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9780394719856

The Gay Science: With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs

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  • ISBN13:

    9780394719856

  • ISBN10:

    0394719859

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Trade Book
  • Copyright: 1974-01-12
  • Publisher: Vintage

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Summary

Nietzsche called The Gay Science "the most personal of all my books." It was here that he first proclaimed the death of God -- to which a large part of the book is devoted -- and his doctrine of the eternal recurrence. Walter Kaufmann's commentary, with its many quotations from previously untranslated letters, brings to life Nietzsche as a human being and illuminates his philosophy. The book contains some of Nietzsche's most sustained discussions of art and morality, knowledge and truth, the intellectual conscience and the origin of logic. Most of the book was written just before Thus Spoke Zarathustra, the last part five years later, after Beyond Good and Evil. We encounter Zarathustra in these pages as well as many of Nietzsche's most interesting philosophical ideas and the largest collection of his own poetry that he himself ever published. Walter Kaufmann's English versions of Nietzsche represent one of the major translation enterprises of our time. He is the first philosopher to have translated Nietzsche's major works, and never before has a single translator given us so much of Nietzsche.

Author Biography

The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was born in Prussia in 1844. After the death of his father, a Lutheran minister, Nietzsche was raised from the age of five by his mother in a household of women. In 1869 he was appointed Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Basel, where he taught until 1879 when poor health forced him to retire. He never recovered from a nervous breakdown in 1889 and died eleven years later. Known for saying that “god is dead,” Nietzsche propounded his metaphysical construct of the superiority of the disciplined individual (superman) living in the present over traditional values derived from Christianity and its emphasis on heavenly rewards. His ideas were appropriated by the Fascists, who turned his theories into social realities that he had never intended.

