The Foundations of Dual Language Instruction

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-01
  • Publisher: Pearson

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The Foundations of Dual Language Instructionis a practical, comprehensive, objective look at dual language instruction and the social, political, historical, and educational issues of teaching second language learners in today's diverse classrooms. With its emphasis on English language learners, the book provides descriptions of effective programs and instructional strategies that can be used in the classroom, and includes sections on the history and legal underpinnings of schooling in two languages, language policy in the U.S. and around the world, considerations of changing demographics and implications for educators, and the dynamics of culture in schooling.

Author Biography

Judith Lessow-Hurley is a professor in the Elementary Education Department at San Jose State University. Her areas of expertise are bilingual and multicultural education. She works primarily with pre-service teachers, most of whom teach significant numbers of second language learners from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. Professor Lessow-Hurley has worked with professional educators across the country and internationally. Along with her expertise in the education of English language learners, she has studied religious diversity in the context of First Amendment protections for religious freedoms in a pluralist democracy. She is also the author of Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners (ASCD, 2002).

Table of Contents

About the Authorp. iv
Prefacep. xii
National Unity and Diversity and the Language(s) We Speakp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Key Questionsp. 1
Changing Demographicsp. 2
Immigrationp. 2
Immigration: A Historical Perspectivep. 2
Other Demographic Factorsp. 4
Implications for Teachersp. 4
A Changing National Narrativep. 5
Unity, Diversity, and Languagep. 6
Language Parochialismp. 6
Language Elitismp. 9
Language Restrictionismp. 10
Implications for Schoolingp. 12
Restrictions on Bilingual Programsp. 12
Outcomesp. 13
Summaryp. 13
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 14
Activitiesp. 14
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 14
Web and Media Resourcesp. 16
Historical and International Perspectives on Language Educationp. 18
Introductionp. 18
Key Questionsp. 18
Historical Perspectivesp. 18
The Ancient Worldp. 18
The Modern Worldp. 19
Dual Language Instruction in the United States: A Historyp. 21
The Nineteenth Centuryp. 21
The Twentieth Centuryp. 23
Multilingualism in the United States: Looking Forwardp. 24
Language Planning, Language Policy, and Schoolingp. 26
Language Suppressionp. 27
Language Revitalizationp. 28
Summaryp. 30
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 30
Activitiesp. 31
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 31
Web and Media Resourcesp. 32
Aspects of Languagep. 34
Introductionp. 34
Key Questionsp. 35
The Study of Languagep. 35
What Is Language?p. 35
Subsystems of Languagep. 36
The Phonological Systemp. 36
The Morphological Systemp. 37
Syntaxp. 37
Semanticsp. 37
Pragmaticsp. 38
Other Aspects of Communicationp. 39
Implications for Teachersp. 39
Language Attitudesp. 39
Are Some Languages Better Than Others?p. 40
Are Some Languages More Expressive Than Others?p. 40
Language Varietiesp. 41
Standardp. 41
Dialectp. 42
Pidgins and Creolesp. 44
Registerp. 44
Is It Slang?p. 46
More Than One Languagep. 46
What Is Bilingualism?p. 46
Code-Switchingp. 47
Bilingualism: A Handicap or a Talent?p. 48
The Ebonics Debatep. 49
Language Lossp. 50
Summaryp. 51
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 51
Activitiesp. 53
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 53
Web and Media Resourcesp. 55
Language Developmentp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Key Questionsp. 57
First Language Development: Memorizing or Hypothesizing?p. 57
Rule Findingp. 58
First Language Development and Comprehensible Inputp. 59
Child-Directed Speechp. 59
The Social and Cultural Contexts of Language Acquisitionp. 60
Input Modificationp. 61
Stages of First Language Developmentp. 61
Order of Acquisitionp. 62
Children as Sociolinguistsp. 63
Second Language Acquisitionp. 63
The Effect of Agep. 64
The Effect of Personalityp. 66
The Social Factorsp. 66
Integrative Models of Second Language Acquisitionp. 67
The Acquisition-Learning Distinctionp. 67
Language Learners and Language Speakers Interactp. 69
Summaryp. 70
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 70
Activitiesp. 71
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 71
Web Resourcep. 72
Dual Language Program Modelsp. 74
Introductionp. 74
Key Questionsp. 74
What Is a Program Model?p. 74
Transitional Program Modelsp. 75
Which Students Do Transitional Programs Serve?p. 75
What Is the Goal of a Transitional Program?p. 75
Transitional Programs: A Lot Better Than Nothingp. 76
Maintenance and Enrichment Programsp. 76
Immersion Programsp. 77
The Results of Immersion: The Canadian Experiencep. 77
Immersion Programs in the United Statesp. 78
Dual Language Instruction in Private Schoolsp. 80
