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9781119695141

Fundamentals of Microelectronics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781119695141

  • ISBN10:

    1119695147

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2021-04-20
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Fundamentals of Microelectronics, 3rd Edition, is a comprehensive introduction to the design and analysis of electrical circuits, enabling students to develop the practical skills and engineering intuition necessary to succeed in their future careers. Through an innovative “analysis by inspection” framework, students learn to deconstruct complex problems into familiar components and reach solutions using basic principles. A step-by-step synthesis approach to microelectronics demonstrates the role of each device in a circuit while helping students build “design-oriented” mindsets.

The revised third edition covers basic semiconductor physics, diode models and circuits, bipolar transistors and amplifiers, oscillators, frequency response, and more. In-depth chapters feature illustrative examples and numerous problems of varying levels of difficulty, including design problems that challenge students to select the bias and component values to satisfy particular requirements. The text contains a wealth of pedagogical tools, such as application sidebars, chapter summaries, self-tests with answers, and Multisim and SPICE software simulation problems. Now available in enhanced ePub format, Fundamentals of Microelectronics is ideal for single- and two-semester courses in the subject.

Author Biography

Behzad Razavi received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology in 1985, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1988 and 1992, respectively. He was with AT&T Bell Laboratories and subsequently Hewlett-Packard Laboratories until 1996. He was also an Adjunct Professor at Princeton University from 1992 to 1994. Since September 1996, Dr. Razavi has been an Associate Professor, and subsequently Professor, of the Electrical Engineering Department at UCLA. He was the Chair of the Integrated Circuits and Systems field of study, and served as Chair of the Department's Annual Research Review for two consecutive years.
Prof. Razavi is a member of the Technical Program Committees of Symposium on VLSI Circuits and the International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), in which he is the chair of the Analog Subcommittee. He has served as Guest Editor and Associate Editor of the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, and International Journal of High Speed Electronics.
Professor Razavi's current research includes wireless transceivers, frequency synthesizers, phase-locking and clock recovery for high-speed data communications, and data converters.

Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROELECTRONICS 1

1.1 Electronics Versus Microelectronics 1

1.2 Examples of Electronic Systems 2

1.2.1 Cellular Telephone 2

1.2.2 Digital Camera 5

1.2.3 Analog Versus Digital 7

1.3 Basic Concepts 8

1.3.1 Analog and Digital Signals 8

1.3.2 Analog Circuits 10

1.3.3 Digital Circuits 11

1.3.4 Basic Circuit Theorems 12

1.4 Chapter Summary 20

2 BASIC PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS 21

2.1 Semiconductor Materials and Their Properties 22

2.1.1 Charge Carriers in Solids 22

2.1.2 Modification of Carrier Densities 25

2.1.3 Transport of Carriers 28

2.2 pn Junction 35

2.2.1 pn Junction in Equilibrium 36

2.2.2 pn Junction Under Reverse Bias 41

2.2.3 pn Junction Under Forward Bias 46

2.2.4 I/V Characteristics 49

2.3 Reverse Breakdown 54

2.3.1 Zener Breakdown 55

2.3.2 Avalanche Breakdown 55

2.4 Chapter Summary 56

Problems 57

SPICE Problems 60

3 DIODE MODELS AND CIRCUITS 61

3.1 Ideal Diode 62

3.1.1 Initial Thoughts 62

3.1.2 Ideal Diode 63

3.1.3 Application Examples 67

3.2 pn Junction as a Diode 72

3.3 Additional Examples 74

3.4 Large-Signal and Small-Signal Operation 80

3.5 Applications of Diodes 89

3.5.1 Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectifiers 89

3.5.2 Voltage Regulation 100

3.5.3 Limiting Circuits 103

3.5.4 Voltage Doublers 106

3.5.5 Diodes as Level Shifters and Switches 112

3.6 Chapter Summary 114

Problems 115

SPICE Problems 122

4 PHYSICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS 124

4.1 General Considerations 125

4.2 Structure of Bipolar Transistor 126

4.3 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Active Mode 127

4.3.1 Collector Current 129

4.3.2 Base and Emitter Currents 133

4.4 Bipolar Transistor Models and Characteristics 135

4.4.1 Large-Signal Model 135

4.4.2 I/V Characteristics 137

4.4.3 Concept of Transconductance 139

4.4.4 Small-Signal Model 141

4.4.5 Early Effect 145

4.5 Operation of Bipolar Transistor in Saturation Mode 152

4.6 The PNP Transistor 155

4.6.1 Structure and Operation 155

4.6.2 Large-Signal Model 156

4.6.3 Small-Signal Model 159

4.7 Chapter Summary 162

Problems 163

SPICE Problems 170

5 BIPOLAR AMPLIFIERS 172

5.1 General Considerations 173

5.1.1 Input and Output Impedances 173

5.1.2 Biasing 177

5.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis 178

5.2 Operating Point Analysis and Design 180

5.2.1 Simple Biasing 181

5.2.2 Resistive Divider Biasing 183

5.2.3 Biasing with Emitter Degeneration 186

5.2.4 Self-Biased Stage 190

5.2.5 Biasing of PNP Transistors 192

5.3 Bipolar Amplifier Topologies 196

5.3.1 Common-Emitter Topology 197

5.3.2 Common-Base Topology 224

5.3.3 Emitter Follower 238

5.4 Summary and Additional Examples 246

5.5 Chapter Summary 253

Problems 253

SPICE Problems 267

6 PHYSICS OFMOS TRANSISTORS 269

6.1 Structure of MOSFET 270

6.2 Operation of MOSFET 272

6.2.1 Qualitative Analysis 272

6.2.2 Derivation of I-V Characteristics 279

6.2.3 Channel-Length Modulation 288

6.2.4 MOS Transconductance 290

6.2.5 Velocity Saturation 292

6.2.6 Other Second-Order Effects 292

6.3 MOS Device Models 293

6.3.1 Large-Signal Model 293

6.3.2 Small-Signal Model 295

6.4 PMOS Transistor 296

6.5 CMOS Technology 299

6.6 Comparison of Bipolar and MOS Devices 300

6.7 Chapter Summary 300

Problems 301

SPICE Problems 308

7 CMOS AMPLIFIERS 309

7.1 General Considerations 310

7.1.1 MOS Amplifier Topologies 310

7.1.2 Biasing 310

7.1.3 Realization of Current Sources 313

7.2 Common-Source Stage 315

7.2.1 CS Core 315

7.2.2 CS Stage With Current-Source Load 318

7.2.3 CS Stage With Diode-Connected Load 319

