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9781119801269

Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 2

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119801269

  • ISBN10:

    1119801265

  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2021-10-05
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Renowned for its interactive focus on conceptual understanding, its superlative problem-solving instruction, and emphasis on reasoning skills, the Fundamentals of Physics: Volume 2, 12th Edition, is an industry-leading resource in physics teaching. With expansive, insightful, and accessible treatments of a wide variety of subjects, including photons, matter waves, diffraction, and relativity, the book is an invaluable reference for physics educators and students. In the second volume of this two-volume set, the authors discuss subjects including Coulomb???s Law, Gauss??? Law, and Maxwell???s Equations.

Table of Contents

21 Coulomb’s Law 641

21.1 Coulomb’s Law 641

What is Physics? 642

Electric Charge 642

Conductors and Insulators 644

Coulomb’s Law 645

21.2 Charge is Quantized 652

Charge is Quantized 652

21.3 Charge is Conserved 654

Charge is Conserved 654

Review & Summary 656 Questions 657

Problems 659

22 Electric Fields 665

22.1 The Electric Field 665

What is Physics? 665

The Electric Field 666

Electric Field Lines 666

22.2 The Electric Field Due To A Charged Particle 668

The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge 668

22.3 The Electric Field Due To A Dipole 670

The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole 671

22.4 The Electric Field Due To A Line of Charge 673

The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge 674

22.5 The Electric Field Due To A Charged Disk 679

The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk 679

22.6 A Point Charge In An Electric Field 680

A Point Charge in an Electric Field 681

22.7 A Dipole In An Electric Field 683

A Dipole in an Electric Field 684

Review & Summary 687 Questions 687 Problems 689

23 Gauss’ Law 696

23.1 Electric Flux 696

What is Physics? 696

Electric Flux 697

23.2 Gauss’ Law 701

Gauss’ Law 702

Gauss’ Law and Coulomb’s Law 703

23.3 A Charged Isolated Conductor 705

A Charged Isolated Conductor 705

23.4 Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 708

Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 708

23.5 Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry 710

Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry 711

23.6 Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry 713

Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry 714

Review & Summary 715 Questions 715 Problems 717

24 Electric Potential 724

24.1 Electric Potential 724

What is Physics? 724

Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy 725

24.2 Equipotential Surfaces and The Electric Field 729

Equipotential Surfaces 729

Calculating The Potential from The Field 730

24.3 Potential Due To A Charged Particle 733

Potential Due to a Charged Particle 733

Potential Due to a Group of Charged Particles 735

24.4 Potential Due To An Electric Dipole 736

Potential Due to an Electric Dipole 737

24.5 Potential Due To A Continuous Charge Distribution 738

Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution 738

24.6 Calculating The Field From The Potential 741

Calculating The Field from The Potential 741

24.7 Electric Potential Energy of A System of Charged Particles 743

Electric Potential Energy of a System of Charged Particles 743

24.8 Potential of A Charged Isolated Conductor 746

Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor 746

Review & Summary 749 Questions 750 Problems 751

25 Capacitance 759

25.1 Capacitance 759

What is Physics? 759

Capacitance 759

25.2 Calculating The Capacitance 761

Calculating The Capacitance 762

25.3 Capacitors In Parallel and In Series 765

Capacitors in Parallel and in Series 766

25.4 Energy Stored In An Electric Field 770

Energy Stored in an Electric Field 771

25.5 Capacitor With A Dielectric 774

Capacitor with a Dielectric 774

Dielectrics: An Atomic View 776

25.6 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law 778

Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law 778

Review & Summary 781 Questions 781 Problems 782

