Foundations of Criminal Justice

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2014-07-11
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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What is law? What is deviance? What is justice? How is justice achieved through law, punishment, and criminal justice agencies? Foundations of Criminal Justice, Second Edition, uses a unique approach that provides students with the framework and the intellectual tools that they will need in order to critically analyze and evaluate the nature, sources, scope, purposes, and practical limitations of the criminal justice system. This is the only introductory survey text that moves beyond a description of the criminal justice system, helping students understand the role of criminal justice in their lives as criminal justice practitioners and as active citizens.

Author Biography

Stephen S. Owen is Professor and Chair of Criminal Justice at Radford University.

Henry F. Fradella is Professor of Law, Criminal Justice, and Forensic Studies at California State University, Long Beach.

Tod W. Burke is Professor of Criminal Justice at Radford University and Associate Dean for the College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences.

Jerry W. Joplin is Professor of Justice and Policy Studies at Guilford College.

Table of Contents

Photo Essay: Policing Intimate Partner Violence

1. Introducing Crime and Criminal Justice
Case Study: How Would You Spend $10 Million?
Introducing Criminal Justice
Perspectives on Criminal Justice
--Criminal Justice as System
--Criminal Justice as Profession
--Criminal Justice as Bureaucracy
--Criminal Justice as Moral Agent
--Criminal Justice as Academic Discipline
--Applying the Five Perspectives: Police Use of Deadly Force
Defining Crime
--What Crime Is
--What Crime Is Not
The Extent of Crime
--Official Crime Data
--Other Sources of Crime Data
--Crime Data: Tradeoffs and Politics
Looking Ahead
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: DNA Evidence
Appendix: The Criminal Justice System

Unit I: Perspectives on Law
Photo Essay: Morality and the Law

2. Concepts of Law and Morality
Case Study: Justice on Lover's Lane
Criminal Justice and Society
Criminal Justice Strategies and Tactics
--Criminal Justice: Popular Conceptions Versus Academic Scholarship
Morality and Justice Studies
--Kohlberg's Moral Stages
Three Tendencies of Idealists and Pragmatists
--The Mind/Body Relationship
Five Concepts of Morality
--The Nature of a Deity
--Applying Philosophy and Morality to Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice Problem-Solving: Alcohol Policy

3. Concepts of Legal Philosophy
Case Study: Working the Corner
Studying Approaches to the Law
--Principles and Rules in Criminal Justice
Analyzing the Law
Patrick Devlin's Legal Moralism
--Devlin and the Six Concepts of Law
H.L.A. Hart's Legal Positivism
--Hart and the Six Concepts of Law
Other Schools of Legal Philosophy
--Theories of Legal Idealism
Legal Naturalism
--Rights and Interpretative Jurisprudence
--Critical Theories of Law
--Legal Paternalism
--Theories of Legal Pragmatism
--Legal Realism
--Everyday Pragmatism
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Nudist Camps

Unit II: Perspectives on Deviance and Crime
Photo Essay: What Behaviors Are Deviant?

4. Deviance and Social Control
Case Study: A Crime of Fantasy?
An Overview of Deviance
The Social Control of Deviance
--Informal vs. Formal Social Control
--Agents of Social Control
Styles of Social Control
The Medicalization of Deviance
--Medicalization and Criminal Responsibility
--Consequences of Medicalization
Therapeutic Social Control and Public Policy
--Vindication and Putative Backlash
--Other Consequences of Shifts in the Style of Social Control
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Gun Control and Mental Illness

5. Deviance and Criminal Behavior
Case Study: The Case of Carl Panzram
Conceptualizing Deviance
--Crime, Sin, and Taste as a Form of Deviance
--Deviance in Society
Some Explanations of Criminal Deviance
--Historical Perspectives on Criminology
--Modern Biological perspectives on Crime and Criminality
--The Classical School of Criminology
Psychological Theories of Crime and Criminality
--Psychodynamic Theories
--Differential Association
--Techniques of Neutralization
--Personality and Crime
Sociocultural Theories of Crime and Criminality
--Social Disorganization Theory
--Strain Theory
--Delinquent Subcultures
--Social Control Theory
--Labeling Theory
--Conflict Criminology
The Study of Deviance in Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Youth Gangs

Unit III: Perspectives on Justice
Photo essay: Justice, Privacy, and Enforcement

6. Concepts of Justice
Case Study: Sexting
Justice: Fact or Fiction
The Justice in Criminal Justice
--Vigilante Justice
--Transitional Justice
--Ideological Justice
--Discourse Perspective Justice
Postmodern Justice
A Focus on Distributive Justice
--A Classic Approach: Aristotle's Commutative Justice
--An Economic Approach: Bentham's Utilitarian Justice
--A Belief in Punishment: Retributive Justice
--Everyone Is Due Something: Restorative Justice
--But Is It Fair? Rawls on Justice
Individual and Community Interests in Distributive Justice
--Mechanical Criminal Justice
--Authoritarian Criminal Justice
--Compassionate Criminal Justice
--Participatory Criminal Justice
--Toward Justice
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Justice Reinvestment

