Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy, Brief Edition, Election Update

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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With an emphasis on public policy, and through the use of its resonant "politics matters" theme, Government in America, Brief Ninth Edition, illustrates the impact that government has on the daily lives of each and every American, motivates students to become active participants in all aspects of our political system, and overcomes apathy toward American government. The Brief Ninth Edition contains all the information included in the comprehensive version, in a more compact form for ease of use.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Tools for Understanding Government in Americap. xxviii
About the Authorsp. xxxvii
Introducing Government in Americap. 1
Governmentp. 7
Politicsp. 9
The Policymaking Systemp. 9
People Shape Policyp. 9
Policies Impact Peoplep. 11
Democracyp. 12
Defining Democracyp. 12
Traditional Democratic Theoryp. 13
Three Contemporary Theories of American Democracyp. 14
Challenges to Democracyp. 15
American Political Culture and Democracyp. 17
A Culture War?p. 19
Preview Questions About Democracyp. 20
The Scope of Government in Americap. 21
How Active Is American Government?p. 21
Preview Questions About the Scope of Governmentp. 22
Summaryp. 24
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The Constitutionp. 27
The Origins of the Constitutionp. 29
The Road to Revolutionp. 29
Declaring Independencep. 30
The English Heritage: The Power of Ideasp. 31
Jefferson's Handiwork: The American Creedp. 32
Winning Independencep. 32
The "Conservative" Revolutionp. 34
The Government That Failed: 1776-1787p. 34
The Articles of Confederationp. 34
Changes in the Statesp. 35
Economic Turmoilp. 36
Shays' Rebellionp. 36
The Aborted Annapolis Meetingp. 36
Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Conventionp. 37
Gentlemen in Philadelphiap. 37
Philosophy into Actionp. 37
The Agenda in Philadelphiap. 39
The Equality Issuesp. 39
The Economic Issuesp. 41
The Individual Rights Issuesp. 43
The Madisonian Modelp. 44
Thwarting Tyranny of the Majorityp. 44
The Constitutional Republicp. 46
The End of the Beginningp. 48
Ratifying the Constitutionp. 48
Federalists and Anti-Federalistsp. 48
Ratificationp. 51
Constitutional Changep. 52
The Formal Amending Processp. 52
The Informal Process of Constitutional Changep. 54
In Focus: John Marshall and the Growth of Judicial Reviewp. 55
How You Can Make a Difference: Birthright Citizenshipp. 56
The Importance of Flexibilityp. 57
A Generation of Change: The War on Terrorismp. 58
Understanding the Constitutionp. 59
The Constitution and Democracyp. 59
Young People and Politics: Lowering the Voting Agep. 60
The Constitution and the Scope of Governmentp. 61
Summaryp. 62
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Federalismp. 65
Defining Federalismp. 67
What Is Federalism?p. 67
Why Is Federalism So Important?p. 68
The Constitutional Basis of Federalismp. 69
How You Can Make a Difference: Federalismp. 70
The Division of Powerp. 70
Establishing National Supremacyp. 73
States' Obligations to Each Otherp. 76
Intergovernmental Relations Todayp. 78
From Dual to Cooperative Federalismp. 78
Young People and Politics: Federal Support for Colleges and Universitiesp. 80
A Generation of Change: Principles versus Pragmatismp. 82
Fiscal Federalismp. 83
Understanding Federalismp. 88
Federalism and Democracyp. 88
You Are the Policymaker: Should Whether You Live Depend on Where You Live?p. 90
Federalism and the Scope of the National Governmentp. 91
Summaryp. 94
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Civil Libertiesp. 97
The Bill of Rights-Then and Nowp. 99
The Bill of Rights and the Statesp. 100
