Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-08-07
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Offering a balanced treatment of both theory and practical design solutions, this book examines the fundamental concepts of engineering hydraulics. [NOTE; FROM PREV. ED. TOC] Fundamentals Properties of Water; Water Pressure and Pressure Forces; Water Flow in Pipes; Pipelines and Pipe Networks; Water Pumps; Water Flow in Open Channels; Ground Water Hydraulics; Hydraulic Structures; Water Measurements; Hydraulic Similitude and Model Studies; Hydrology for Design; Graphical Flow Nets: Electric Analog and Numerical Analysis; Solution Charts (Nomographs); Symbols. A very useful reference for practicing engineers who want to review basic principles and their applications in hydraulic engineering systems ***COURSE*** For one-semester undergraduate courses in Hydraulics.

Author Biography

Robert J. Houghtalen, Ph.D., P.E., is Professor and Head of the Civil Engineering Department at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana. Dr. Houghtalen specializes in the areas of hydrology, hydraulics, and stormwater management. He has taught national seminars for ASCE on a number of computer models including HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, and EPA-SWMM. Apart from his academic assignments at Rose-Hulman and Old Dominion University, he has worked for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Wright Water Engineers, Inc. (Denver), the Federal Emergency Management Agency in Washington D.C., and a humanitarian organization in the Sudan. He is co-author of the Federal Highway Administration’s culvert design manual (HDS #5). Prior to this textbook, he has co-authored two others: Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems, 3Ed. (1996 - Prentice Hall) and Urban Hydrology, Hydraulics, and Stormwater Quality (Wiley).  


Prof. Ned H C Hwang received his BSCE from Cheng-kung University in Taiwan, MSCE from UC Berkeley, and PhD in fluid mechanics from Colorado State University. He served as a faculty in Civil Engineering, University of Houston for 25 years. In early 1980s, he developed interests in the flow of blood in cardiovascular systems. He was appointed the Herbert H Herff Chair Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, TN.; 1991-2000, the James L Knight Chair Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL; Since 2000, he was appointed the Director of Biomedical Engineering Division, the National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan until his retirement in 2007. During his tenure, his also served four times as the Director of the NATO-ASI (Advanced Study Institutes) in Cardiovascular Engineering; Honorary Professor of Biomedical Engineering at the King’s College Medical School, University of London; the Technion, Haifa, Isreal;

First Nanyang Chair Professor, the Nanyang University of Science and Technology, Singapore; the West China Medical University, Chengdu, China; etc. Professor Hwang has published four books in cardiovascular engineering, and holds five US patents. He is also a founding fellow of AIBME; fellow of ASME.


