Geotechnical Engineering Unsaturated and Saturated Soils

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-10-28
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Written by a leader on the subject, Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering is first introductory geotechnical engineering textbook to cover both saturated and unsaturated soil mechanics. Destined to become the next leading text in the field, this book presents a new approach to teaching the subject, based on fundamentals of unsaturated soils, and extending the description of applications of soil mechanics to a wide variety of topics. This groundbreaking work features a number of topics typically left out of undergraduate geotechnical courses.

Author Biography

JEAN-LOUIS BRIAUD, PhD, is Past President of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. He is a Professor and Holder of the Spencer J. Buchanan Chair in the Zachry Department of Civil Engineering at Texas A&M University and a research engineer with the Texas A&M Transportation Institute. Over the last thirty years, he has conducted extensive research on various aspects of geotechnical engineering and has been a consultant on numerous large-scale projects in several countries. Among other awards, he has received the ASTM C.A. Hogentogler Award, the ASCE Walter L. Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize, the ASCE Martin Kapp Award, the G. Geoffrey Meyerhof Award from the Canadian Geotechnical Society, and the ASCE Ralph B. Peck Award.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Why this book?

1.2 Geotechnical-engineering

1.3 The past and the future

1.4 Some recent and notable projects

1.5 Failures may occur

1.6 Our work is buried

1.7 Geotechnical engineering can be fun

1.8 Units


2 Engineering Geology

2.1 Definition

2.2 The Earth

2.3 Geologic Time

2.4 Rocks

2.5 Soils

2.6 Geological features

2.7 Geologic maps

2.8 Ground water


3 Soil Components and Weight-Volume Parameters

3.1 Particles, liquid, and gas

3.2 Particle size, shape, and color

3.3 Composition of gravel, sand, and silt particles

3.4 Composition of clay and silt particles

3.5 Particle behavior

3.6 Soil structure

3.7 Three phase diagram

3.8 Weight volume parameters

3.9 Measurement of the weight volume parameters

3.10 Solving a weight volume problem

Chapter 3 Problems

4 Soil Classification

4.1 Sieve analysis

4.2 Hydrometer analysis

4.3 Atterberg limits and other limits

4.4 Classification parameters

4.5 Engineering significance of classification parameters and plasticity chart

4.6 Unified Soil Classification System USCS


5 Rocks

5.1 Rock groups and identification

5.2 Rock mass vs rock substance

5.3 Rock discontinuities

5.4 Rock index properties

5.5 Rock engineering properties

5.6 Rock mass rating

5.7 Rock engineering problems

5.8 Permafrost


6 Site Investigation, Drilling, and Sampling

6.1 General

6.2 Preliminary site investigation

6.3 Number and depth of borings and in-situ tests

6.4 Drilling

6.5 Sampling

6.6 Ground water level

6.7 Field identification and boring logs

6.8 Soil names

6.9 Offshore site investigations


7 In Situ Tests

7.1 Standard penetration test (SPT)

7.2 Cone penetration test (CPT)

7.3 Pressuremeter test (PMT)

7.4 Dilatometer test (DMT)

7.5 Vane shear test (VST)

7.6 Borehole shear test (BST)

7.7 Plate load test (PLT)

7.8 California Bearing Ratio Test (CBR)

7.9 Pocket penetrometer, torvane tests

7.10 Pocket erodometer test

7.11 Compaction control tests

7.12 Hydraulic conductivity field tests (HCT)

7.13 Offshore in situ tests


8 Elements of Geophysics

8.1 General

8.2 Seismic techniques

8.3 Electrical resistivity techniques

8.4 Electromagnetic methods

8.5 Remote sensing techniques


9 Laboratory Tests

9.1 General

9.2 Measurements

9.3 Compaction Test Dry Unit Weight

9.4 Compaction Test Soil Modulus

9.5 Consolidation Test

9.6 Swell Test

9.7 Shrink Test

9.8 Collapse Test

9.9 Direct Shear Test

9.10 Simple Shear Test

9.11 Unconfined Compression Test

9.12 Triaxial Test

9.13 Resonant Column Test

9.14 Lab Vane Test

