Gendered Lives (Non-InfoTrac Version)

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-04-06
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Written by the leading gender communication scholar, this text introduces students to theories, research, and pragmatic information that demonstrate the multiple, often interactive ways in which gender images of masculinity and femininity are shaped within contemporary culture.

Author Biography

Julia T. Wood is the Lineberger Distinguished Professor of Humanities and Professor of Communication Studies at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Julia T. Wood joined the Department of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill at the age of 24. She is now a professor in that department, where she teaches courses and conducts research on gender, communication, and culture, and on communication in personal relationships. During her career, she has authored 15 books and edited 8 others. In addition, she has published more than 70 articles and book chapters and has presented numerous papers at professional conferences. She has won 8 awards for undergraduate teaching and 8 awards for her scholarship

Table of Contents

Introduction: Opening the Conversationp. 1
The Social Construction of Inequalityp. 2
Feminism--Feminismsp. 4
Becoming Awarep. 6
Why I Wrote this Bookp. 8
Communication as the Fulcrum of Changep. 10
The Challenge of Studying Communication, Gender, and Culturep. 11
Discussion Questionsp. 12
Conceptual Foundations
The Study of Communication, Gender, and Culturep. 14
Communication, Gender, and Culture as an Area of Studyp. 15
Knowledge of Gender, Communication, and Culturep. 15
Student Interestp. 15
The Value of Studying Communication, Gender, and Culturep. 15
The Meaning of Gender in a Transitional Erap. 16
Confusing Attitudesp. 16
Differences Between Women and Menp. 18
Relationships Among Gender, Culture, and Communicationp. 19
Gender and Sexp. 19
Sexp. 20
Genderp. 22
Culturep. 28
Communicationp. 30
Communication is a dynamic processp. 31
Communication is systemicp. 31
Communication has two levels of meaningp. 32
Meanings are created through human interaction with symbolsp. 33
Summaryp. 35
Discussion Questionsp. 36
Theoretical Approaches to Gender Developmentp. 38
Theoretical Approaches to Genderp. 40
Biological Influences on Genderp. 40
Interpersonal Influences on Genderp. 45
Psychodynamic theory of gender developmentp. 46
Psychological theories of gender developmentp. 48
Cultural Influences on Genderp. 51
Anthropologyp. 52
Symbolic interactionismp. 53
Standpoint theoryp. 57
Summaryp. 61
Discussion Questionsp. 61
The Rhetorical Shaping of Gender: Women's, Men's, and Gender Movements in Americap. 63
Women's Movementsp. 64
The First Wave of Women's Movements in the United Statesp. 65
Women's rights movementp. 65
The cult of domesticityp. 67
The Second Wave of Women's Movements in the United Statesp. 69
Radical feminismp. 69
Liberal feminismp. 71
Separatismp. 75
Structural feministsp. 76
Lesbian feministsp. 77
Revaloristsp. 78
Womanistsp. 79
Power feminismp. 81
The Third Wave of Women's Movements in the United Statesp. 84
Men's Movementsp. 87
Profeminist Men's Movementsp. 88
Promasculinist Men's Movementsp. 91
Free menp. 92
Mythopoetic menp. 93
Promise Keepersp. 96
Million Man Marchp. 98
Other Movements Focused on Genderp. 100
The Backlashp. 100
Ecofeminismp. 102
Summaryp. 104
Discussion Questionsp. 105
Gendered Verbal Communicationp. 107
The Nature of Human Communicationp. 108
Verbal Communication Expresses Cultural Views of Genderp. 108
Language Defines Genderp. 109
Male generic language excludes womenp. 109
Language defines men and women differentlyp. 111
Language names what existsp. 113
