 149

Information in a Chemical Equation 154

8.3 Why Do Chemical Reactions Occur? 155

8.4 Types of Chemical Equations 155

Synthesis (Combination) Reaction 155

Chemistry in Action CO Poisoning—A Silent Killer 156

Combustion Reaction 157

Decomposition Reaction 157

Single-Displacement Reaction 158

Double-Displacement Reaction 159

8.5 Heat in Chemical Reactions 161

8.6 Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect 164

Chemistry in action Decreasing Carbon Footprints 166

Review 167

Review Questions 169

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 169

Answers to Practice Exercises 174

9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 175

9.1 Introduction to Stoichiometry 176

A Short Review 176

9.2 Mole–Mole Calculations 178

9.3 Mole–Mass Calculations 181

9.4 Mass–Mass Calculations 182

9.5 Limiting Reactant and Yield Calculations 184

Chemistry in action A Shrinking Technology 185

Review 190

Review Questions 191

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 191

Answers to Practice Exercises 195

10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 196

10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 197

Electromagnetic Radiation 197

Chemistry in action You Light Up My Life 198

10.2 The Bohr Atom 198

10.3 Energy Levels of Electrons 200

Chemistry in action Atomic Clocks 202

10.4 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 203

10.5 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 206

Chemistry in action Collecting the Elements 207

Review 212

Review Questions 213

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 213

Answers to Practice Exercises 217

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 218

11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 219

Metals and Nonmetals 219

Atomic Radius 220

Ionization Energy 220

11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 222

11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 223

11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 228

11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 230

11.6 Electronegativity 232

Chemistry in Action Trans-forming Fats 234

11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 235

Chemistry in Action Strong Enough to Stop a Bullet? 238

11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 239

11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 240

11.10 Molecular Shape 241

The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model 241

Review 245

Review Questions 247

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 247

Answers to Practice Exercises 252

12 The Gaseous State of Matter 253

12.1 Properties of Gases 254

Measuring the Pressure of a Gas 254

Pressure Dependence on the Number of Molecules and the Temperature 256

Chemistry in action What the Nose Knows 257

12.2 Boyle’s Law 258

12.3 Charles’ Law 261

12.4 Avogadro’s Law 264

12.5 Combined Gas Laws 266

Mole–Mass–Volume Relationships of Gases 268

12.6 Ideal Gas Law 269

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 271

Real Gases 272

Chemistry in action Air Quality 273

12.7 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 272

12.8 Density of Gases 275

12.9 Gas Stoichiometry 276

Mole–Volume and Mass–Volume Calculations 276

Volume–Volume Calculations 278

Review 280

Review Questions 282

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 282

Answers to Practice Exercises 287

13 Liquids 288

13.1 States of Matter: A Review 289

13.2 Properties of Liquids 289

Surface Tension 289

Evaporation 290

Vapor Pressure 291

13.3 Boiling Point and Melting Point 292

Chemistry in Action Chemical Eye Candy 294

13.4 Changes of State 294

13.5 Intermolecular Forces 296

Dipole–Dipole Attractions 296

The Hydrogen Bond 297

Chemistry in Action How Sweet It Is! 299

London Dispersion Forces 300

13.6 Hydrates 301

13.7 Water, a Unique Liquid 303

Physical Properties of Water 303

Chemistry in Action Reverse Osmosis? 304

Structure of the Water Molecule 304

Sources of Water for a Thirsty World 305

Review 306

Review Questions 307

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 311

Answers to Practice Exercises 311

14 Solutions 312

14.1 General Properties of Solutions 313

14.2 Solubility 314

The Nature of the Solute and Solvent 315

The Effect of Temperature on Solubility 316

The Effect of Pressure on Solubility 317

Saturated, Unsaturated, and Supersaturated Solutions 317

14.3 Rate of Dissolving Solids 318

14.4 Concentration of Solutions 319

Dilute and Concentrated Solutions 320

Mass Percent Solution 320

Mass/Volume Percent (m/v) 322

Volume Percent 322

Molarity 322

Dilution Problems 326

14.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions 327

14.6 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 332

Chemistry in action The Scoop on Ice Cream 331

Review 334

Review Questions 335

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 336

Answers to Practice Exercises 342

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 343

15.1 Acids and Bases 344

Chemistry in action Drug Delivery: An Acid–Base Problem 347

Acid Reactions 348

Base Reactions 348

15.2 Salts 348

Chemistry in action A Cool Fizz 349

15.3 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 350

Dissociation and Ionization of Electrolytes 350

Strong and Weak Electrolytes 352

Ionization of Water 354

15.4 Introduction to pH 355

15.5 Neutralization 357

15.6 Writing Net Ionic Equations 360

Chemistry in action Ocean Corals Threatened by Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Levels 362