9.15 Soil Water Retention Curve (Soil Water Characteristic Curve) Test

9.16 Constant Head Permeameter Test

9.17 Falling Head Permeameter Test for Saturated Soils

9.18 Wetting Front Test for Unsaturated Soils

9.19 Air Permeability Test for Unsaturated Soils

9.20 Erosion Test


10 Stresses, Effective Stress, Water Stress, Air Stress, and Strains

10.1 General

10.2 Stress vector, normal stress, shear stress, stress tensor

10.3 Sign convention for stresses and strains

10.4 Calculating stresses on any plane: equilibrium equations for two dimensional analysis

10.5 Calculating stresses on any plane: Mohr circle for two dimensional analysis

10.6 Mohr circle in three dimensions

10.7 Stress invariants

10.8 Displacements

10.9 Normal strain, shear strain, strain tensor

10.10 Cylindrical coordinates and spherical coordinates

10.11 Stress-strain curves

10.12 Stresses in the three soil phases

10.13 Effective stress (unsaturated soils)

10.14 Effective stress (saturated soils)

10.15 Area ratio factors α and β

10.16 Water stress profiles

10.17 Water tension, suction

10.18 Precision on water content and water tension

10.19 Stress profile at rest in unsaturated soils

10.20 Soil Water Retention Curve

10.21 Independent Stress State variables


11 Problem Solving Methods

11.1 General

11.2 Drawing to scale as a first step

11.3 Available laws

11.4 Continuum Mechanics Methods

11.5 Numerical Simulation Methods (FDM, FEM, DEM, BEM)

11.6 Probability and Risk Analysis

11.7 Regression analysis

11.8 Artificial neural network method (ANN)

11.9 Dimensional analysis

11.10 Similitude laws for experimental simulations

11.11 Types of Analyses (drained–undrained, effective stress–total stress, short term–       long term)


12 Soil Constitutive Models

12.1 Elasticity

12.2 Linear viscoelasticity

12.3 Plasticity

12.4 Common models


13 Flow of Fluid and Gas Through Soils

13.1 General

13.2 Flow of water in a saturated soil

13.3 Flow of water and air in unsaturated soil


14 Deformation Properties

14.1 Modulus of deformation general

14.2 Modulus which one?

14.3 Modulus influence of state factors

14.4 Modulus influence of loading factor

14.5 Modulus differences between fields of application

14.6 Modulus, modulus of subgrade reaction, and stiffness

14.7 Common values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio

14.8 Correlations with other tests

14.9 Modulus, a comprehensive model

14.10 Initial tangent modulus Go or Gmax

14.11 Preconsolidation pressure and overconsolidation ratio from consolidation test

14.12 Compression index, recompression index, secondary compression index from consolidation test

14.13 Time effect from consolidation test

14.14 Resilient modulus for pavements

14.15 Unsaturated soils, effect of drying and wetting on the modulus

14.16 Shrink-swell deformation behavior, shrink-swell modulus

14.17 Collapse deformation behavior


15 Shear Strength Properties

15.1 General

15.2 Basic experiments

15.3 Stress strain curve, water stress response, and stress path

15.4 Shear strength envelope

15.5 Unsaturated soils

15.6 Experimental determination of shear strength (lab tests, in situ tests)

15.7 Estimating effective stress shear strength parameters

15.8 Undrained shear strength of saturated fine grained soils

15.9 The ratio su/σov’ and the SHANSEP method

15.10 ndrained shear strength for unsaturated soils

15.11 Pore pressure parameters A and B

15.12 Estimating undrained shear strength values

15.13 Residual strength parameters and sensitivity

15.14 Strength profiles

15.15 Types of analyses

15.16 Transformation from effective stress solution to undrained strength solution


16 Thermodynamics for Soil Problems

16.1 General

16.2 Definitions

16.3 Constitutive and fundamental laws

16.4 Heat conduction theory

16.5 Axisymmetric heat propagation

16.6 Thermal properties of soils

16.7 Multilayer systems

16.8 Applications

16.9 Frozen soils


17 Shallow Foundations

17.1 Definitions

17.2 Case history

17.3 Definitions and design strategy

17.4 Limit states, load and resistance factors, factor of safety

17.5 General behavior

