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Foundations of Early Childhood Education: Teaching Children in a Diverse Society,9780078024481
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Foundations of Early Childhood Education: Teaching Children in a Diverse Society

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780078024481

ISBN10:
007802448X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/19/2013
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $182.25

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Summary

Foundations of Early Childhood Education: Teaching Children in a Diverse Societyis designed to help increase the quality in early care and education programs through training teachers. It features skill building with a solid theoretical base,a nd provides students with an overview of early childhood programs through the use of examples, anecdotes, and scenarios. Readers will come away with an understanding of what makes a quality early childhood education program, where children gain the foundations they need for school success and beyond.

Table of Contents

Contents

PREFACE XIX

ABOUT THE AUTHOR XXV

Part 1

Foundations of the Teaching–Learning Process

The Role of the Early Childhood Educator

1 Early Childhood Education as a Career 4

FOUR THEMES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER TRAINING 6

The Value of Reflective Practice 6
A Multicultural Perspective 7
A Holistic Approach 7
Professionalism 9

CHILD-DEVELOPMENT HISTORY 18

Historical Trends and Figures 18

CHILD-DEVELOPMENT THEORISTS AND THEIR THEORIES 21

PIONEER EDUCATORS 28

Brain Research 30

WHAT IT MEANS TO BE AN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR 31

Legal Responsibilities 32

CODE OF ETHICS 34

A STORY TO END WITH 34

SUMMARY 35

ONLINE RESOURCES 35

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 36

TERMS TO KNOW 36

FOR FURTHER READING 36

2 First Things First: Health and Safety ThroughObservation and Supervision 38

OBSERVATION, SUPERVISION AND GUIDANCE 40

OBSERVATION SKILLS FOR BEGINNERS 41

SUPERVISION SKILLS FOR BEGINNERS 43

Focusing on Individuals and the Group 44
A Crash Course in Guidance 46
Conflict as a Safety Issue 51
Risk Taking as a Safety Measure 54
Helping Children Learn from Their Experiences 54

A SAFE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 55

Developmental Appropriateness 55
Maintenance as Prevention 56
Sanitation Procedures 56
Program Policies and Procedures for Health and Safety 57
Stress and Frustration as Health and Safety Issues 58

A STORY TO END WITH 59

SUMMARY 60

ONLINE RESOURCES 60

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 60

TERMS TO KNOW 61

FOR FURTHER READING 61

3 Communicating with Young Children 62

COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIPS,AND THE COGNITIVE CONNECTION 64

LISTENING: AN IMPORTANT SKILL 66

Listening and Giving Feedback Are Valuable to Communication 66
Listening and Responding to Different Situations 68

HOW TO COMMUNICATE CLEARLY 74

Ask Real Questions, Not Rhetorical Ones 75
Validate Feelings and Perceptions Instead of Discounting Them 75
Address Uncomfortable Situations Instead of Ignoring the Obvious 76
Be Congruent; Avoid Incongruence 77
Watch Out for Double-Bind Messages 78
Use Redirection Instead of Distraction 78
Be Sensitive About Questioning Children 81

USING OBSERVATION AND REFLECTION TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION 82

A STORY TO END WITH 84

SUMMARY 84

ONLINE RESOURCES 84

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 84

TERMS TO KNOW 85

FOR FURTHER READING 85

4 Facilitating Young Children’s Work and Play 86

WHO’S IN THE SPOTLIGHT—ADULT OR CHILDREN? 88

The Teacher as Director and Star 89
The Teacher as Responder, Protector, and Facilitator 90

PLAY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING 90

Focus on Inclusion: Making Play Available and Appropriate for All Children 94
Playing to Get Smart 97
Is Play Always Fun? 97
How Does Play Differ from Work? 98
Types of Play—Cognitive and Social 98
Benefits of Play 102

WORK: A WAY OF LEARNING 104

Adult Attitudes Toward Work and Their Effect on Children 104
Children’s Observations of Adults at Work 105
The Project Approach to Learning 107

THE ADULT’S ROLES IN CHILDREN’S WORK AND PLAY 107

The Adult as Observer 107
The Adult as Stage Manager 109
The Adult as Teacher 110
The Adult as Encourager 112