26 Current and Resistance 789

26.1 Electric Current 789

What is Physics? 789

Electric Current 790

26.2 Current Density 792

Current Density 793

26.3 Resistance and Resistivity 796

Resistance and Resistivity 797

26.4 Ohm’s Law 801

Ohm’s Law 801

A Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law 803

26.5 Power, Semiconductors, Superconductors 805

Power in Electric Circuits 805

Semiconductors 807

Superconductors 808

Review & Summary 808 Questions 809 Problems 810

27 Circuits 816

27.1 Single-Loop Circuits 816

What is Physics? 817

“Pumping” Charges 817

Work, Energy, and Emf 818

Calculating The Current in a Single-Loop Circuit 819

Other Single-Loop Circuits 821

Potential Difference Between Two Points 823

27.2 Multiloop Circuits 826

Multiloop Circuits 826

27.3 The Ammeter and The Voltmeter 833

The Ammeter and The Voltmeter 833

27.4 Rc Circuits 833

RC Circuits 834

Review & Summary 838 Questions 839 Problems 840

28 Magnetic Fields 850

28.1 Magnetic Fields and The Definition of 850

What is Physics? 850

What Produces a Magnetic Field? 851

The Definition of 851

28.2 Crossed Fields: Discovery of The Electron 855

Crossed Fields: Discovery of The Electron 856

28.3 Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 857

Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 858

28.4 A Circulating Charged Particle 861

A Circulating Charged Particle 862

28.5 Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 866

Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 866

28.6 Magnetic Force On A Current-Carrying Wire 869

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire 869

28.7 Torque On A Current Loop 872

Torque on a Current Loop 872

28.8 The Magnetic Dipole Moment 874

The Magnetic Dipole Moment 874

Review & Summary 876 Questions 877 Problems 879

29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 886

29.1 Magnetic Field Due To A Current 886

What is Physics? 886

Calculating The Magnetic Field Due to a Current 887

29.2 Force Between Two Parallel Currents 892

Force Between Two Parallel Currents 893

29.3 Ampere’s Law 894

Ampere’s Law 894

29.4 Solenoids and Toroids 899

Solenoids and Toroids 899

29.5 A Current-Carrying Coil As A Magnetic Dipole 901

A Current-Carrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole 902

Review & Summary 904 Questions 905 Problems 906

30 Induction and Inductance 915

30.1 Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 915

What is Physics? 915

Two Experiments 916

Faraday’s Law of Induction 916

Lenz’s Law 919

30.2 Induction and Energy Transfers 923

Induction and Energy Transfers 923

30.3 Induced Electric Fields 927

Induced Electric Fields 928

30.4 Inductors and Inductance 932

Inductors and Inductance 932

30.5 Self-Induction 934

Self-Induction 934

30.6 Rl Circuits 935

RL Circuits 936

30.7 Energy Stored In A Magnetic Field 940

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 940

30.8 Energy Density of A Magnetic Field 942

Energy Density of a Magnetic Field 942

30.9 Mutual Induction 943

Mutual Induction 943

Review & Summary 945 Questions 946

Problems 947

31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 956

31.1 LC Oscillations 956

What is Physics? 957

LC Oscillations, Qualitatively 957

The Electrical–Mechanical Analogy 959

LC Oscillations, Quantitatively 960

31.2 Damped Oscillations In An Rlc Circuit 963

Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit 964

31.3 Forced Oscillations of Three Simple Circuits 966

Alternating Current 966

Forced Oscillations 967

Three Simple Circuits 968

31.4 The Series Rlc Circuit 974

The Series RLC Circuit 975

31.5 Power In Alternating-Current Circuits 982

Power in Alternating-Current Circuits 982

31.6 Transformers 985

Transformers 985

Review & Summary 989 Questions 990

Problems 991

32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter 998

32.1 Gauss’ Law For Magnetic Fields 998

What is Physics? 998

Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields 999

32.2 Induced Magnetic Fields 1000

Induced Magnetic Fields 1000

32.3 Displacement Current 1003

Displacement Current 1004

Maxwell’s Equations 1007

32.4 Magnets 1007

Magnets 1007

32.5 Magnetism and Electrons 1009

Magnetism and Electrons 1010

Magnetic Materials 1014

32.6 Diamagnetism 1015