17.6 Ultimate bearing capacity

17.7 Load Settlement Curve Approach

17.8 Settlement

17.9 Shrink-swell movement, swelling pressures, collapse movement

17.10 Foundations on shrink swell soils

17.11 Tolerable movements

17.12 Large mat foundations


18 Deep Foundations

18.1 Different types of deep foundations

18.2 Design strategy

18.3 Pile installation

18.4 Vertical load single pile

18.5 Vertical load pile group

18.6 Downdrag

18.7 Piles in shrink-swell soils

18.8 Horizontal load and moment–single pile

18.9 Horizontal load and Moment pile group

18.10 Combined Piled Raft Foundation (CPRF)


19 Slope Stability

19.1 General

19.2 Design approach

19.3 Infinite slopes

19.4 Seepage force in stability analysis

19.5 Plane surfaces

19.6 Block analysis

19.7 Slopes with water in tensile crack

19.8 Chart methods

19.9 Method of slices

19.10 Water stress for slope stability

19.11 Types of analyses:

19.12 Progressive failure in strain softening soils

19.13 Shallow slide failures in compacted unsaturated embankments

19.14 Reinforced slopes

19.15 Probabilistic approach

19.16 Three dimensional (3D) circular failure analysis

19.17 Finite element analysis.

19.18 Seismic slope analysis

19.19 Monitoring

19.20 Repair methods


20 Compaction

20.1 General

20.2 Compaction laboratory tests

20.3 Compaction field tests

20.4 Compaction and soil type

20.5 Intelligent roller compaction

20.6 Impact roller compaction

20.7 Dynamic or drop-weight compaction

20.8 Problems

21 Retaining Walls

21.1 Different types (top–down, bottom–up)

21.2 Active, at rest, passive earth pressure and displacement in between

21.3 Earth pressure theories

21.4 Special case of undrained behavior of fine grained soils

21.5 At rest earth pressure

21.6 Earth pressure due to compaction

21.7 Earth pressures in shrink swell soils

21.8 Displacements

21.9 Gravity walls

21.10 Mechanically stabilized earth walls or MSE walls

21.11 Cantilever top-down walls

21.12 Anchored walls and strutted walls

21.13 Soil nail walls

21.14 Special case of trench


22 Earthquake Geo-Engineering

22.1 Background

22.2 Earthquake magnitude

22.3 Wave propagation

22.4 Dynamic soil properties

22.5 Ground motion

22.6 Seismic hazard analysis

22.7 Ground response analysis

22.8 Design parameters

22.9 Liquefaction

22.10 Seismic slope stability

22.11 Seismic design of retaining walls

22.12 Seismic design of foundations


23 Erosion of Soils and Scour Problems

23.1 The erosion phenomenon

23.2 Erosion models

23.3 Measuring the erosion function

23.4 Soil erosion categories

23.5 Rock erosion

23.6 Water velocity

23.7 Geometry of the obstacle

23.8 Bridge scour

23.9 River meandering

23.10 Levee overtopping

23.11 Countermeasures for erosion protection

23.12 Internal erosion of earth dams


24 GeoEnvironmental Engineering

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Types of wastes and contaminants

24.3 Laws and regulations

24.4 Geochemistry background

24.5 Contamination

24.6 Remediation

24.7 Landfills

24.8 Future considerations


25 Geosynthetics

25.1 General

25.2 Types of geosynthetics

25.3 Properties of geosynthetics

25.4 Design for separation

25.5 Design of liners and covers

25.6 Design for reinforcement

25.7 Design for Filtration and drainage

25.8 Design for erosion control

25.9 Other design applications


26 Soil Improvement

26.1 Overview

26.2 Soil improvement without admixture in coarse grained soils

26.3 Soil improvement without admixture in fine grained soils

26.4 Soil improvement with replacement

26.5 Soil improvement with grouting and admixtures

26.6 Soil improvement with inclusions

26.7 Selection of soil improvement method


27 Technical Communications

27.1 General

27.2 E-mails

27.3 Letters

27.4 Geotechnical Reports

27.5 Theses and Dissertations

27.6 Visual Aids for Reports

27.7 Phone Calls

27 8 Meetings

27.9 Presentations and PowerPoint Slides

27.10 Media Interaction

27.11 Ethical Behavior

27.12 Belong to Your Professional Society

27.13 Rules for a Successful Career


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