7.2.4 CS Stage With Degeneration 320

7.2.5 CS Core With Biasing 323

7.3 Common-Gate Stage 325

7.3.1 CG Stage With Biasing 329

7.4 Source Follower 331

7.4.1 Source Follower Core 331

7.4.2 Source Follower With Biasing 333

7.5 Summary and Additional Examples 336

7.6 Chapter Summary 340

Problems 341

SPICE Problems 353

8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AS A BLACK BOX 355

8.1 General Considerations 356

8.2 Op-Amp-Based Circuits 358

8.2.1 Noninverting Amplifier 358

8.2.2 Inverting Amplifier 360

8.2.3 Integrator and Differentiator 363

8.2.4 Voltage Adder 371

8.3 Nonlinear Functions 373

8.3.1 Precision Rectifier 373

8.3.2 Logarithmic Amplifier 374

8.3.3 Square-Root Amplifier 375

8.4 Op Amp Nonidealities 376

8.4.1 DC Offsets 376

8.4.2 Input Bias Current 379

8.4.3 Speed Limitations 382

8.4.4 Finite Input and Output Impedances 387

8.5 Design Examples 388

8.6 Chapter Summary 390

Problems 391

SPICE Problems 397

9 CASCODE STAGES AND CURRENT MIRRORS 398

9.1 Cascode Stage 399

9.1.1 Cascode as a Current Source 399

9.1.2 Cascode as an Amplifier 405

9.2 Current Mirrors 414

9.2.1 Initial Thoughts 414

9.2.2 Bipolar Current Mirror 416

9.2.3 MOS Current Mirror 425

9.3 Chapter Summary 429

Problems 430

SPICE Problems 441

10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 443

10.1 General Considerations 444

10.1.1 Initial Thoughts 444

10.1.2 Differential Signals 446

10.1.3 Differential Pair 449

10.2 Bipolar Differential Pair 452

10.2.1 Qualitative Analysis 452

10.2.2 Large-Signal Analysis 458

10.2.3 Small-Signal Analysis 463

10.3 MOS Differential Pair 469

10.3.1 Qualitative Analysis 469

10.3.2 Large-Signal Analysis 473

10.3.3 Small-Signal Analysis 478

10.4 Cascode Differential Amplifiers 481

10.5 Common-Mode Rejection 485

10.6 Differential Pair with Active Load 489

10.6.1 Qualitative Analysis 490

10.6.2 Quantitative Analysis 492

10.7 Chapter Summary 496

Problems 497

SPICE Problems 509

11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 511

11.1 Fundamental Concepts 512

11.1.1 General Considerations 512

11.1.2 Relationship Between Transfer Function and Frequency Response 515

11.1.3 Bode’s Rules 518

11.1.4 Association of Poles with Nodes 519

11.1.5 Miller’s Theorem 521

11.1.6 General Frequency Response 525

11.2 High-Frequency Models of Transistors 529

11.2.1 High-Frequency Model of Bipolar Transistor 529

11.2.2 High-Frequency Model of MOSFET 531

11.2.3 Transit Frequency 532

11.3 Analysis Procedure 534

11.4 Frequency Response of CE and CS Stages 535

11.4.1 Low-Frequency Response 535

11.4.2 High-Frequency Response 536

11.4.3 Use of Miller’s Theorem 537

11.4.4 Direct Analysis 539

11.4.5 Input Impedance 543

11.5 Frequency Response of CB and CG Stages 544

11.5.1 Low-Frequency Response 544

11.5.2 High-Frequency Response 544

11.6 Frequency Response of Followers 547

11.6.1 Input and Output Impedances 550

11.7 Frequency Response of Cascode Stage 553

11.7.1 Input and Output Impedances 557

11.8 Frequency Response of Differential Pairs 558

11.8.1 Common-Mode Frequency Response 559

11.9 Additional Examples 561

11.10 Chapter Summary 564

Problems 565

SPICE Problems 573

12 FEEDBACK 575

12.1 General Considerations 576

12.1.1 Loop Gain 579

12.2 Properties of Negative Feedback 582

12.2.1 Gain Desensitization 582

12.2.2 Bandwidth Extension 584

12.2.3 Modification of I/O Impedances 586

12.2.4 Linearity Improvement 589

12.3 Types of Amplifiers 591

12.3.1 Simple Amplifier Models 591

12.3.2 Examples of Amplifier Types 593

12.4 Sense and Return Techniques 595

12.5 Polarity of Feedback 598

12.6 Feedback Topologies 600

12.6.1 Voltage-Voltage Feedback 600