Review 363

Review Questions 364

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 364

Answers to Practice Exercises 367

16 Chemical Equilibrium 368

16.1 Rates of Reaction 369

16.2 Chemical Equilibrium 370

Reversible Reactions 370

16.3 Le Châtelier’s Principle 372

Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium 372

Chemistry in Action New Ways in Fighting Cavities and Avoiding the Drill 374

Effect of Volume on Equilibrium 375

Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium 377

Effect of Catalysts on Equilibrium 378

16.4 Equilibrium Constants 378

16.5 Ion Product Constant for Water 380

16.6 Ionization Constants 382

16.7 Solubility Product Constant 384

16.8 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 387

Chemistry in Action Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood 388

Review 390

Review Questions 391

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 392

Answers to Practice Exercises 396

17 Oxidation–Reduction 397

17.1 Oxidation Number 398

Oxidation–Reduction 401

17.2 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 402

17.3 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 406

17.4 Activity Series of Metals 409

17.5 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 411

Review 415

Review Questions 417

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 418

Answers to Practice Exercises 422

18 Nuclear Chemistry 423

18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 424

Natural Radioactivity 425

18.2 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 427

Alpha Particles 427

Beta Particles 428

Gamma Rays 428

18.3 Radioactive Disintegration Series 430

Transmutation of Elements 431

Artificial Radioactivity 432

Transuranium Elements 432

18.4 Measurement of Radioactivity 432

18.5 Nuclear energy 434

Nuclear Fission 434

Chemistry in Action Does Your Food Glow in the Dark? 434

Nuclear Power 436

The Atomic Bomb 437

Nuclear Fusion 438

18.6 Mass–Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 439

18.7 Biological Effects of Radiation 440

Acute Radiation Damage 440

Long-Term Radiation Damage 440

Genetic Effects 440

Chemistry in Action A Window into Living Organisms 441

Review 442

Review Questions 443

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 444

Answers to Practice Exercises 446

19 Introduction to Organic Chemistry (online only) 447

19.1 The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry 448

19.2 Why Carbon? 448

Hydrocarbons 450

19.3 Alkanes 451

Structural Formulas and Isomerism 451

Naming Alkanes 454

19.4 Alkenes and Alkynes 458

Naming Alkenes and Alkynes 458

Reactions of Alkenes 461

Addition 461

19.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 462

Naming Aromatic Compounds 463

Monosubstituted Benzenes 463

Disubstituted Benzenes 463

Tri- and Polysubstituted Benzenes 464

19.6 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 465

Alkyl Halides 466

19.7 Alcohols 467

Methanol 468

Ethanol 469

Naming Alcohols 470

19.8 Ethers 471

Naming Ethers 472

19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 473

Naming Aldehydes 474

Naming Ketones 474

19.10 Carboxylic Acids 476

19.11 Esters 478

Chemistry in action Getting Clothes CO2 Clean! 479

19.12 Polymers—Macromolecules 480

Review 482

Review Questions 484

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 485

Answers to Practice Exercises 489

20 Introduction to Biochemistry (online only) 491

20.1 Chemistry in Living Organisms 492

20.2 Carbohydrates 492

Monosaccharides 492

Disaccharides 494

Polysaccharides 496

20.3 Lipids 497

20.4 Amino Acids and Proteins 501

Chemistry in action The Taste of Umami 505

20.5 Enzymes 506

20.6 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and Genetics 508

DNA and Genetics 512

Review 514

Review Questions and Exercises 515

Answers to Practice Exercises 517

Appendices A1

1 Mathematical and Review A1

2 Units of Measurement A10

3 Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures A11

4 Solubility Table A12

5 Answers to Selected Exercises A13

Glossary G1

Index I1

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