Freedom of Religionp. 101
The Establishment Clausep. 102
The Free Exercise Clausep. 104
You Are the Judge: The Case of Animal Sacrificesp. 106
Freedom of Expressionp. 107
Prior Restraintp. 108
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Purloined Pentagon Papersp. 109
Free Speech and Public Orderp. 109
How You Can Make a Difference: Free Speech on Campusp. 110
Free Press and Fair Trialsp. 111
Obscenityp. 112
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Drive-in Theaterp. 115
Libel and Slanderp. 115
Symbolic Speechp. 116
Commercial Speechp. 117
Regulation of the Public Airwavesp. 117
Freedom of Assemblyp. 118
Right to Assemblep. 118
Right to Associatep. 119
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Nazis' March in Skokiep. 119
Defendants' Rightsp. 120
Interpreting Defendants' Rightsp. 121
Searches and Seizuresp. 122
You Are the Judge: The Case of Ms. Montoyap. 124
Self-Incriminationp. 125
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Dirty Old Manp. 126
The Right to Counselp. 126
Trialsp. 127
Cruel and Unusual Punishmentp. 128
You Are the Judge: The Case of the First Offenderp. 129
Young People and Politics: College Students Help Prevent Wrongful Deathsp. 130
The Right to Privacyp. 130
A Generation of Change: Contesting the Death Penaltyp. 131
Is There a Right to Privacy?p. 131
Controversy over Abortionp. 132
Understanding Civil Libertiesp. 134
Civil Liberties and Democracyp. 134
Civil Liberties and the Scope of Governmentp. 135
Summaryp. 135
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Civil Rightsp. 139
Racial Equality: Two Centuries of Strugglep. 141
Conceptions of Equalityp. 141
Early American Views of Equalityp. 142
The Constitution and Inequalityp. 142
Race, the Constitution, and Public Policyp. 144
The Era of Slaveryp. 145
The Era of Reconstruction and Resegregationp. 146
The Era of Civil Rightsp. 146
Young People and Politics: Freedom Ridersp. 150
Getting and Using the Right to Votep. 150
Other Minority Groupsp. 153
Women, the Constitution, and Public Policyp. 157
The Battle for the Votep. 158
The "Doldrums": 1920-1960p. 158
The Second Feminist Wavep. 159
How You Can Make a Difference: Gender Discriminationp. 161
Women in the Workplacep. 161
Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worthp. 162
Women in the Militaryp. 163
Sexual Harassmentp. 164
You Are the Judge: Is Male-Only Draft Registration Gender Discrimination?p. 165
Newly Active Groups Under the Civil Rights Umbrellap. 166
Civil Rights and the Graying of Americap. 166
Civil Rights and People with Disabilitiesp. 167
Gay and Lesbian Rightsp. 169
A Generation of Change: Discrimination Against Homosexualsp. 169
Affirmative Actionp. 171
You Are the Judge: The Case of the Santa Clara Dispatcherp. 173
Understanding Civil Rights and Public Policyp. 175
Civil Rights and Democracyp. 175
Civil Rights and the Scope of Governmentp. 175
Summaryp. 176
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Public Opinion and Political Actionp. 179
The American Peoplep. 181
The Immigrant Societyp. 181
The American Melting Potp. 182
The Regional Shiftp. 184
You Are the Policymaker: Do We Need to Get Tougher with Illegal Immigrants?p. 185
The Graying of Americap. 187
How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socializationp. 187
Measuring Public Opinion and Political Informationp. 189
How Polls Are Conductedp. 190
The Role of Polls in American Democracyp. 191
What Polls Reveal About Americans' Political Informationp. 193
What Americans Value: Political Ideologiesp. 195
Who Are the Liberals and Conservatives?p. 195
Young People and Politics: How Younger and Older Americans Compare on the Issuesp. 196
Do People Think in Ideological Terms?p. 198
A Generation of Change: Attitudes Toward Gays and Lesbians by Political Ideologyp. 200
How Americans Participate in Politicsp. 201