Language Organizes Perceptions of Genderp. 115
Stereotyping genderp. 115
Encouraging polarized thinkingp. 116
Language Evaluates Genderp. 117
Language Enables Hypothetical Thoughtp. 118
Language Allows Self-Reflectionp. 119
Language Is a Processp. 120
Gendered Interaction: Masculine and Feminine Styles of Verbal Communicationp. 120
Gendered Speech Communitiesp. 121
The Lessons of Childplayp. 122
Boys' gamesp. 122
Girls' gamesp. 123
Gendered Communication Practicesp. 125
Women's speechp. 125
Men's speechp. 128
Misinterpretations Between Women and Menp. 130
Showing supportp. 130
"Troubles talk"p. 131
The point of the storyp. 132
Relationship talkp. 133
Public speakingp. 133
Summaryp. 134
Discussion Questionsp. 135
Gendered Nonverbal Communicationp. 137
Functions of Nonverbal Communicationp. 138
Nonverbal Communication Can Supplement Verbal Communicationp. 138
Non verbal Communication Can Regulate Interactionp. 139
Nonverbal Communication Can Establish the Relationship Level of Meaningp. 139
Responsivenessp. 139
Likingp. 142
Power or controlp. 143
Forms of Nonverbal Communicationp. 143
Artifactsp. 144
Proximity and Personal Spacep. 146
Haptics (Touch)p. 148
Kinesics (Facial and Body Motion)p. 149
Paralanguagep. 150
Physical Characteristicsp. 151
Implications of Gendered Nonverbal Communicationp. 157
The Cultural Context of Nonverbal Communicationp. 157
Respecting Differences in Nonverbal Communicationp. 159
Summaryp. 160
Discussion Questionsp. 161
Gendered Communication in Practice
Gendered Family Dynamicsp. 163
Entering a Gendered Societyp. 164
Self-as-Objectp. 164
Monitoringp. 165
Gendering Communication in the Familyp. 165
Unconscious Processes: Identification and Internalizationp. 166
Ego Boundariesp. 170
Parental Attitudes About Genderp. 172
Parental Communication About Genderp. 173
Parental Modelingp. 175
Different Contributions of Mothers and Fathersp. 177
The Personal Side of the Gender Dramap. 179
Growing Up Masculinep. 179
Growing Up Femininep. 183
Summaryp. 190
Discussion Questionsp. 191
Gendered Close Relationshipsp. 193
The Meaning of Personal Relationshipsp. 194
Defining Personal Relationshipsp. 194
Gender and Closenessp. 195
Male deficit modelp. 195
Alternate paths modelp. 196
Gendered Friendshipsp. 198
Commonalities in Women's and Men's Friendshipsp. 198
Differences Between Women's and Men's Friendshipsp. 198
Women's Friendships: Closeness in Dialoguep. 199
Men's Friendships: Closeness in the Doingp. 201
Friendships Between Women and Menp. 203
Gendered Romantic Relationshipsp. 205
Developing Romantic Intimacyp. 206
Engaging in Committed Relationshipsp. 208
Gendered modes of expressing carep. 208
Gendered preferences for autonomy and connectionp. 210
Gendered responsibility for relational healthp. 212
Gendered power dynamicsp. 212
Summaryp. 218
Discussion Questionsp. 219
Gendered Education: Communication in School Settingsp. 221
The Organization of Schoolsp. 223
Schools Perpetuate Gender Inequitiesp. 223
Schools Limit Career Aspirationsp. 224
Schools Have Few Female and Minority Role Modelsp. 224
Curricular Contentp. 226
Misrepresentation of White Men as Standardp. 226
The Invisibility of Womenp. 227
Misrepresentation of Human Experiencesp. 229
Educational Processesp. 230
Unequal Attention to Male and Female Studentsp. 230
Not Taking Women Students Seriouslyp. 231
Classroom Communicationp. 232
Gender biases in teachers' communicationp. 232
Communication among peersp. 236
Instructional stylep. 237
Summaryp. 240
Discussion Questionsp. 241
Gendered Organizational Communicationp. 243
Institutional Stereotypes of Women and Menp. 244
Stereotypes of Womenp. 244
Sex objectp. 244
Motherp. 245
Childp. 246
Iron maidenp. 248
Stereotypes of Menp. 249
Sturdy oakp. 249
Fighterp. 249
Breadwinnerp. 250
