9781119773511

Fundamentals of Physics, Twelfth Edition Extended

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781119773511

  • ISBN10:

    1119773512

  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2021-07-01
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Fundamentals of Physics, 12th Edition will guide students through the process of learning how to effectively read scientific material, identify fundamental concepts, reason through scientific questions, and solve quantitative problems.

The 12th Edition includes a renewed focus on several contemporary areas of research to help challenge students to recognize how scientific and engineering applications are fundamental to the world’s clockwork.

A wide array of tools will support students’ active learning as they work through and engage in this course. Fundamentals of Physics, 12th Edition is built to be a learning center with practice opportunities, interactive challenges, activities, simulations, and videos. Practice and assessment questions are available with immediate feedback and detailed solutions, to ensure that students understand the problem-solving process behind key concepts and understand your mistakes while working through problems.

Table of Contents

1 Measurement 1

1.1 Measuring Things, Including Lengths 1

What is Physics? 1

Measuring Things 1

The International System of Units 2

Changing Units 3

Length 3

Significant Figures and Decimal Places 4

1.2 Time 5

Time 5

1.3 Mass 6

Mass 7

Review & Summary 8 Problems 8

2 Motion Along a Straight Line 13

2.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity 13

What is Physics? 13

Motion 14

Position and Displacement 14

Average Velocity and Average Speed 15

2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 18

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 18

2.3 Acceleration 20

Acceleration 20

2.4 Constant Acceleration 23

Constant Acceleration: A Special Case 23

Another Look at Constant Acceleration 27

2.5 Free-Fall Acceleration 28

Free-Fall Acceleration 28

2.6 Graphical Integration In Motion Analysis 30

Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis 30

Review & Summary 32 Questions 32 Problems 33

3 Vectors 44

3.1 Vectors and Their Components 44

What is Physics? 44

Vectors and Scalars 44

Adding Vectors Geometrically 45

Components of Vectors 46

3.2 Unit Vectors, Adding Vectors By Components 50

Unit Vectors 50

Adding Vectors by Components 50

Vectors and the Laws of Physics 51

3.3 Multiplying Vectors 52

Multiplying Vectors 53

Review & Summary 58 Questions 59 Problems 60

4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions 67

4.1 Position and Displacement 67

What is Physics? 67

Position and Displacement 68

4.2 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 70

Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 70

4.3 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 73

Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 73

4.4 Projectile Motion 75

Projectile Motion 76

4.5 Uniform Circular Motion 82

Uniform Circular Motion 82

4.6 Relative Motion In One Dimension 84

Relative Motion in One Dimension 78

4.7 Relative Motion In Two Dimensions 86

Relative Motion in Two Dimensions 86

Review & Summary 88 Questions 89 Problems 90

5 Force and Motion—I 101

5.1 Newton’s First and Second Laws 101

What is Physics? 101

Newtonian Mechanics 102

Newton’s First Law 102

Force 103

Mass 104

Newton’s Second Law 105

5.2 Some Particular Forces 109

Some Particular Forces 109

5.3 Applying Newton’s Laws 113

Newton’s Third Law 113

Applying Newton’s Laws 115

Review & Summary 121 Questions 122 Problems 124

6 Force and Motion—II 132

6.1 Friction 132

What is Physics? 132

Friction 132

Properties of Friction 135

6.2 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 138

The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 138

6.3 Uniform Circular Motion 140

Uniform Circular Motion 141

Review & Summary 145 Questions 145 Problems 146

7 Kinetic Energy and Work 156

7.1 Kinetic Energy 156

What is Physics? 156

What is Energy? 156

Kinetic Energy 157

7.2 Work and Kinetic Energy 158

Work 158

Work and Kinetic Energy 159

7.3 Work Done By The Gravitational Force 163

Work Done by the Gravitational Force 163

7.4 Work Done By A Spring Force 167

Work Done by a Spring Force 167