Conventional Participationp. 201
Protest as Participationp. 202
Class, Inequality, and Participationp. 203
How You Can Make a Difference: Political Participationp. 204
Understanding Public Opinion and Political Actionp. 205
Public Attitudes Toward the Scope of Governmentp. 206
Democracy, Public Opinion, and Political Actionp. 206
Summaryp. 207
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The Mass Media and the Political Agendap. 210
The Mass Media Todayp. 212
The Development of Media Politicsp. 213
The Print Mediap. 215
The Broadcast Mediap. 216
Government Regulation of the Broadcast Mediap. 217
A Generation of Change: How Network News Broadcasts Are Going the Way of the Dinosaursp. 218
From Broadcasting to Narrowcasting: The Rise of Cable News Channelsp. 219
Young People and Politics: How the Under-30 Crowd Learns from Different Media Sourcesp. 220
The Impact of the Internetp. 221
How You Can Make a Difference: The Internet and the Mediap. 223
Private Control of the Mediap. 223
Reporting the Newsp. 224
Finding the Newsp. 225
Presenting the Newsp. 226
You Are the Policymaker: Should the Networks Have to Provide Free Air Time to Presidential Candidates?p. 228
Bias in the Newsp. 230
The News and Public Opinionp. 230
The Media's Agenda-Setting Functionp. 232
Understanding the Mass Mediap. 233
The Media and the Scope of Governmentp. 233
Individualism and the Mediap. 234
Democracy and the Mediap. 235
Summaryp. 235
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Political Partiesp. 238
The Meaning of Partyp. 239
Tasks of the Partiesp. 241
Parties, Voters, and Policy: The Downs Modelp. 242
The Party in the Electoratep. 242
Young People and Politics: The Parties Face an Independent Youthp. 244
The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washingtonp. 245
Local Partiesp. 245
The 50 State Party Systemsp. 246
How You Can Make a Difference: Political Partiesp. 247
The National Party Organizationsp. 248
The Party in Government: Promises and Policyp. 248
Party Eras in American Historyp. 251
1796-1824: The First Party Systemp. 252
1828-1856: Jackson and the Democrats versus the Whigsp. 252
1860-1928: The Two Republican Erasp. 253
1932-1964: The New Deal Coalitionp. 254
1968-Present: Southern Realignment and the Era of Divided Party Governmentp. 256
A Generation of Change: Realignment in the Southp. 256
Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politicsp. 257
In Focus: Multiparty Systems in Other Countriesp. 259
Understanding Political Partiesp. 260
Democracy and Responsible Party Governmentp. 260
American Political Parties and the Scope of Governmentp. 262
Is the Party Over?p. 262
Summaryp. 263
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Campaigns and Voting Behaviorp. 266
The Nomination Gamep. 268
Competing for Delegatesp. 268
The Convention Send-Offp. 274
You Are the Policymaker: National and Regional Presidential Primary Proposalsp. 275
The Campaign Gamep. 276
Organizing the Campaignp. 276
How You Can Make a Difference: Political Campaignsp. 277
Young People and Politics: Declining Interest in Working in Campaignsp. 278
Money and Campaigningp. 279
The Maze of Campaign Finance Reformsp. 279
A Generation of Change: The Incredible Increase in Fundraising for Presidential Nomination Campaignsp. 280
The Proliferation of PACsp. 283
Does Money Buy Victory?p. 285
The Media and the Campaignp. 285
The Impact of Campaignsp. 288
Whether to Vote: A Citizen's First Choicep. 288
Deciding Whether to Votep. 289
Registering to Votep. 289
Who Votes?p. 290
How Americans Vote: Explaining Citizens' Decisionsp. 292
Party Identificationp. 293
Candidate Evaluations: How Americans See the Candidatesp. 293
Policy Votingp. 295
2004: The Ratification of a Polarizing Presidencyp. 296
The Last Battle: The Electoral Collegep. 299