Bilingual Teachersp. 82
Summaryp. 83
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 83
Activitiesp. 84
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 84
Web and Media Resourcesp. 85
Primary Language Instruction for English Learnersp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Key Questionsp. 88
A Rationale for Primary Language Instructionp. 88
Transfer of Concepts and Skillsp. 88
How Does Transfer Work?p. 88
Primary Language Development and Second Language Acquisitionp. 90
Students Need to Develop Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)p. 90
Effects of Bilingualism on Achievementp. 92
Primary Language Instruction and Self-Conceptp. 93
Overall, What Does the Research Indicate?p. 93
If Primary Language Instruction, Then How?p. 95
Separation of Languagesp. 95
Concurrent Translationp. 95
Preview-Reviewp. 96
Summaryp. 96
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 96
Activitiesp. 97
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 97
Web and Media Resourcesp. 98
Second Language Instructionp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Key Questionsp. 99
A Note About Terminologyp. 100
Early Viewpoints on Second Language Instructionp. 100
Grammar Translationp. 100
The Search for Alternative Approachesp. 100
Modern Approaches to Second Language Instructionp. 101
The Audiolingual Approachp. 101
Other Recent Approachesp. 102
Modifying Instruction for Second Language Learnersp. 103
Academic Languagep. 103
Linking Language to Content: A Rationalep. 104
Linking Language and Content: How?p. 105
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP®)p. 110
Literacy and Biliteracyp. 110
What Is Literacy?p. 110
Biliteracyp. 111
How Can Teachers Support Biliteracy?p. 111
Literacy and the Second Language Learnerp. 112
How Can Schools Promote Biliteracy?p. 114
Summaryp. 114
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 115
Activitiesp. 115
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 116
Web and Media Resourcesp. 118
Assessment and English Learnersp. 120
Introductionp. 120
Key Questionsp. 121
Testing Second Language Learners: General Issuesp. 121
Reliabilityp. 121
Validityp. 121
Content Biasp. 121
Can You Eliminate Content Bias Using Translation?p. 122
Construct Biasp. 122
Procedurep. 122
Normingp. 123
Language Proficiencyp. 123
What Is Language Proficiency?p. 123
Models of Language Proficiencyp. 123
Academic Language Proficiencyp. 124
How Is Language Proficiency Assessed?p. 124
Standards-Based Language Proficiency Assessmentp. 127
The Need for Multidimensional Approaches to Assessmentp. 128
Standardized Achievement Testingp. 128
Diagnostic Testing for Placement in Special Programsp. 129
Summaryp. 129
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 130
Activitiesp. 130
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 131
Web and Media Resourcesp. 132
Legal Foundations of Dual Language Instructionp. 134
Introductionp. 134
Key Questionsp. 134
The Historical Context for Dual Language Instruction: World War II and Beyondp. 135
World War II and Foreign Language Instructionp. 135
World War II and Civil Rightsp. 135
Brown v. the Board of Education (1954)p. 136
The Civil Rights Movement and Dual Language Instructionp. 137
Who Governs Education?p. 138
Federal Involvement in Educationp. 138
The Bilingual Education Act (Title VII)p. 139
Discretionary Fundingp. 139
Title VII and Policyp. 140
Lau v. Nichols (1974)p. 140
Interpretation of Laup. 141
Effects of Laup. 141
Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974p. 142
No Child Left Behindp. 143
NCLB Fundingp. 143
NCLB Pros and Consp. 144
State Laws Regarding Bilingual Educationp. 146
Summaryp. 146
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 147
Activitiesp. 147
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 147
Web and Media Resourcesp. 147
Aspects of Culturep. 149
Introductionp. 149
Key Questionsp. 149
What Is Culture?p. 150
What Are the Key Characteristics of Culture?p. 150
Culture Is Dynamicp. 150
Culture Is Creativep. 151
Culture Is Continuousp. 151
Culture Is Learnedp. 151
Culture Is Sharedp. 151
Culture Is a Struggle for Survivalp. 152
How Is Culture Manifested?p. 152
Clothing and Decorationp. 152
Housingp. 153
Time Orientationp. 153
Spatial Orientationp. 153
Valuesp. 154
Culture and Languagep. 155
What Is Multicultural Education?p. 156
What Is the Connection Between Bilingual Education and Multicultural Education?p. 157
Summaryp. 158
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 158
Activitiesp. 158
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 159
Web and Media Resourcesp. 160
Culture, Schooling, and Achievementp. 162
Introductionp. 162
Key Questionsp. 163
Explaining the Achievement Gap: Four Approachesp. 163
Genetic Inferiorityp. 163
Cultural Deficitp. 163
Cultural Mismatchp. 164
Contextual Interactionp. 167
Status, Power, and School Successp. 170
Contextual Interaction as a Solution to Differential Achievementp. 171
What Teachers Can Dop. 171
Summaryp. 172
Questions to Think About and Discussp. 172
Activitiesp. 173
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 173
Web and Media Resourcesp. 174
Bibliographyp. 176
Indexp. 196
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