Diamagnetism 1015

32.7 Paramagnetism 1016

Paramagnetism 1017

32.8 Ferromagnetism 1019

Ferromagnetism 1019

Review & Summary 1023 Questions 1024

Problems 1026

33 Electromagnetic Waves 1032

33.1 Electromagnetic Waves 1032

What is Physics? 1032

Maxwell’s Rainbow 1033

The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Qualitatively 1034

The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Quantitatively 1037

33.2 Energy Transport and The Poynting Vector 1040

Energy Transport and The Poynting Vector 1041

33.3 Radiation Pressure 1043

Radiation Pressure 1043

33.4 Polarization 1045

Polarization 1045

33.5 Reflection and Refraction 1050

Reflection and Refraction 1051

33.6 Total Internal Reflection 1056

Total Internal Reflection 1056

33.7 Polarization By Reflection 1059

Polarization by Reflection 1059

Review & Summary 1061 Questions 1062

Problems 1063

34 Images 1072

34.1 Images and Plane Mirrors 1072

What is Physics? 1072

Two Types of Image 1072

Plane Mirrors 1074

34.2 Spherical Mirrors 1076

Spherical Mirrors 1077

Images from Spherical Mirrors 1078

34.3 Spherical Refracting Surfaces 1083

Spherical Refracting Surfaces 1084

34.4 Thin Lenses 1086

Thin Lenses 1087

34.5 Optical Instruments 1094

Optical Instruments 1094

34.6 Three Proofs 1098

Review & Summary 1100 Questions 1101

Problems 1102

35 Interference 1111

35.1 Light As A Wave 1111

What is Physics? 1111

Light as a Wave 1112

35.2 Young’s Interference Experiment 1117

Diffraction 1117

Young’s Interference Experiment 1118

35.3 Interference and Double-Slit Intensity 1122

Coherence 1122

Intensity in Double-Slit Interference 1123

35.4 Interference From Thin Films 1126

Interference from Thin Films 1127

35.5 Michelson’s Interferometer 1135

Michelson’s Interferometer 1135

Review & Summary 1138 Questions 1139

Problems 1140

36 Diffraction 1148

36.1 Single-Slit Diffraction 1148

What is Physics? 1148

Diffraction and The Wave Theory of Light 1149

Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating The Minima 1150

36.2 Intensity In Single-Slit Diffraction 1153

Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Qualitatively 1153

Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Quantitatively 1155

36.3 Diffraction By A Circular Aperture 1158

Diffraction by a Circular Aperture 1158

36.4 Diffraction By A Double Slit 1162

Diffraction by a Double Slit 1162

36.5 Diffraction Gratings 1166

Diffraction Gratings 1166

36.6 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power 1170

Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power 1170

36.7 X-Ray Diffraction 1173

X-Ray Diffraction 1173

Review & Summary 1176 Questions 1177

Problems 1178

37 Relativity 1186

37.1 Simultaneity and Time Dilation 1186

What is Physics? 1186

The Postulates 1187

Measuring an Event 1188

The Relativity of Simultaneity 1190

The Relativity of Time 1191

37.2 The Relativity of Length 1196

The Relativity of Length 1196

37.3 The Lorentz Transformation 1199

The Lorentz Transformation 1200

Some Consequences of The Lorentz Equations 1202

37.4 The Relativity of Velocities 1204

The Relativity of Velocities 1204

37.5 Doppler Effect For Light 1205

Doppler Effect for Light 1206

37.6 Momentum and Energy 1209

A New Look at Momentum 1209

A New Look at Energy 1210

Review & Summary 1215 Questions 1216

Problems 1217

38 Photons and Matter Waves 1225

38.1 The Photon, The Quantum of Light 1225

What is Physics? 1225

The Photon, The Quantum of Light 1226

38.2 The Photoelectric Effect 1227

The Photoelectric Effect 1228

38.3 Photons, Momentum, Compton Scattering, Light Interference 1230

Photons Have Momentum 1231

Light as a Probability Wave 1234

38.4 The Birth of Quantum Physics 1236

The Birth of Quantum Physics 1237

38.5 Electrons and Matter Waves 1238

Electrons and Matter Waves 1239

38.6 Schrödinger’s Equation 1242

Schrödinger’s Equation 1242

38.7 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 1244

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 1245

38.8 Reflection From A Potential Step 1246

Reflection from a Potential Step 1246

38.9 Tunneling Through A Potential Barrier 1248

Tunneling Through a Potential Barrier 1248

Review & Summary 1251 Questions 1252

Problems 1253

39 More About Matter Waves 1258