7.5 Work Done By A General Variable Force 170

Work Done by a General Variable Force 171

7.6 Power 174

Power 174

Review & Summary 176 Questions 177 Problems 179

8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy 186

8.1 Potential Energy 186

What is Physics? 187

Work and Potential Energy 187

Path Independence of Conservative Forces 188

Determining Potential Energy Values 190

8.2 Conservation of Mechanical Energy 193

Conservation of Mechanical Energy 193

8.3 Reading A Potential Energy Curve 196

Reading a Potential Energy Curve 197

8.4 Work Done On A System By An External Force 201

Work Done on a System by an External Force 201

8.5 Conservation of Energy 205

Conservation of Energy 205

Review & Summary 209 Questions 210

Problems 212

9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 225

9.1 Center of Mass 225

What is Physics? 225

The Center of Mass 226

9.2 Newton’s Second Law For A System of Particles 229

Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles 230

9.3 Linear Momentum 234

Linear Momentum 234

The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles 235

9.4 Collision and Impulse 236

Collision and Impulse 236

9.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum 240

Conservation of Linear Momentum 240

9.6 Momentum and Kinetic Energy In Collisions 243

Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions 243

Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 244

9.7 Elastic Collisions In One Dimension 247

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 247

9.8 Collisions In Two Dimensions 251

Collisions in Two Dimensions 251

9.9 Systems With Varying Mass: A Rocket 252

Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket 252

Review & Summary 254 Questions 256 Problems 257

10 Rotation 270

10.1 Rotational Variables 270

What is Physics? 271

Rotational Variables 272

Are Angular Quantities Vectors? 277

10.2 Rotation With Constant Angular Acceleration 279

Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration 279

10.3 Relating The Linear and Angular Variables 281

Relating the Linear and Angular Variables 281

10.4 Kinetic Energy of Rotation 285

Kinetic Energy of Rotation 285

10.5 Calculating The Rotational Inertia 286

Calculating the Rotational Inertia 287

10.6 Torque 291

Torque 291

10.7 Newton’s Second Law For Rotation 292

Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 293

10.8 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy 296

Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy 297

Review & Summary 299 Questions 300

Problems 301

11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum 310

11.1 Rolling As Translation and Rotation Combined 310

What is Physics? 310

Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined 310

11.2 Forces and Kinetic Energy of Rolling 313

The Kinetic Energy of Rolling 313

The Forces of Rolling 314

11.3 The Yo-Yo 316

The Yo-Yo 317

11.4 Torque Revisited 317

Torque Revisited 318

11.5 Angular Momentum 320

Angular Momentum 320

11.6 Newton’s Second Law In Angular Form 322

Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form 322

11.7 Angular Momentum of A Rigid Body 325

The Angular Momentum of a System of Particles 325

The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis 326

11.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum 328

Conservation of Angular Momentum 328

11.9 Precession of A Gyroscope 333

Precession of a Gyroscope 333

Review & Summary 334 Questions 335 Problems 336

12 Equilibrium and Elasticity 344

12.1 Equilibrium 344

What is Physics? 344

Equilibrium 344

The Requirements of Equilibrium 346

The Center of Gravity 347

12.2 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium 349

Some Examples of Static Equilibrium 349

12.3 Elasticity 355

Indeterminate Structures 355

Elasticity 356

Review & Summary 360 Questions 360

Problems 362

13 Gravitation 372

13.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 372

What is Physics? 372

Newton’s Law of Gravitation 373

13.2 Gravitation and The Principle of Superposition 375

Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition 375

13.3 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface 377

Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface 378

13.4 Gravitation Inside Earth 381