Table of Contents

A Note on the Text vi(1)
Abbreviations vii
Translator's Introduction 3(29)
Nietzsche's Preface for the Second Edition 32(7)
"Joke, Cunning, and Revenge": Prelude in German Rhymes 39(2)
1. Invitation
41(1)
2. My Happiness
41(1)
3. Undaunted
41(1)
4. Dialogue
41(2)
5. To the Virtuous
43(1)
6. Wordly Wisdom
43(1)
7. Vademecum--Vadetecum
43(1)
8. Shedding the Third Skin
43(2)
9. My Roses
45(1)
10. Scorn
45(1)
11. The Proverb Speaks
45(1)
12. To a Light-Lover
45(2)
13. For Dancers
47(1)
14. The Good Man
47(1)
15. Rust
47(1)
16. Up
47(1)
17. The Maxim of the Brute
47(1)
18. Narrow Souls
47(1)
19. The Involuntary Seducer
47(2)
20. For your Consideration
49(1)
21. Against Airs
49(1)
22. Man and Woman
49(1)
23. Interpretation
49(1)
24. Medicine for Pessimists
49(1)
25. Request
49(2)
26. My Hardness
51(1)
27. The Wanderer
51(1)
28. Consolation for Beginners
51(2)
29. The Egoism of the Stars
53(1)
30. The Neighbor
53(1)
31. The Disguised Saint
53(1)
32. The Unfree Man
53(1)
33. The Solitary
53(2)
34. Seneca et hoc genus omne
55(1)
35. Ice
55(1)
36. Juvenilia
55(1)
37. Caution
55(2)
38. The Pious Retort
57(1)
39. In the Summer
57(1)
40. Without Envy
57(1)
41. Heraclitean
57(2)
42. Principle of the Overly Refined
59(1)
43. Admonition
59(1)
44. The Thorough Who Get to the Bottom of Things
59(1)
45. Forever
59(2)
46. Judgments of the Weary
61(1)
47. Decline
61(1)
48. Against the Laws
61(1)
49. The Sage Speaks
61(2)
50. Lost His Head
63(1)
51. Pious Wishes
63(1)
52. Writing with One's Feet
63(1)
53. Human, All Too Human: A Book
63(1)
54. To My Reader
63(2)
55. Realistic Painters
65(1)
56. Poet's Vanity
65(1)
57. Choosy Taste
65(1)
58. A Crooked Nose
65(1)
59. The Pen is Stubborn
65(2)
60. Higher Men
67(1)
61. The Skeptic Speaks
67(1)
62. Ecce Homo
67(2)
63. Star Morals
69(2)
BOOK ONE 71(48)
1. The teachers of the purpose of existence
73(3)
2. The intellectual conscience
76(1)
3. Noble and common
77(2)
4. What preserves the species
79(1)
5. Unconditional duties
80(1)
6. Loss of dignity
81(1)
7. Something for the industrious
81(1)
8. Unconscious virtues
82(1)
9. Our eruptions
83(1)
10. A kind of atavism
84(1)
11. Consciousness
84(1)
12. On the aim of science
85(1)
13. On the doctrine of the feeling of power
86(2)
14. The things people call love
88(1)
15. From a distance
89(1)
16. Over the footbridge
90(1)
17. Finding motives for our poverty
90(1)
18. The pride of classical antiquity
91(1)
19. Evil
91(1)
20. The dignity of folly
92(1)
21. To the teachers of selfishness
92(3)
22. L'ordre du jour pour le roi
95(1)
23. The signs of corruption
96(2)
24. Diverse dissatisfaction
98(2)
25. Not predestined for knowledge
100(1)
26. What is life?
100(1)
27. The man of renunciation
100(1)
28. To be harmful with what is best in us
101(1)
29. Add lies
101(1)
30. The comedy played by the famous
102(1)
31. Trade and nobility
102(1)
32. Undesirable disciples
103(1)
33. Outside the lecture hall
104(1)
34. Historia abscondita
104(1)
35. Heresy and witchcraft
104(1)
36. Last words
105(1)
37. Owing to three errors
105(1)
38. The explosive ones
106(1)
39. Changed taste
106(1)
40. On the lack of noble manners
107(1)
41. Against remorse
108(1)
42. Work and boredom
108(1)
43. What laws betray
109(1)
44. Supposed motives
109(1)
45. Epicurus
110(1)
46. Our amazement
111(1)
47. On the suppression of the passions
112(1)
48. Knowledge of misery
112(2)
49. Magnanimity and related matters
114(1)
50. The argument of growing solitude
114(1)
51. Truthfulness
115(1)
52. What others know about us
115(1)
53. Where the good begins
115(1)
54. The consciousness of appearance
116(1)
55. The ultimate noblemindedness
117(1)
56. The craving for suffering
117(2)
BOOK TWO 119(46)
57. To the realists