Understanding Campaigns and Voting Behaviorp. 300
Are Nominations and Campaigns Too Democratic?p. 300
Do Elections Affect Public Policy?p. 301
Do Campaigns Lead to Increases in the Scope of Government?p. 302
Summaryp. 303
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Interest Groupsp. 306
Defining Interest Groupsp. 308
Theories of Interest Group Politicsp. 309
Pluralism and Group Theoryp. 309
Elites and the Denial of Pluralismp. 310
Hyperpluralism and Interest Group Liberalismp. 311
What Makes an Interest Group Successful?p. 312
The Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groupsp. 312
Intensityp. 315
Young People and Politics: The Virginia 21 Coalitionp. 316
Financial Resourcesp. 317
How Groups Try to Shape Policyp. 318
Lobbyingp. 318
Electioneeringp. 321
Litigationp. 322
You Are the Policymaker: Should PAC's Be Eliminated?p. 323
Going Publicp. 323
How You Can Make a Difference: Interest Groupsp. 324
Types of Interest Groupsp. 325
Economic Interestsp. 326
Environmental Interestsp. 327
A Generation of Change: How Non-Labor PACs Have Shifted to the GOPp. 328
Equality Interestsp. 329
Consumers and Public Interest Lobbiesp. 330
Understanding Interest Groupsp. 331
Interest Groups and Democracyp. 332
Interest Groups and the Scope of Governmentp. 332
Summaryp. 333
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Congressp. 336
The Representatives and Senatorsp. 338
The Jobp. 338
The Membersp. 340
Congressional Electionsp. 341
Who Wins Elections?p. 342
The Advantages of Incumbencyp. 343
The Role of Party Identificationp. 347
Defeating Incumbentsp. 347
Open Seatsp. 348
Stability and Changep. 348
How Congress Is Organized to Make Policyp. 348
You Are the Policymaker: Should We Impose Term Limits on Members of Congress?p. 349
American Bicameralismp. 349
Congressional Leadershipp. 351
The Committees and Subcommitteesp. 353
Caucuses: The Informal Organization of Congressp. 358
Congressional Staffp. 359
Young People and Politics: Are Opportunities to Intern Biased in Favor of the Wealthy?p. 360
The Congressional Processp. 362
Presidents and Congress: Partners and Protagonistsp. 364
Party, Constituency, and Ideologyp. 365
A Generation of Change: Polarized Politics in Congressp. 366
Lobbyists and Interest Groupsp. 368
Understanding Congressp. 370
Congress and Democracyp. 370
How You Can Make a Difference: Political Action and Congressp. 371
Congress and the Scope of Governmentp. 372
Summaryp. 372
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The Presidencyp. 375
The Presidentsp. 377
Great Expectationsp. 377
Who They Arep. 377
How They Got Therep. 378
You Are the Policymaker: Should the Senate Have Convicted President Clinton?p. 382
Presidential Powersp. 382
Constitutional Powersp. 383
The Expansion of Powerp. 384
Running the Government: The Chief Executivep. 384
The Vice Presidentp. 385
The Cabinetp. 386
The Executive Officep. 386
The White House Staffp. 389
How You Can Make a Difference: White House Internshipsp. 391
The First Ladyp. 391
Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powersp. 393
Chief Legislatorp. 393
Party Leadershipp. 394
Public Supportp. 398
Legislative Skillsp. 399
The President and National Security Policyp. 402
Chief Diplomatp. 402
Commander in Chiefp. 404
War Powersp. 404
Crisis Managerp. 406
Working with Congressp. 406
Power from the People: The Public Presidencyp. 408
Going Publicp. 408
Presidential Approvalp. 409
Policy Supportp. 411
Mobilizing the Publicp. 412
Young People and Politics: The Generation Gap in Watching the Presidentp. 413
The President and the Pressp. 414
A Generation of Change: Rushing to Judgmentp. 416
Understanding the American Presidencyp. 417
The Presidency and Democracyp. 417
The Presidency and the Scope of Governmentp. 418
Summaryp. 418
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Federal Bureaucracyp. 421