Gravitation Inside Earth 381

13.5 Gravitational Potential Energy 383

Gravitational Potential Energy 383

13.6 Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws 387

Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws 388

13.7 Satellites: Orbits and Energy 390

Satellites: Orbits and Energy 391

13.8 Einstein and Gravitation 393

Einstein and Gravitation 393

Review & Summary 396 Questions 397

Problems 399

14 Fluids 406

14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure 406

What is Physics? 406

What is a Fluid? 406

Density and Pressure 407

14.2 Fluids At Rest 409

Fluids at Rest 409

14.3 Measuring Pressure 412

Measuring Pressure 412

14.4 Pascal’s Principle 413

Pascal’s Principle 413

14.5 Archimedes’ Principle 415

Archimedes’ Principle 415

14.6 The Equation of Continuity 419

Ideal Fluids in Motion 420

The Equation of Continuity 421

14.7 Bernoulli’s Equation 423

Bernoulli’s Equation 424

Review & Summary 426 Questions 427

Problems 428

15 Oscillations 436

15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 436

What is Physics? 437

Simple Harmonic Motion 437

The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion 442

15.2 Energy In Simple Harmonic Motion 444

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 444

15.3 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 446

An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 446

15.4 Pendulums, Circular Motion 448

Pendulums 448

Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion 451

15.5 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 453

Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 453

15.6 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 456

Forced Oscillations and Resonance 456

Review & Summary 457 Questions 458

Problems 459

16 Waves—I 468

16.1 Transverse Waves 468

What is Physics? 469

Types of Waves 469

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 469

Wavelength and Frequency 470

The Speed of a Traveling Wave 473

16.2 Wave Speed On A Stretched String 476

Wave Speed on a Stretched String 476

16.3 Energy and Power of A Wave Traveling Along A String 478

Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String 478

16.4 The Wave Equation 480

The Wave Equation 480

16.5 Interference of Waves 482

The Principle of Superposition for Waves 483

Interference of Waves 483

16.6 Phasors 487

Phasors 487

16.7 Standing Waves and Resonance 490

Standing Waves 491

Standing Waves and Resonance 493

Review & Summary 495 Questions 496

Problems 497

17 Waves—II 505

17.1 Speed of Sound 505

What is Physics? 505

Sound Waves 505

The Speed of Sound 506

17.2 Traveling Sound Waves 508

Traveling Sound Waves 509

17.3 Interference 511

Interference 511

17.4 Intensity and Sound Level 515

Intensity and Sound Level 515

17.5 Sources of Musical Sound 518

Sources of Musical Sound 518

17.6 Beats 522

Beats 522

17.7 The Doppler Effect 524

The Doppler Effect 525

17.8 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves 529

Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves 529

Review & Summary 530 Questions 531

Problems 532

18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics 541

18.1 Temperature 541

What is Physics? 541

Temperature 542

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 542

Measuring Temperature 543

18.2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 545

The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 546

18.3 Thermal Expansion 547

Thermal Expansion 548

18.4 Absorption of Heat 550

Temperature and Heat 551

The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids 552

18.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 556

A Closer Look at Heat and Work 557

The First Law of Thermodynamics 559

Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics 560

18.6 Heat Transfer Mechanisms 562

Heat Transfer Mechanisms 563

Review & Summary 567 Questions 569 Problems 570

19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 578

19.1 Avogadro’s Number 578

What is Physics? 578

Avogadro’s Number 579

19.2 Ideal Gases 579

Ideal Gases 580

19.3 Pressure, Temperature, and Rms Speed 583

Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed 583

19.4 Translational Kinetic Energy 586

Translational Kinetic Energy 586

19.5 Mean Free Path 587

Mean Free Path 587