121(1)
58. Only as creators!
121(1)
59. We artists
122(1)
60. Women and their action at a distance
123(1)
61. In honor of friendship
124(1)
62. Love
124(1)
63. Woman in music
124(1)
64. Skeptics
125(1)
65. Devotion
125(1)
66. The strength of the weak
125(1)
67. Simulating--oneself
125(1)
68. Will and willingness
126(1)
69. Capacity for revenge
126(1)
70. Women who master the masters
127(1)
71. On female chastity
127(1)
72. Mothers
128(1)
73. Holy cruelty
129(1)
74. Failures
129(1)
75. The third sex
130(1)
76. The greatest danger
130(1)
77. The animal with a good conscience
131(1)
78. What should win our gratitude
132(1)
79. The attraction of imperfection
133(1)
80. Art and nature
134(2)
81. Greek taste
136(1)
82. Esprit as un-Greek
136(1)
83. Translations
136(2)
84. On the origin of poetry
138(3)
85. The good and the beautiful
141(1)
86. Of the theater
141(1)
87. Of the vanity of artists
142(2)
88. Being serious about truth
144(1)
89. Now and formerly
144(1)
90. Lights and shadows
144(1)
91. Caution
145(1)
92. Prose and poetry
145(1)
93. But why do you write?
146(1)
94. Growth after death
146(2)
95. Chamfort
148(1)
96. Two speakers
149(1)
97. Of the garrulousness of writers
150(1)
98. In praise of Shakespeare
150(2)
99. Schopenhauer's followers
152(4)
100. Learning to pay homage
156(1)
101. Voltaire
157(1)
102. A remark for philologists
157(1)
103. Of German music
158(2)
104. Of the sound of the German language
160(2)
105. The Germans as artists
162(1)
106. Music as an advocate
162(1)
107. Our ultimate gratitude to art
163(2)
BOOK THREE 165(56)
108. New struggles
167(1)
109. Let us beware
167(2)
110. Origin of knowledge
169(2)
111. Origin of the logical
171(1)
112. Cause and effect
172(1)
113. On the doctrine of poisons
173(1)
114. How far the moral sphere extends
173(1)
115. The four errors
174(1)
116. Herd instinct
174(1)
117. Herd remorse
175(1)
118. Benevolence
175(1)
119. No altruism!
176(1)
120. Health of the soul
176(1)
121. Life no argument
177(1)
122. Moral skepticism in Christianity
178(1)
123. Knowledge as more than a mere means
178(2)
124. In the horizon of the infinite
180(1)
125. The madman
181(1)
126. Mystical explanations
182(1)
127. Aftereffects of the most ancient religiosity
183(1)
128. The value of prayer
184(1)
129. The conditions for God
185(1)
130. A dangerous resolve
185(1)
131. Christianity and suicide
185(1)
132. Against Christianity
186(1)
133. Principle
186(1)
134. Pessimists as victims
186(1)
135. Origin of sin
187(1)
136. The chosen people
188(1)
137. Speaking in a parable
189(1)
138. Christ's error
189(1)
139. The color of the passions
189(1)
140. Too Jewish
190(1)
141. Too Oriental
190(1)
142. Frankincense
191(1)
143. The greatest advantage of polytheism
191(1)
144. Religious wars
192(1)
145. Danger for vegetarians
193(1)
146. German hopes
193(1)
147. Question and answer
194(1)
148. Where reformations occur
194(1)
149. The failure of reformations
194(2)
150. On the critique of saints
196(1)
151. Of the origin of religion
196(1)
152. The greatest change
196(1)
153. Homo poeta
197(1)
154. Different types of dangerous lives
197(1)
155. What we lack
198(1)
156. Who is most influential
198(1)
157. Mentiri
198(1)
158. An inconvenient trait
198(1)
159. Every virtue has its age
198(1)
160. Dealing with virtues
199(1)
161. To those who love the age
199(1)
162. Egoism
199(1)
163. After a great victory
199(1)
164. Those who seek rest
199(1)
165. The happiness of those who have renounced something
199(1)
166. Always in our own company
200(1)
167. Misanthropy and love
200(1)
168. Of a sick man
200(1)
169. Open enemies
201(1)
170. With the crowd
201(1)
171. Fame
201(1)
172. Spoiling the taste
201(1)
173. Being profound and seeming profound