Evaluation of Stereotypesp. 252
Misunderstandings of Professional Communicationp. 252
Male Standards in Institutionsp. 252
Masculine Definitions of Professional Communicationp. 254
Static (or Unchanging) Views of Communicationp. 256
Misperceptions of Men's and Women's Ability to Work Togetherp. 258
Gendered Communication Systems in Organizationsp. 259
Leave Policies and Work Schedulesp. 259
Leave policiesp. 259
Work schedulesp. 261
Communication Climates in Organizationsp. 263
Hostile environments for womenp. 263
The informal networkp. 264
Mentor relationshipsp. 265
Glass Ceilings--and Walls?p. 266
Efforts to Redress Gendered Inequity in Institutionsp. 267
Equal Opportunity Lawsp. 268
Affirmative Action Policiesp. 269
Quotas and Goalsp. 271
Quotasp. 271
Goalsp. 272
Increasing Sensitivity to Gender Issuesp. 274
Summaryp. 275
Discussion Questionsp. 276
Gendered Media: Media's Influence on Genderp. 279
The Prevalence of Media in Cultural Lifep. 280
Themes in Mediap. 281
Underrepresentation of Women and Minoritiesp. 281
Stereotypical Portrayals of Men and Womenp. 283
Stereotypical portrayals of menp. 283
Stereotypical portrayals of womenp. 285
Stereotypical Images of Relationships Between Men and Womenp. 287
Women's dependence/men's independencep. 287
Women's incompetence/men's authorityp. 289
Women as primary caregivers/men as breadwinnersp. 290
Women as victims and sex objects/men as aggressorsp. 292
Bias in News Coveragep. 294
Implications of Media Representations of Genderp. 298
Fostering Unrealistic and Limited Gender Idealsp. 298
Pathologizing the Human Bodyp. 300
Normalizing Violence Against Womenp. 304
Summaryp. 305
Discussion Questionsp. 306
Gendered Power and Violencep. 308
The Social Construction of Gendered Violencep. 309
The Many Faces of Gendered Violencep. 310
Gender Intimidationp. 310
Sexual Assaultp. 311
Abuse Between Intimatesp. 314
Sexual Harassmentp. 319
Quid pro quop. 320
Hostile environmentp. 320
Whose perspective counts?p. 321
Genital Mutilationp. 322
Male circumcisionp. 322
Sunnap. 322
Excision or clitoridectomyp. 323
Infibulationp. 323
Gender-Based Murderp. 326
Social Foundations of Gendered Violencep. 327
Normalization of Violence in Mediap. 328
Normalization of Violence by Institutionsp. 329
Familyp. 329
Law enforcementp. 330
Counselingp. 331
Languagep. 332
Resisting Gendered Violence: Where Do We Go from Here?p. 333
Personal Efforts to Reduce Gendered Violencep. 333
Social Efforts to Reduce Gendered Violencep. 334
Summaryp. 336
Discussion Questionsp. 337
Epilogue: Looking Backward, Looking Forwardp. 339
The Cultural Construction and Reconstruction of Genderp. 340
Looking Backward, Looking Forwardp. 341
Communicationp. 341
Women's communicationp. 341
Men's communicationp. 342
Gender and communication in the futurep. 342
Women's and Men's Movementsp. 342
Liberal feminismp. 342
The future of feminismp. 343
Men's movementsp. 343
Gender in Educationp. 344
Reducing gender discriminationp. 344
Future gender issues in educationp. 344
Gender in Mediap. 345
Changes in women in mediap. 345
Mediated gender in the futurep. 346
Liberal and structural feminist views of womenp. 346
Gender in Personal Relationshipsp. 348
Changes in gender relationsp. 348
Addressing gender divisionsp. 348
Gender and Violencep. 350
Gender in Institutional Settingsp. 351
Women's positions in institutionsp. 351
Valuing diversity in institutional lifep. 352
Social support for familiesp. 352
Creating the Futurep. 352
Defining Masculinity and Femininityp. 353
Responding to Differencesp. 354
Redefining Culturep. 355
Taking a Voicep. 356
Discussion Questionsp. 357
Glossaryp. 359
Referencesp. 365
Indexp. 411
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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