19.6 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds 589

The Distribution of Molecular Speeds 590

19.7 The Molar Specific Heats of An Ideal Gas 593

The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas 593

19.8 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats 597

Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats 597

A Hint of Quantum Theory 600

19.9 The Adiabatic Expansion of An Ideal Gas 600

The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas 601

Review & Summary 605 Questions 606 Problems 606

20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 613

20.1 Entropy 613

What is Physics? 614

Irreversible Processes and Entropy 614

Change in Entropy 615

The Second Law of Thermodynamics 619

20.2 Entropy In The Real World: Engines 620

Entropy in the Real World: Engines 621

20.3 Refrigerators and Real Engines 626

Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators 627

The Efficiencies of Real Engines 628

20.4 A Statistical View of Entropy 629

A Statistical View of Entropy 629

Review & Summary 633 Questions 634 Problems 635

21 Coulomb’s Law 641

21.1 Coulomb’s Law 641

What is Physics? 642

Electric Charge 642

Conductors and Insulators 644

Coulomb’s Law 645

21.2 Charge is Quantized 652

Charge is Quantized 652

21.3 Charge is Conserved 654

Charge is Conserved 654

Review & Summary 656 Questions 657

Problems 659

22 Electric Fields 665

22.1 The Electric Field 665

What is Physics? 665

The Electric Field 666

Electric Field Lines 666

22.2 The Electric Field Due To A Charged Particle 668

The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge 668

22.3 The Electric Field Due To A Dipole 670

The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole 671

22.4 The Electric Field Due To A Line of Charge 673

The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge 674

22.5 The Electric Field Due To A Charged Disk 679

The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk 679

22.6 A Point Charge In An Electric Field 680

A Point Charge in an Electric Field 681

22.7 A Dipole In An Electric Field 683

A Dipole in an Electric Field 684

Review & Summary 687 Questions 687 Problems 689

23 Gauss’ Law 696

23.1 Electric Flux 696

What is Physics? 696

Electric Flux 697

23.2 Gauss’ Law 701

Gauss’ Law 702

Gauss’ Law and Coulomb’s Law 703

23.3 A Charged Isolated Conductor 705

A Charged Isolated Conductor 705

23.4 Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 708

Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 708

23.5 Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry 710

Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry 711

23.6 Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry 713

Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry 714

Review & Summary 715 Questions 715 Problems 717

24 Electric Potential 724

24.1 Electric Potential 724

What is Physics? 724

Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy 725

24.2 Equipotential Surfaces and The Electric Field 729

Equipotential Surfaces 729

Calculating The Potential from The Field 730

24.3 Potential Due To A Charged Particle 733

Potential Due to a Charged Particle 733

Potential Due to a Group of Charged Particles 735

24.4 Potential Due To An Electric Dipole 736

Potential Due to an Electric Dipole 737

24.5 Potential Due To A Continuous Charge Distribution 738

Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution 738

24.6 Calculating The Field From The Potential 741

Calculating The Field from The Potential 741

24.7 Electric Potential Energy of A System of Charged Particles 743

Electric Potential Energy of a System of Charged Particles 743

24.8 Potential of A Charged Isolated Conductor 746

Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor 746

Review & Summary 749 Questions 750 Problems 751

25 Capacitance 759

25.1 Capacitance 759

What is Physics? 759

Capacitance 759

25.2 Calculating The Capacitance 761

Calculating The Capacitance 762

25.3 Capacitors In Parallel and In Series 765

Capacitors in Parallel and in Series 766

25.4 Energy Stored In An Electric Field 770

Energy Stored in an Electric Field 771

25.5 Capacitor With A Dielectric 774

Capacitor with a Dielectric 774

Dielectrics: An Atomic View 776

25.6 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law 778

Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law 778

Review & Summary 781 Questions 781 Problems 782

26 Current and Resistance 789

26.1 Electric Current 789

What is Physics? 789

Electric Current 790

26.2 Current Density 792

Current Density 793

26.3 Resistance and Resistivity 796

Resistance and Resistivity 797

26.4 Ohm’s Law 801

Ohm’s Law 801

A Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law 803

26.5 Power, Semiconductors, Superconductors 805

Power in Electric Circuits 805

Semiconductors 807

Superconductors 808

Review & Summary 808 Questions 809 Problems 810

27 Circuits 816

27.1 Single-Loop Circuits 816

What is Physics? 817

“Pumping” Charges 817

Work, Energy, and Emf 818

Calculating The Current in a Single-Loop Circuit 819

Other Single-Loop Circuits 821

Potential Difference Between Two Points 823

27.2 Multiloop Circuits 826

Multiloop Circuits 826

27.3 The Ammeter and The Voltmeter 833

The Ammeter and The Voltmeter 833

27.4 Rc Circuits 833

RC Circuits 834

Review & Summary 838 Questions 839 Problems 840

28 Magnetic Fields 850

28.1 Magnetic Fields and The Definition of 850

What is Physics? 850

What Produces a Magnetic Field? 851

The Definition of 851

28.2 Crossed Fields: Discovery of The Electron 855

Crossed Fields: Discovery of The Electron 856

28.3 Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 857

Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 858

28.4 A Circulating Charged Particle 861

A Circulating Charged Particle 862

28.5 Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 866

Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 866

28.6 Magnetic Force On A Current-Carrying Wire 869

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire 869

28.7 Torque On A Current Loop 872

Torque on a Current Loop 872

28.8 The Magnetic Dipole Moment 874

The Magnetic Dipole Moment 874

Review & Summary 876 Questions 877 Problems 879

29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 886

29.1 Magnetic Field Due To A Current 886

What is Physics? 886

Calculating The Magnetic Field Due to a Current 887

29.2 Force Between Two Parallel Currents 892

Force Between Two Parallel Currents 893

29.3 Ampere’s Law 894

Ampere’s Law 894

29.4 Solenoids and Toroids 899

Solenoids and Toroids 899

29.5 A Current-Carrying Coil As A Magnetic Dipole 901

A Current-Carrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole 902

Review & Summary 904 Questions 905 Problems 906

30 Induction and Inductance 915

30.1 Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 915

What is Physics? 915

Two Experiments 916

Faraday’s Law of Induction 916

Lenz’s Law 919

30.2 Induction and Energy Transfers 923

Induction and Energy Transfers 923

30.3 Induced Electric Fields 927

Induced Electric Fields 928

30.4 Inductors and Inductance 932

Inductors and Inductance 932

30.5 Self-Induction 934

Self-Induction 934

30.6 Rl Circuits 935

RL Circuits 936

30.7 Energy Stored In A Magnetic Field 940

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 940

30.8 Energy Density of A Magnetic Field 942

Energy Density of a Magnetic Field 942

30.9 Mutual Induction 943

Mutual Induction 943

Review & Summary 945 Questions 946

Problems 947

31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 956

31.1 LC Oscillations 956

What is Physics? 957

LC Oscillations, Qualitatively 957

The Electrical–Mechanical Analogy 959

LC Oscillations, Quantitatively 960

31.2 Damped Oscillations In An Rlc Circuit 963

Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit 964

31.3 Forced Oscillations of Three Simple Circuits 966

Alternating Current 966

Forced Oscillations 967

Three Simple Circuits 968

31.4 The Series Rlc Circuit 974

The Series RLC Circuit 975

31.5 Power In Alternating-Current Circuits 982

Power in Alternating-Current Circuits 982

31.6 Transformers 985

Transformers 985

Review & Summary 989 Questions 990

Problems 991

32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter 998

32.1 Gauss’ Law For Magnetic Fields 998

What is Physics? 998

Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields 999

32.2 Induced Magnetic Fields 1000

Induced Magnetic Fields 1000

32.3 Displacement Current 1003

Displacement Current 1004

Maxwell’s Equations 1007

32.4 Magnets 1007

Magnets 1007

32.5 Magnetism and Electrons 1009

Magnetism and Electrons 1010