39.1 Energies of A Trapped Electron 1258

What is Physics? 1258

String Waves and Matter Waves 1259

Energies of a Trapped Electron 1260

39.2 Wave Functions of A Trapped Electron 1264

Wave Functions of a Trapped Electron 1264

39.3 An Electron In A Finite Well 1268

An Electron in a Finite Well 1268

39.4 Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Traps 1270

More Electron Traps 1271

Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Traps 1272

39.5 The Hydrogen Atom 1275

The Hydrogen Atom is an Electron Trap 1276

The Bohr Model of Hydrogen, a Lucky Break 1276

Schrödinger’s Equation and The Hydrogen Atom 1278

Review & Summary 1286 Questions 1287 Problems 1288

40 All About Atoms 1293

40.1 Properties of Atoms 1293

What is Physics? 1294

Some Properties of Atoms 1294

Angular Momentum, Magnetic Dipole Moments 1296

40.2 The Stern–Gerlach Experiment 1300

The Stern–Gerlach Experiment 1300

40.3 Magnetic Resonance 1303

Magnetic Resonance 1303

40.4 Exclusion Principle and Multiple Electrons In A Trap 1304

The Pauli Exclusion Principle 1304

Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps 1305

40.5 Building The Periodic Table 1308

Building The Periodic Table 1308

40.6 X Rays and The Ordering of The Elements 1310

X Rays and The Ordering of The Elements 1311

40.7 Lasers 1314

Lasers and Laser Light 1315

How Lasers Work 1316

Review & Summary 1319 Questions 1320

Problems 1321

41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids 1327

41.1 The Electrical Properties of Metals 1327

What is Physics? 1328

The Electrical Properties of Solids 1328

Energy Levels in a Crystalline Solid 1329

Insulators 1330

Metals 1330

41.2 Semiconductors and Doping 1336

Semiconductors 1337

Doped Semiconductors 1338

41.3 THE P-N Junction and The Transistor 1341

The p-n Junction 1341

The Junction Rectifier 1343

The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) 1344

The Transistor 1345

Review & Summary 1346 Questions 1347

Problems 1348

42 Nuclear Physics 1352

42.1 Discovering The Nucleus 1352

What is Physics? 1352

Discovering The Nucleus 1352

42.2 Some Nuclear Properties 1355

Some Nuclear Properties 1356

42.3 Radioactive Decay 1362

Radioactive Decay 1362

42.4 Alpha Decay 1365

Alpha Decay 1365

42.5 Beta Decay 1368

Beta Decay 1368

42.6 Radioactive Dating 1371

Radioactive Dating 1371

42.7 Measuring Radiation Dosage 1372

Measuring Radiation Dosage 1372

42.8 Nuclear Models 1373

Nuclear Models 1373

Review & Summary 1376 Questions 1377

Problems 1378

43 Energy from The Nucleus 1385

43.1 Nuclear Fission 1385

What is Physics? 1385

Nuclear Fission: The Basic Process 1386

A Model for Nuclear Fission 1388

43.2 The Nuclear Reactor 1392

The Nuclear Reactor 1392

43.3 A Natural Nuclear Reactor 1396

A Natural Nuclear Reactor 1396

43.4 Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic Process 1398

Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic Process 1398

43.5 Thermonuclear Fusion In The Sun and Other Stars 1400

Thermonuclear Fusion in The Sun and Other Stars 1400

43.6 Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion 1402

Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion 1402

Review & Summary 1405 Questions 1405

Problems 1406

44 Quarks, Leptons, and The Big Bang 1410

44.1 General Properties of Elementary Articles 1410

What is Physics? 1410

Particles, Particles, Particles 1411

An Interlude 1415

44.2 Leptons, Hadrons, and Strangeness 1419

The Leptons 1419

The Hadrons 1421

Still Another Conservation Law 1422

The Eightfold Way 1423

44.3 Quarks and Messenger Particles 1425

The Quark Model 1425

The Basic Forces and Messenger Particles 1428

44.4 Cosmology 1431

A Pause for Reflection 1431

The Universe is Expanding 1432

The Cosmic Background Radiation 1433

Dark Matter 1434

The Big Bang 1434

A Summing Up 1437

Review & Summary 1438 Questions 1438

Problems 1439

Appendices

A The International System of Units (SI) A-1

B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics A-3

C Some Astronomical Data A-4

D Conversion Factors A-5

E Mathematical Formulas A-9

F Properties of The Elements A-12

G Periodic Table of The Elements A-15

Answers

To Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems AN-1

Index I-1

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