A STORY TO END WITH 116

SUMMARY 117

ONLINE RESOURCES 117

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 117

TERMS TO KNOW 117

FOR FURTHER READING 118

5 Guiding Young Children’s Behavior 120

APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR AL EXPECTATIONS 122

PUNISHMENT, INCLUDING SPANKING, IS A NO NO 123

What’s Wrong with Punishment? 124
Side Effects of Punishment 127

GUIDANCE ALTERNATIVES TO PUNISHMENT 128

Time-Out 129
Learning from Consequences 130
Setting Limits 130
Redirection 135
Teaching Children to Express Their Feelings 135
Modeling Prosocial Behaviors 136
Focus on Inclusion: Children with Special Needs 140

INTERPRETING CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOR 142

A STORY TO END WITH 145

SUMMARY 146

ONLINE RESOURCES 146

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 146

TERMS TO KNOW 147

FOR FURTHER READING 147

6 The Teacher as Model 148

MODELING NONVIOLENT PROBLEM SOLVING 151

Seeking Information 152
Recognizing Alternatives 154
Considering Consequences 156
The Many Roots of Violence 157

MODELING SELF-ESTEEM 159

Modeling Virtue 159
Modeling Power 160
Modeling Significance 162
Modeling Competence 164

MODELING EQUITY 165

MODELING LEARNING, DEVELOPMENT, AND COGNITION 167

Reflective Practice and The Importance of Observation 169
Creating an Emergent Curriculum 170

A STORY TO END WITH 175

SUMMARY 175

ONLINE RESOURCES 175

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 176

TERMS TO KNOW 176

FOR FURTHER READING 176

7 Modeling Adult Relationships in Early ChildhoodSettings 178

WORKING WITH EACH OTHER: RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHEREARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATORS 181

Being Sensitive to Cultural Diversity 183
Recognizing Some Differences in the Way Adults Approach Problems 183
The Importance of Being Authentic 186
Handling Adult Disagreements Through Dialoguing 187
Teachers Dialoguing: An Example 188

WORKING WITH FAMILIES: PROFESSIONALS’RELATIONSHIPS WITH FAMILIES 190

Making Families Feel Part of the Program 192
Honoring Diversity 193
Focus on Inclusion: A Special Kind of Partnership 194
Recognizing That Parents’ and Providers’ Roles Are Different 195
Handling Conflicts with Parents 196
Facilitating Communication with Families 203
Supporting Families 204

A STORY TO END WITH 205

SUMMARY 206

ONLINE RESOURCES 206

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 207

TERMS TO KNOW 207

FOR FURTHER READING 207

Part 2

Foundations in Supporting Development and Learning 210

8 Setting Up the Physical Environment 212

SETTING UP ACTIVITY AREAS 216

Focus on Inclusion: Modifying the Environment for Special Needs 217
Physical-Care Centers 218
Infant Play Areas 220
Interest Centers 221
Gross-Motor Learning Spaces 222

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENTS 223

“Dimensions” 223
Space 225
How Much Should There Be to Do? 226
Circulation Patterns 226
Balance 228

A SAFE AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT 230

Ensuring Developmental Appropriateness 230
Providing Protection 232
Focus on Inclusion: Safe Environments for All 233
Assessing the Environment for Safety 234
Sanitation and Cleanliness 234

THE ENVIRONMENT AS A REFLECTION OF PROGRAM

GOALS AND VALUES 236

Individuality 237
Independence and Interdependence 237
Cooperation 237
Authenticity 239
The Outdoors and Nature 240
Exploration 241
Aesthetics 242

ENVIRONMENTS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF PROGRAMS 242

Full-Day Child Care Center 242
Half-Day Parent Co-op 243
Half-Day Head Start Preschool 243
School-Age Child Care 243
Family Child Care Home 245
Kindergarten and Primary Programs 245

A STORY TO END WITH 245

SUMMARY 246

ONLINE RESOURCES 246

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 247

TERMS TO KNOW 247

FOR FURTHER READING 247

9 Creating a Social-Emotional Environment 248

QUALITIES OF THE SO CIAL-EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT 250

Respect 250

WARMTH, NURTURANCE, ACCEPTANCE, PROTECTION, ANDRESPONSIVENESS 253

Continuity 255
Focus on Inclusion: A Feeling of Belonging 256

SHOULD THE PROGRAM FOCUS ON THE COMMUNITY OR ON THEINDIVIDUAL? 257

CULTURAL ISSUES 258

The Child’s Home Culture 261
The Dynamic Nature of Culture 265

THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARLY CHILDHOOD CULTURE 267