Magnetic Materials 1014

32.6 Diamagnetism 1015

Diamagnetism 1015

32.7 Paramagnetism 1016

Paramagnetism 1017

32.8 Ferromagnetism 1019

Ferromagnetism 1019

Review & Summary 1023 Questions 1024

Problems 1026

33 Electromagnetic Waves 1032

33.1 Electromagnetic Waves 1032

What is Physics? 1032

Maxwell’s Rainbow 1033

The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Qualitatively 1034

The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Quantitatively 1037

33.2 Energy Transport and The Poynting Vector 1040

Energy Transport and The Poynting Vector 1041

33.3 Radiation Pressure 1043

Radiation Pressure 1043

33.4 Polarization 1045

Polarization 1045

33.5 Reflection and Refraction 1050

Reflection and Refraction 1051

33.6 Total Internal Reflection 1056

Total Internal Reflection 1056

33.7 Polarization By Reflection 1059

Polarization by Reflection 1059

Review & Summary 1061 Questions 1062

Problems 1063

34 Images 1072

34.1 Images and Plane Mirrors 1072

What is Physics? 1072

Two Types of Image 1072

Plane Mirrors 1074

34.2 Spherical Mirrors 1076

Spherical Mirrors 1077

Images from Spherical Mirrors 1078

34.3 Spherical Refracting Surfaces 1083

Spherical Refracting Surfaces 1084

34.4 Thin Lenses 1086

Thin Lenses 1087

34.5 Optical Instruments 1094

Optical Instruments 1094

34.6 Three Proofs 1098

Review & Summary 1100 Questions 1101

Problems 1102

35 Interference 1111

35.1 Light As A Wave 1111

What is Physics? 1111

Light as a Wave 1112

35.2 Young’s Interference Experiment 1117

Diffraction 1117

Young’s Interference Experiment 1118

35.3 Interference and Double-Slit Intensity 1122

Coherence 1122

Intensity in Double-Slit Interference 1123

35.4 Interference From Thin Films 1126

Interference from Thin Films 1127

35.5 Michelson’s Interferometer 1135

Michelson’s Interferometer 1135

Review & Summary 1138 Questions 1139

Problems 1140

36 Diffraction 1148

36.1 Single-Slit Diffraction 1148

What is Physics? 1148

Diffraction and The Wave Theory of Light 1149

Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating The Minima 1150

36.2 Intensity In Single-Slit Diffraction 1153

Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Qualitatively 1153

Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Quantitatively 1155

36.3 Diffraction By A Circular Aperture 1158

Diffraction by a Circular Aperture 1158

36.4 Diffraction By A Double Slit 1162

Diffraction by a Double Slit 1162

36.5 Diffraction Gratings 1166

Diffraction Gratings 1166

36.6 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power 1170

Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power 1170

36.7 X-Ray Diffraction 1173

X-Ray Diffraction 1173

Review & Summary 1176 Questions 1177

Problems 1178

37 Relativity 1186

37.1 Simultaneity and Time Dilation 1186

What is Physics? 1186

The Postulates 1187

Measuring an Event 1188

The Relativity of Simultaneity 1190

The Relativity of Time 1191

37.2 The Relativity of Length 1196

The Relativity of Length 1196

37.3 The Lorentz Transformation 1199

The Lorentz Transformation 1200

Some Consequences of The Lorentz Equations 1202

37.4 The Relativity of Velocities 1204

The Relativity of Velocities 1204

37.5 Doppler Effect For Light 1205

Doppler Effect for Light 1206

37.6 Momentum and Energy 1209

A New Look at Momentum 1209

A New Look at Energy 1210

Review & Summary 1215 Questions 1216

Problems 1217

38 Photons and Matter Waves 1225

38.1 The Photon, The Quantum of Light 1225

What is Physics? 1225

The Photon, The Quantum of Light 1226

38.2 The Photoelectric Effect 1227

The Photoelectric Effect 1228

38.3 Photons, Momentum, Compton Scattering, Light Interference 1230

Photons Have Momentum 1231

Light as a Probability Wave 1234

38.4 The Birth of Quantum Physics 1236

The Birth of Quantum Physics 1237

38.5 Electrons and Matter Waves 1238

Electrons and Matter Waves 1239

38.6 Schrödinger’s Equation 1242

Schrödinger’s Equation 1242

38.7 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 1244

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 1245

38.8 Reflection From A Potential Step 1246

Reflection from a Potential Step 1246

38.9 Tunneling Through A Potential Barrier 1248

Tunneling Through a Potential Barrier 1248

Review & Summary 1251 Questions 1252

Problems 1253

39 More About Matter Waves 1258

