Fundamentals of Philosophy

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-16
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Thematically introduces students to the major philosophic thinkers. Fundamentals of Philosophyoffers a broad scope of classic and contemporary selections from the world's major thinkers via a narrative format that presents difficult issues and readings in a simplified manner for students. Its readings are grouped around nine major themes/chapters, and are organized as a debate on one central issue. This approach helps students understand the argumentative style of philosophy, and learn how philosophic issues and solutions they encounter can be applied to their everyday life. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: Personalize Learning- MySearchLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking "Questions for Discussion" and a "Glossary of Terms" help students study. Engage Students "Biographies" and "Recent Developments" stimulate student interest and understanding of philosophy's contemporary applications. Support Instructors MySearchLab and an Instructor's Manual to accompany the text are available. Note:MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit:www.mysearchlab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205879306 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205879304.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
What Is Philosophy?p. 1
The Activity of Philosophyp. 1
Philosophy's Historyp. 8
Philosophy and the Examined Lifep. 15
Socrates: In Defense of Philosophyp. 17
Thinking About Thinking (Logic)p. 26
The Life of Reasonp. 26
Argument Formsp. 33
Induction and the Philosophy of Sciencep. 46
Strategies for Philosophical Argumentsp. 57
What Is Real? (Metaphysics)p. 74
Introduction to Metaphysicsp. 74
Dualismp. 85
Plato: The Immortality of the Soulp. 88
Plato: The Divided Linep. 92
Materialismp. 101
Epicurus: First Principle of Materialismp. 108
Idealismp. 118
George Berkeley: Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonousp. 120
The Mind-Body Problem and Personal Identityp. 132
Alfred C. Lent Surviving in a Different Bodyp. 141
Freedom and Determinism: The Metaphysics of Human Agencyp. 153
Peter van Inwagen: The Moral Argument for Freedomp. 160
How Do We Know? (Epistemology)p. 165
Introduction to Epistemologyp. 165
René Descartes: The Quest for Certaintyp. 171
René Descartes: Meditationsp. 174
David Hume: Trust Your Sensesp. 187
David Hume: Of the Origin of Ideasp. 190
David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understandingp. 197
Immanuel Kant: A Compromisep. 201
Immanuel Kant: Two Sources of Knowledgep. 211
Knowledge and Human Practices: The Pragmatist Traditionp. 218
William James: What Pragmatism Meansp. 221
Nathaniel Goldberg: Where Does Knowledge Come From? Quine, Davidson, and Traditional Epistemologyp. 225
What Ought We to Do? (Ethics)p. 239
Introduction to Ethical Reasoningp. 239
Moral Skepticismp. 246
J. L Mackie: The Argument from Relativityp. 254
Morality and Metaphysicsp. 261
Matthew Carey Jordan: God and Moralityp. 265
Eudaemonism: The Morality of Self-Realizationp. 278
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethicsp. 281
Utilitarianism: Morality Depends on the Consequencesp. 289
John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianismp. 295
Deontology: Morality Depends on the Motivesp. 301
Immanuel Kant: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Ethicsp. 304
Philosophy of Religionp. 316
Introduction to Philosophy of Religionp. 316
Religion and Life's Meaningp. 322
Leo Tolstoy: A Confessionp. 325
A Priori Arguments for God's Existencep. 331
St Anselm: Proslogionp. 334
A Posteriori Arguments for God's Existence: Aquinas' Five Waysp. 348
St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Waysp. 350
The Problem of Evilp. 361
James Petrik: Inscrutable Evil and an Infinite Godp. 366
Philosophy of Art (Esthetics)p. 379
Introduction to the Philosophy of Artp. 379
The Value of Artp. 388
H. Gene Blocker. The Esthetic Attitudep. 389
Art as Idealp. 397
Kenneth Clark The Naked and the Nudep. 398
Esthetics and Ideologyp. 408
Jennifer Jeffers: The Politics of Representationp. 409
Social and Political Philosophyp. 422
Introduction to Social and Political Philosophyp. 422
The Liberal, Secular Statep. 430
John Locke: A Letter Concerning Tolerationp. 435
The Individual and the Statep. 442
John Stuart Mill: On Libertyp. 444
Human Rightsp. 451
H. Gene Blocker. Human Rightsp. 452
Individual Happiness and Social Responsibilityp. 463
M. Andrew Holowchak: Happiness and Justice in "Liberal" Society. Autonomy as Political Integrationp. 464
Eastern Thoughtp. 475
Philosophy East and Westp. 475
Confucian Theories of Human Naturep. 481
Mencius: The Book of Menciusp. 485
Xun Zi: The Nature of Man Is Evilp. 490
Dong Zhongshu: Human Nature Is Both Good and Evilp. 495
Hindu Debate on Monismp. 497
Buddhist Theory of Emptinessp. 505
Nagarjuna: Seventy Verses on Emptinessp. 507
Nagarjuna: How Phenomena Are Empty of Inherent Existencep. 511
Glossary of Termsp. 519
Indexp. 527
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