12.6.2 Voltage-Current Feedback 605

12.6.3 Current-Voltage Feedback 608

12.6.4 Current-Current Feedback 613

12.7 Effect of Nonideal I/O Impedances 616

12.7.1 Inclusion of I/O Effects 617

12.8 Stability in Feedback Systems 628

12.8.1 Review of Bode’s Rules 629

12.8.2 Problem of Instability 630

12.8.3 Stability Condition 633

12.8.4 Phase Margin 636

12.8.5 Frequency Compensation 638

12.8.6 Miller Compensation 641

12.9 Chapter Summary 642

Problems 643

SPICE Problems 654

13 OSCILLATORS 656

13.1 General Considerations 656

13.2 Ring Oscillators 659

13.3 LC Oscillators 664

13.3.1 Parallel LC Tanks 664

13.3.2 Cross-Coupled Oscillator 667

13.3.3 Colpitts Oscillator 670

13.4 Phase Shift Oscillator 672

13.5 Wien-Bridge Oscillator 675

13.6 Crystal Oscillators 677

13.6.1 Crystal Model 678

13.6.2 Negative-Resistance Circuit 679

13.6.3 Crystal Oscillator Implementation 681

13.7 Chapter Summary 683

Problems 684

SPICE Problems 688

14 OUTPUT STAGES AND POWER AMPLIFIERS 690

14.1 General Considerations 690

14.2 Emitter Follower as Power Amplifier 691

14.3 Push-Pull Stage 694

14.4 Improved Push-Pull Stage 697

14.4.1 Reduction of Crossover Distortion 697

14.4.2 Addition of CE Stage 701

14.5 Large-Signal Considerations 704

14.5.1 Biasing Issues 704

14.5.2 Omission of PNP Power Transistor 705

14.5.3 High-Fidelity Design 708

14.6 Short-Circuit Protection 708

14.7 Heat Dissipation 709

14.7.1 Emitter Follower Power Rating 710

14.7.2 Push-Pull Stage Power Rating 711

14.7.3 Thermal Runaway 713

14.8 Efficiency 714

14.8.1 Efficiency of Emitter Follower 714

14.8.2 Efficiency of Push-Pull Stage 715

14.9 Power Amplifier Classes 716

14.10 Chapter Summary 717

Problems 718

SPICE Problems 723

15 ANALOG FILTERS 725

15.1 General Considerations 725

15.1.1 Filter Characteristics 726

15.1.2 Classification of Filters 727

15.1.3 Filter Transfer Function 730

15.1.4 Problem of Sensitivity 734

15.2 First-Order Filters 735

15.3 Second-Order Filters 738

15.3.1 Special Cases 738

15.3.2 RLC Realizations 742

15.4 Active Filters 747

15.4.1 Sallen and Key Filter 747

15.4.2 Integrator-Based Biquads 753

15.4.3 Biquads Using Simulated Inductors 756

15.5 Approximation of Filter Response 761

15.5.1 Butterworth Response 762

15.5.2 Chebyshev Response 766

15.6 Chapter Summary 771

Problems 772

SPICE Problems 776

16 DIGITAL CMOS CIRCUITS 778

16.1 General Considerations 778

16.1.1 Static Characterization of Gates 779

16.1.2 Dynamic Characterization of Gates 786

16.1.3 Power-Speed Trade-Off 789

16.2 CMOS Inverter 791

16.2.1 Initial Thoughts 791

16.2.2 Voltage Transfer Characteristic 793

16.2.3 Dynamic Characteristics 799

16.2.4 Power Dissipation 804

16.3 CMOS NOR and NAND Gates 808

16.3.1 NOR Gate 808

16.3.2 NAND Gate 811

16.4 Chapter Summary 812

Problems 813

SPICE Problems 818

17 CMOS AMPLIFIERS 819

17.1 General Considerations 819

17.1.1 Input and Output Impedances 820

17.1.2 Biasing 824

17.1.3 DC and Small-Signal Analysis 825

17.2 Operating Point Analysis and Design 826

17.2.1 Simple Biasing 828

17.2.2 Biasing with Source Degeneration 830

17.2.3 Self-Biased Stage 833

17.2.4 Biasing of PMOS Transistors 834

17.2.5 Realization of Current Sources 835

17.3 CMOS Amplifier Topologies 836

17.4 Common-Source Topology 837

17.4.1 CS Stage with Current-Source Load 842

17.4.2 CS Stage with Diode-Connected Load 843

17.4.3 CS Stage with Source Degeneration 844

17.4.4 Common-Gate Topology 856

17.4.5 Source Follower 867

17.5 Additional Examples 874

17.6 Chapter Summary 878

Problems 879

SPICE Problems 891

Appendix A INTRODUCTION TO SPICE A-1

INDEX I-1

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