39.1 Energies of A Trapped Electron 1258

What is Physics? 1258

String Waves and Matter Waves 1259

Energies of a Trapped Electron 1260

39.2 Wave Functions of A Trapped Electron 1264

Wave Functions of a Trapped Electron 1264

39.3 An Electron In A Finite Well 1268

An Electron in a Finite Well 1268

39.4 Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Traps 1270

More Electron Traps 1271

Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Traps 1272

39.5 The Hydrogen Atom 1275

The Hydrogen Atom is an Electron Trap 1276

The Bohr Model of Hydrogen, a Lucky Break 1276

Schrödinger’s Equation and The Hydrogen Atom 1278

Review & Summary 1286 Questions 1287 Problems 1288

40 All About Atoms 1293

40.1 Properties of Atoms 1293

What is Physics? 1294

Some Properties of Atoms 1294

Angular Momentum, Magnetic Dipole Moments 1296

40.2 The Stern–Gerlach Experiment 1300

The Stern–Gerlach Experiment 1300

40.3 Magnetic Resonance 1303

Magnetic Resonance 1303

40.4 Exclusion Principle and Multiple Electrons In A Trap 1304

The Pauli Exclusion Principle 1304

Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps 1305

40.5 Building The Periodic Table 1308

Building The Periodic Table 1308

40.6 X Rays and The Ordering of The Elements 1310

X Rays and The Ordering of The Elements 1311

40.7 Lasers 1314

Lasers and Laser Light 1315

How Lasers Work 1316

Review & Summary 1319 Questions 1320

Problems 1321

41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids 1327

41.1 The Electrical Properties of Metals 1327

What is Physics? 1328

The Electrical Properties of Solids 1328

Energy Levels in a Crystalline Solid 1329

Insulators 1330

Metals 1330

41.2 Semiconductors and Doping 1336

Semiconductors 1337

Doped Semiconductors 1338

41.3 THE P-N Junction and The Transistor 1341

The p-n Junction 1341

The Junction Rectifier 1343

The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) 1344

The Transistor 1345

Review & Summary 1346 Questions 1347

Problems 1348

42 Nuclear Physics 1352

42.1 Discovering The Nucleus 1352

What is Physics? 1352

Discovering The Nucleus 1352

42.2 Some Nuclear Properties 1355

Some Nuclear Properties 1356

42.3 Radioactive Decay 1362

Radioactive Decay 1362

42.4 Alpha Decay 1365

Alpha Decay 1365

42.5 Beta Decay 1368

Beta Decay 1368

42.6 Radioactive Dating 1371

Radioactive Dating 1371

42.7 Measuring Radiation Dosage 1372

Measuring Radiation Dosage 1372

42.8 Nuclear Models 1373

Nuclear Models 1373

Review & Summary 1376 Questions 1377

Problems 1378

43 Energy from The Nucleus 1385

43.1 Nuclear Fission 1385

What is Physics? 1385

Nuclear Fission: The Basic Process 1386

A Model for Nuclear Fission 1388

43.2 The Nuclear Reactor 1392

The Nuclear Reactor 1392

43.3 A Natural Nuclear Reactor 1396

A Natural Nuclear Reactor 1396

43.4 Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic Process 1398

Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic Process 1398

43.5 Thermonuclear Fusion In The Sun and Other Stars 1400

Thermonuclear Fusion in The Sun and Other Stars 1400

43.6 Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion 1402

Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion 1402

Review & Summary 1405 Questions 1405

Problems 1406

44 Quarks, Leptons, and The Big Bang 1410

44.1 General Properties of Elementary Articles 1410

What is Physics? 1410

Particles, Particles, Particles 1411

An Interlude 1415

44.2 Leptons, Hadrons, and Strangeness 1419

The Leptons 1419

The Hadrons 1421

Still Another Conservation Law 1422

The Eightfold Way 1423

44.3 Quarks and Messenger Particles 1425

The Quark Model 1425

The Basic Forces and Messenger Particles 1428

44.4 Cosmology 1431

A Pause for Reflection 1431

The Universe is Expanding 1432

The Cosmic Background Radiation 1433

Dark Matter 1434

The Big Bang 1434

A Summing Up 1437

Review & Summary 1438 Questions 1438

Problems 1439

Appendices

A The International System of Units (SI) A-1

B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics A-3

C Some Astronomical Data A-4

D Conversion Factors A-5

E Mathematical Formulas A-9

F Properties of The Elements A-12

G Periodic Table of The Elements A-15

Answers

To Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems AN-1

Index I-1

Supplemental Materials

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