201(1)
174. Apart
202(1)
175. Of eloquence
202(1)
176. Pity
202(1)
177. On "the educational establishment"
202(1)
178. On moral enlightenment
203(1)
179. Thoughts
203(1)
180. A good age for free spirits
203(1)
181. Following and walking ahead
203(1)
182. In solitude
203(1)
183. The music of the best future
203(1)
184. Justice
204(1)
185. Poor
204(1)
186. Bad conscience
204(1)
187. Offensive presentation
204(1)
188. Work
204(1)
189. The thinker
205(1)
190. Against those who praise
205(1)
191. Against many a defense
205(1)
192. The good-natured
205(1)
193. Kant's joke
205(1)
194. The "openhearted"
206(1)
195. Laughable
206(1)
196. Limits of our hearing
206(1)
197. Better watch out!
206(1)
198. Chagrin of the proud
206(1)
199. Liberality
206(1)
200. Laughter
207(1)
201. Applause
207(1)
202. A squanderer
207(1)
203. Hic niger est
207(1)
204. Beggars and courtesy
207(1)
205. Need
207(1)
206. When it rains
208(1)
207. The envious
208(1)
208. Great man
208(1)
209. One way of asking for reasons
208(1)
210. Moderation in industriousness
208(1)
211. Secret enemies
208(1)
212. Not to be deceived
209(1)
213. The way to happiness
209(1)
214. Faith makes blessed
209(1)
215. Ideal and material
209(1)
216. Danger in the voice
210(1)
217. Cause and effect
210(1)
218. My antipathy
210(1)
219. The purpose of punishment
210(1)
220. Sacrifice
210(1)
221. Consideration
210(1)
222. Poet and liar
210(1)
223. Vicarious senses
211(1)
224. Animals as critics
211(1)
225. The natural
211(1)
226. Mistrust and style
211(1)
227. Bad reasoning, bad shot
211(1)
228. Against mediators
212(1)
229. Obstinacy and faithfulness
212(1)
230. Dearth of silence
212(1)
231. The "thorough"
212(1)
232. Dreams
212(1)
233. The most dangerous point of view
212(1)
234. A musician's comfort
213(1)
235. Spirit and character
213(1)
236. To move the crowd
213(1)
237. Polite
213(1)
238. Without envy
213(1)
239. Joyless
214(1)
240. At the sea
214(1)
241. Work and artist
214(1)
242. Suum cuique
214(1)
243. Origin of "good" and "bad"
214(1)
244. Thoughts and words
215(1)
245. Praise by choice
215(1)
246. Mathematics
215(1)
247. Habit
215(1)
248. Books
215(1)
249. The sigh of the search for knowledge
215(1)
250. Guilt
216(1)
251. Misunderstood sufferers
216(1)
252. Better a debtor
216(1)
253. Always at home
216(1)
254. Against embarrassment
216(1)
255. Imitators
216(1)
256. Skin-coveredness
217(1)
257. From experience
217(1)
258. The denial of chance
217(1)
259. From paradise
218(1)
260. Multiplication table
218(1)
261. Originality
218(1)
262. Sub specie aeterni
218(1)
263. Without vanity
218(1)
264. What we do
219(1)
265. Ultimate skepsis
219(1)
266. Where cruelty is needed
219(1)
267. With a great goal
219(1)
268. What makes one heroic?
219(1)
269. In what do you believe?
219(1)
270. What does your conscience say?
219(1)
271. Where are your greatest dangers?
220(1)
272. What do you love in others?
220(1)
273. Whom do you call bad?
220(1)
274. What do you consider most humane?
220(1)
275. What is the seal of liberation?
220(1)
BOOK FOUR: Sanctus Januarius 221(56)
276. For the new year
223(1)
277. Personal providence
223(1)
278. The thought of death
224(1)
279. Star friendship
225(1)
280. Architecture for the search for knowledge
226(1)
281. Knowing how to end
227(1)
282. Gait
227(1)
283. Preparatory human beings
228(1)
284. Faith in oneself
229(1)
285. Excelsior
229(1)
286. Interruption
230(1)
287. Delight in blindness
230(1)
288. Elevated moods
231(1)
289. Embark!
231(1)
290. One thing is needful
232(1)
291. Genoa
233(1)
292. To those who preach morals
234(1)
293. Our air
235(1)
294. Against the slanderers of nature
236(1)
295. Brief habits
236(2)
296. A firm reputation
238(1)