7. Concepts of Justice Policy
Case Study: The Quagmire of State Marijuana Policy
Criminal Justice and Civil Justice
--Criminal Justice
--Civil Justice
Social Justice and American Values
--American Political Culture
The Development of Criminal Justice Policy
--Stability and Change in Public Policy
--State and Federal Policy
--Separation of Powers
--hemes in American Criminal Justice Policy Development
Forces Shaping Criminal Justice Policy
--Mass Media
--Interest Groups
--Politics and Politicians
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Preschool Crime Prevention

8. Concepts of Criminal Procedure
Case Study: When Are Dog Sniffs"Searches"?
Concepts of Procedural Justice
--Three Philosophical Models of Procedural Justice
--Social Psychological Factors
Two Models of the Criminal Process
Procedural Justice in the Original U.S. Constitution
--Habeas Corpus
--Bills of Attainder
--Ex Post Facto Laws
--Trial by Jury
--Trial for Treason
Procedural Justice in the Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
--The Fourth Amendment
--The Fifth Amendment
--The Sixth Amendment
--The Fourteenth Amendment
--The Exclusionary Rule
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Surveillance and Technology

Unit IV: Penal Social Control
Photo Essay: Bullying

9. Criminal Law
Case Study: Copyright Infringement
The History of Criminal Law
--Criminal Law in Ancient Civilizations
--Criminal Law in Ancient Greece and Rome
--Criminal Law Changes in Early Christendom
--Criminal Law in Early England
--From English Common Law to Modern Penal Laws
Common Elements of Modern Criminal Law
--Actus Reus
--Mens Rea
--Attendant Circumstances
--Causation of Result
Types of Crimes
Defenses to Crimes
Constitutional Limitations on Criminalization
--The First Amendment
--The Second Amendment
--The Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process and Equal Protection Concerns
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Zero-Tolerance Policies

10. Criminal Punishment
Case Study: Three-Strikes Laws
Conceptualizing Punishment
Justifications for Criminal Punishement
--Restitution and Restoration
--Competing Philosophies
The Politics of Whom We Punish
Limitations on Criminal Punishment
--Culpability: A Fairness Principle Requiring Blameworthiness
--Notice and the Principle of Legality
--Proportionality and the Eighth Amendment
The Future of Punishment
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: The Death Penalty

Unit V: Overview of Criminal Justice Institutions
Photo Essay: Toward the Future of Criminal Justice

11. Core Concepts of U.S. Policing
Case Study: Policing a Housing Development
Philosophies of Policing
--Policing in England
--The Political Era (1830s-Early 1900s)
-- The Professional Era (1930s-1970s)
--The Community Problem-Solving Era (1970s-Present)
--The Police and Homeland Security: A New Era?
--Developmental Theories of Policing
The Culture of Policing
--Wilson's Styles of Police Behavior
--Police Officer Personalities
The Structure of American Law Enforcement
--Local Police Agencies
--State Police Agencies
--Federal Agencies
Ethical Issues in Policing
--Levels of Corruption
--Ethical Questions in Policing
--The Dirty Harry Problem
--Controlling Unethical Behavior
Policing Strategies
--Myths About Policing
--Team Policing
--Community-Oriented Policing
--Problem-Oriented Policing
--An Example of Problem-Oriented Policing: Richmond's Sector 213
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Focused Deterrence

12. Core Concepts of U.S. Court Systems
Case Study: Shipwreck
The Structure of the U.S. Court System
--Hierarchical Jurisdiction
--Other Forms of Jurisdiction
The Courtroom Workgroup
--Defense Attorneys
--Other Courtroom Workgroup Members
Criminal Pretrial Processes
--Initial Appearance
--Plea Bargaining
--Pretrial Motions
Criminal Trial Processes
--Jury Selection
--Presumptions and Evidence
--Postconviction Review
Judicial Review
Legal Reasoning
--Philosophies of Legal Reasoning
--The Process of Legal Reasoning
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Problem-Solving Courts

13. Core Concepts of U.S. Correctional Theory and Practice
Case Study: Weightlifting in Prison
The Scope and Purpose of American Corrections
Four Essential Tensions Underlying Correctional Philosophy and Policy
--The Essential Tension of Finance
--The Essential Tension of Research
--The Essential Tension of Discretion
--The Essential Tension of Invisibility
--Summary of the Concept of Essential Tensions
History and Practice of Institutional Corrections
--A Historical Survey of Correctional Institutions
--Current Practice in Correctional Institutions
--Theoretical Perspectives on Prison Life
History and Practice of Community Corrections
--A History of Community Corrections
--Current Practice in Community Corrections
Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Voting Rights

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