A STORY TO END WITH 268

SUMMARY 268

ONLINE RESOURCES 268

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 269

TERMS TO KNOW 270

FOR FURTHER READING 270

10 Routines 272

CAREGIVING AS CURRICULUM 274

Synchronous Interactions 278
Attachment 280

PHYSICAL-CARE ROUTINES 281

Feeding 281
Toileting 284
Resting 286
Grooming and Dressing 288
Focus on Inclusion: Adapting Routines for Children with Special Needs 288

OTHER ROUTINES 290

Transitions 290
Group Time 295

A STORY TO END WITH 297

SUMMARY 298

ONLINE RESOURCES 298

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 298

TERMS TO KNOW 299

FOR FURTHER READING 299

11 Developmental Tasks as the Curriculum: How toSupport Children at Each Stage 300

WHAT CHILDREN NEED: A BROAD VIEW 303

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES 306

Young Infants 306
Mobile Infants 309
Toddlers 311
Two-Year-Olds 314
Three-Year-Olds 316
Four-Year-Olds 318
Five-Year-Olds 321

School-Age Children 323

A STORY TO END WITH 325

SUMMARY 325

ONLINE RESOURCES 325

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 326

TERMS TO KNOW 326

FOR FURTHER READING 326

12 Observing, Recording, and Assessing 328

OBSERVING 334

RECORDING 336

Anecdotal Records 336
Running Record Observations 336
Incidents Reports 339
Journals 339
Photographs, Sound Recordings, and Videos 340
Checklists and Mapping 340
Time Samples 343

ASSESSING 345

Assessing the Children 346
Assessing the Program 350

A STORY TO END WITH 353

SUMMARY 354

ONLINE RESOURCES 354

REFLECTION QUESTIONS 354

TERMS TO KNOW 354

FOR FURTHER READING 355

Part 3

Planning for Learning and Development by EnhancingChildren’s Curiosity, Joy, and Sense of Wonder 356

13 Enhancing Children’s Learning and DevelopmentThrough Language and Emergent Literacy 358

DIVERSITY AND LANGUAGE 361

HOW TO FACILITATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 364

Facilitating Language Development in Infants and Toddlers 365
Facilitating Language Development in Two Year Olds 367
Facilitating Language Development in Three, Four, and Five Year Olds 368
Facilitating Language Development in School Age Children 374
Emergent Literacy 375
A Reading-Readiness Approach Versus an Emergent Literacy Approach 378
Emergent Literacy for Infants and Toddlers 379
Promoting the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in Three, Four, and Five Year Olds 380
Promoting the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in School Age Children 383
A STORY TO END WITH 385
SUMMARY 386
ONLINE RESOURCES 386
REFLECTION QUESTIONS 386
TERMS TO KNOW 386
FOR FURTHER READING 387

14 Fostering Joy in Developmentally AppropriateExperiences in Math and Science 388

THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH 390
What Do Children Learn? 391
How Do Children Learn? 391
MATH 392
Infants and Toddlers and Math 392
Preschoolers and Math 394
School Age Children and Math 395
Concepts of Time and Space 395
“Real-World Math” 396
Games 397
SCIENCE 397
A Constructivist Approach Versus Formal Science Lessons 397
Physics and the Project Approach 398
Chemistry and the Project Approach 400
Two Basic Science Concepts 401
Nature Study 403
Transitions Projects 404
BASIC EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS FOR MATH AND SCIENCELEARNING 408
A STORY TO END WITH 410
SUMMARY 411
ONLINE RESOURCES 411
REFLECTION QUESTIONS 412
TERMS TO KNOW 412
FOR FURTHER READING 412

15 Integrating Art, Music, and Social Studies into aHolistic Curriculum 414

ART 416
What Do Children Gain from Art Experiences? 418
Facilitating Art Experiences 421
MUSIC 422
Facilitating Music Experiences 422
Group Time: Singing 423
Group Time: Instruments 425
Creative Movement 425
SOCIAL STUDIES 426
Social Studies Begins with Self 426
From Self to Others 428
From Self and Others to Community 430
HOW THE EARLY CHILDHOOD PROFESSIONAL WEAVES THE FABRIC OF THE PROGRAM 430
Creating and Explaining a Holistic Curriculum 430
A STORY TO END WITH 432
SUMMARY 433
ONLINE RESOURCES 433
REFLECTION QUESTIONS 434
TERMS TO KNOW 434
FOR FURTHER READING 434

ENDNOTES E 436

GLOSSARY G-1 445

REFERENCES R-1 453

PHOTO CREDITS C-1

INDEX I



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