297. The ability to contradict
239(1)
298. Sigh
239(1)
299. What one should learn from artists
239(1)
300. Preludes of science
240(1)
301. The fancy of the contemplatives
241(1)
302. The danger of the happiest
242(1)
303. Two who are happy
243(1)
304. By doing we forego
244(1)
305. Self-control
244(1)
306. Stoics and Epicureans
245(1)
307. In favor of criticism
245(1)
308. The history of every day
246(1)
309. From the seventh solitude
246(1)
310. Will and wave
247(2)
311. Refracted light
249(1)
312. My dog
249(1)
313. No image of torture
250(1)
314. New domestic animals
250(1)
315. On the last hour
250(1)
316. Prophetic human beings
251(1)
317. Looking back
252(1)
318. Wisdom in pain
252(1)
319. As interpreters of our experiences
253(1)
320. Upon seeing each other again
254(1)
321. New caution
254(1)
322. Parable
254(1)
323. Good luck in fate
255(1)
324. In media vita
255(1)
325. What belongs to greatness
255(1)
326. The physicians of the soul and pain
256(1)
327. Taking seriously
257(1)
328. To harm stupidity
258(1)
329. Leisure and idleness
258(2)
330. Applause
260(1)
331. Better deaf than deafened
260(1)
332. The evil hour
261(1)
333. The meaning of knowing
261(1)
334. One must learn to love
262(1)
335. Long live physics!
263(4)
336. Nature's stinginess
267(1)
337. The "humaneness" of the future
267(2)
338. The will to suffer and those who feel pity
269(2)
339. Vita femina
271(1)
340. The dying Socrates
272(1)
341. The greatest weight
273(1)
342. Incipit tragoedia
274(3)
BOOK FIVE: We Fearless Ones 277(72)
343. The meaning of our cheerfulness
279(1)
344. How we, too, are still pious
280(3)
345. Morality as a problem
283(2)
346. Our question mark
285(2)
347. Believers and their need to believe
287(3)
348. On the origin of scholars
290(1)
349. Once more the origin of scholars
291(1)
350. In honor of the homines religiosi
292(1)
351. In honor of the priestly type
293(2)
352. How morality is scarcely dispensable
295(1)
353. On the origin of religions
296(1)
354. On the "genius of the species"
297(3)
355. The origin of our concept of "knowledge"
300(2)
356. How things will become ever more "artistic" in Europe
302(2)
357. On the old problem: "What is German?"
304(6)
358. The peasant rebellion of the spirit
310(4)
359. The revenge against the spirit and other ulterior motives of morality
314(1)
360. Two kinds of causes that are often confounded
315(1)
361. On the problem of the actor
316(2)
362. Our faith that Europe will become more virile
318(1)
363. How each sex has its own prejudice about love
318(2)
364. The hermit speaks
320(1)
365. The hermit speaks once more
321(1)
366. Faced with a scholarly book
322(2)
367. The first distinction to be made regarding works of art
324(1)
368. The cynic speaks
324(2)
369. Our side by side
326(1)
370. What is romanticism?
327(4)
371. We incomprehensible ones
331(1)
372. Why we are no idealists
332(2)
373. "Science" as a prejudice
334(2)
374. Our new "infinite"
336(1)
375. Why we look like Epicureans
337(1)
376. Our slow periods
337(1)
377. We who are homeless
338(2)
378. "And become bright again"
340(1)
379. The fool interrupts
341(1)
380. "The wanderer" speaks
342(1)
381. On the question of being understandable
343(3)
382. The great health
346(1)
383. Epilogue
347(2)
Appendix: Songs of Prince Vogelfrei 349(27)
To Goethe 351(1)
The Poet's Call 351(4)
In the South 355(2)
Pious Beppa 357(2)
The Mysterious Bark 359(1)
Declaration of Love 359(2)
Song of a Theocritical Goat-herd 361(2)
"Souls that are unsure" 363(1)
Fool in Despair 363(2)
Rimus remedium 365(4)
"My Happiness!" 369(2)
Toward New Seas 371(1)
Sils Maria 371(2)
To the Mistral 373(3)
Acknowledgments 376(1)
Index 377

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