A. Osman Akan holds a B.S. degree in Civil Engineering from Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, and M.S. and PhD degrees in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He has over 30 years of teaching, research, and consulting experience in water resources engineering.  His research is documented in 35 journal articles, and numerous conference papers, reports, and book chapters. He received an outstanding journal paper award from the American Society of Civil Engineers  (ASCE) in 1987. He published three earlier books titled, “Urban Hydrology,” “Urban Hydrology, Hydraulics, and Stormwater Quality, “and “Open Channel Hydraulics.” Professor Akan is an ASCE Fellow and a registered Professional Engineer (PE) in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Currently he serves as Associate Dean in the Batten College of Engineering and Technology at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xix
Fundamental Properties of Waterp. 1
The Earth's Atmosphere and Atmospheric Pressurep. 2
The Three Phases of Waterp. 2
Mass (Density) and Weight (Specific Weight)p. 3
Viscosity of Waterp. 5
Surface Tension and Capillarityp. 7
Elasticity of Waterp. 8
Forces in a Fluid Fieldp. 9
Problemsp. 10
Water Pressure and Pressure Forcesp. 14
The Free Surface of Waterp. 14
Absolute and Gauge Pressuresp. 14
Surfaces of Equal Pressurep. 17
Manometersp. 18
Hydrostatic Forces on Flat Surfacesp. 22
Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfacesp. 27
Buoyancyp. 30
Flotation Stabilityp. 31
Problemsp. 35
Water Flow in Pipesp. 51
Description of Pipe Flowp. 51
The Reynolds Numberp. 52
Forces in Pipe Flowp. 54
Energy in Pipe Flowp. 56
Loss of Head from Pipe Frictionp. 60
Friction Factor for Laminar Flowp. 60
Friction Factor for Turbulent Flowp. 62
Empirical Equations for Friction Head Lossp. 67
Friction Head Loss-Discharge Relationshipsp. 70
Loss of Head in Pipe Contractionsp. 71
Loss of Head in Pipe Expansionsp. 73
Loss of Head in Pipe Bendsp. 75
Loss of Head in Pipe Valvesp. 76
Method of Equivalent Pipesp. 80
Pipes in Seriesp. 80
Pipes in Parallelp. 81
Problemsp. 83
Pipelines and Pipe Networksp. 88
Pipelines Connecting Two Reservoirsp. 88
Negative Pressure Scenarios (Pipelines and Pumps)p. 92
Branching Pipe Systemsp. 97
Pipe Networksp. 104
The Hardy-Cross Methodp. 105
The Newton Methodp. 116
Water Hammer Phenomenon in Pipelinesp. 119
Surge Tanksp. 127
Problemsp. 130
Water Pumpsp. 143
Centrifugal (Radial Flow) Pumpsp. 143
Propeller (Axial Flow) Pumpsp. 149
Jet (Mixed-Flow) Pumpsp. 152
Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curvesp. 153
Single Pump and Pipeline Analysisp. 154
Pumps in Parallel or in Seriesp. 157
Pumps and Branching Pipesp. 161
Pumps and Pipe Networksp. 164
Cavitation in Water Pumpsp. 165
Specific Speed and Pump Similarityp. 169
Selection of a Pumpp. 171
Problemsp. 175
Water Flow in Open Channelsp. 184
Open-Channel Flow Classificationsp. 186
Uniform Flow in Open Channelsp. 188
Hydraulic Efficiency of Open-Channel Sectionsp. 194
Energy Principles in Open-Channel Flowp. 197
Hydraulic Jumpsp. 203
Gradually Varied Flowp. 206
Classifications of Gradually Varied Flowp. 208
Computation of Water Surface Profilesp. 211
Standard Step Methodp. 212
Direct Step Methodp. 214
Hydraulic Design of Open Channelsp. 221
Unlined Channelsp. 223
Rigid Boundary Channelsp. 225
Problemsp. 226
Groundwater Hydraulicsp. 232
Movement of Groundwaterp. 234
Steady Radial Flow to a Wellp. 237
Steady Radial Flow in Confined Aquifersp. 238
Steady Radial Flow in Unconfined Aquifersp. 240
Unsteady Radial Flow to a Wellp. 242
Unsteady Radial Flow in Confined Aquifersp. 242
Unsteady Radial Flow in Unconfined Aquifersp. 245
Field Determination of Aquifer Characteristicsp. 248
Equilibrium Test in Confined Aquifersp. 248
Equilibrium Test in Unconfined Aquifersp. 250
Nonequilibrium Testp. 252
Aquifer Boundariesp. 256
Surface Investigations of Groundwaterp. 261
The Electrical Resistivity Methodp. 261
Seismic Wave Propagation Methodsp. 262
Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Areasp. 263
Seepage Through Dam Foundationsp. 267
Seepage Through Earth Damsp. 270
Problemsp. 271
Hydraulic Structuresp. 281
Functions of Hydraulic Structuresp. 281
Dams: Functions and Classificationsp. 282
Stability of Gravity and Arch Damsp. 284
Gravity Damsp. 284
Arch Damsp. 288
Small Earth Damsp. 289
Weirsp. 291
Overflow Spillwaysp. 296
Side-Channel Spillwaysp. 299
Siphon Spillwaysp. 302
Culvertsp. 305
Stilling Basinsp. 310
Problemsp. 314
Water Pressure, Velocity, and Discharge Measurementsp. 321
Pressure Measurementsp. 321
Velocity Measurementsp. 323
Discharge Measurements in Pipesp. 326
Discharge Measurements in Open Channelsp. 331
Sharp-Crested Weirsp. 331
Broad-Crested Weirsp. 334
Venturi Flumesp. 335
Problemsp. 340
Hydraulic Similitude and Model Studiesp. 345
Dimensional Homogeneityp. 346
Principles of Hydraulic Similitudep. 347
Phenomena Governed by Viscous Forces: Reynolds Number Lawp. 352
Phenomena Governed by Gravity Forces: Froude Number Lawp. 355
Phenomena Governed by Surface Tension: Weber Number Lawp. 357
Phenomena Governed by Both Gravity and Viscous Forcesp. 358
Models for Floating and Submerged Bodiesp. 358
Open-Channel Modelsp. 360
The Pi Theoremp. 362
Problemsp. 366
Hydrology for Hydraulic Designp. 371
The Hydrologic Cyclep. 372
Precipitationp. 376
Design Stormp. 380
Surface Runoff and Stream Flowp. 385
Rainfall-Runoff Relationships: The Unit Hydrographp. 387
Rainfall-Runoff Relationships: SCS Proceduresp. 393
Losses from Rainfall and Rainfall Excessp. 393
Time of Concentrationp. 396
SCS Synthetic Unit Hydrographp. 398
SCS Design Hydrographp. 401
Storage Routingp. 402
Hydraulic Design: The Rational Methodp. 410
Design of Stormwater-Collection Systemsp. 412
Design of Stormwater Pipesp. 415
Problemsp. 418
Statistical Methods in Hydrologyp. 430
Concepts of Probabilityp. 431
Statistical Parametersp. 431
Probability Distributionsp. 435
Normal Distributionp. 435
Log-Normal Distributionp. 436
Gumbel Distributionp. 436
Log-Pearson Type III Distributionp. 437
Return Period and Hydrologic Riskp. 439
Frequency Analysisp. 440
Frequency Factorsp. 440
Testing Goodness of Fitp. 443
Confidence Limitsp. 445
Frequency Analysis Using Probability Graphsp. 448
Probability Graphsp. 448
Plotting Positionsp. 448
Data Plotting and Theoretical Distributionsp. 450
Estimating Future Magnitudesp. 451
Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationshipsp. 452
Applicability of Statistical Methodsp. 455
Problemsp. 455
Symbolsp. 461
Answers to Selected Problemsp. 463
Indexp. 469
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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