The Bureaucratsp. 423
Some Bureaucratic Myths and Realitiesp. 423
Who They Are and How They Got Therep. 426
How Bureaucracies Are Organizedp. 430
The Cabinet Departmentsp. 432
The Regulatory Commissionsp. 432
The Government Corporationsp. 433
The Independent Executive Agenciesp. 434
How You Can Make a Difference: A Career in Foreign Servicep. 434
Bureaucracies as Implementorsp. 435
What Implementation Meansp. 435
Why the Best-Laid Plans Sometimes Flunk the Implementation Testp. 435
Young People and Politics: Drug Offenses and Financial Aidp. 436
Bureaucracies as Regulatorsp. 443
Regulation in the Economy and in Everyday Lifep. 443
Regulation: How It Grew, How It Worksp. 445
Toward Deregulationp. 446
You Are the Policymaker: How Should We Regulate?p. 447
Understanding Bureaucraciesp. 448
Bureaucracy and Democracyp. 448
Bureaucracy and the Scope of Governmentp. 452
A Generation of Change: Nuclear Power Comes Full Circlep. 453
Summaryp. 454
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The Federal Courtsp. 457
The Nature of the Judicial Systemp. 459
Participants in the Judicial Systemp. 459
The Structure of the Federal Judicial Systemp. 462
District Courtsp. 463
Courts of Appealp. 464
The Supreme Courtp. 465
The Politics of Judicial Selectionp. 467
The Lower Courtsp. 468
The Supreme Courtp. 469
A Generation of Change: Supreme Court Confirmation Politicsp. 471
The Backgrounds of Judges and Justicesp. 472
The Courts as Policymakersp. 476
Accepting Casesp. 477
Making Decisionsp. 478
You Are the Policymaker: The Debate over Original Intentionsp. 481
Implementing Court Decisionsp. 482
Understanding the Courtsp. 483
The Courts and Democracyp. 484
How You Can Make a Difference: The Constitution in Exile v. The Living Constitutionp. 484
What Courts Should Do: The Scope of Judicial Powerp. 486
Young People and Politics: The Supreme Court Is Closer Than You Thinkp. 487
Summaryp. 489
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The Congress, the President, and the Budget: The Politics of Taxing and Spendingp. 493
Sources of Federal Revenuep. 496
Income Taxp. 496
Social Insurance Taxesp. 497
Borrowingp. 498
Taxes and Public Policyp. 500
Young People and Politics: Education and the Federal Tax Codep. 502
Federal Expendituresp. 505
Big Governments, Big Budgetsp. 506
The Rise and Decline of the National Security Statep. 507
The Rise of the Social Service Statep. 508
Incrementalismp. 510
"Uncontrollable" Expendituresp. 511
Balancing the Budgetp. 512
Understanding Budgetingp. 513
Democracy and Budgetingp. 513
You Are the Policymaker: Balancing the Budgetp. 514
How You Can Make a Difference: Federal Spending and the Pork Barrelp. 515
A Generation of Change: Fluctuating Deficitsp. 516
The Budget and the Scope of Governmentp. 517
Summaryp. 517
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Social Welfare Policymakingp. 520
What Is Social Welfare, and Why Is It So Controversial?p. 522
How You Can Make a Difference: Faith-Based Social Welfare Policyp. 523
Income, Poverty, and Public Policyp. 524
Who's Getting What?p. 524
Who's Poor in America?p. 525
What Part Does Government Play?p. 529
Helping the Poor? Social Policy and Povertyp. 530
"Welfare" as We Knew Itp. 530
Ending Welfare as We Knew It: The Welfare Reforms of 1996p. 533
A Generation of Change: Declining Support for the Poorp. 533
You Are the Policymaker: Should the Government Promote Marriage?p. 534
Living on Borrowed Time: Social Securityp. 535
The New Deal, the Elderly, and the Growth of Social Securityp. 536
How George W. Bush Tried and Failed to Reform Social Securityp. 538
Young People and Politics: Social Security and UFOsp. 539
Social Welfare Policy Elsewherep. 540
America in Perspective: Preaching Procreation and Paying for It: Family Policies in Europe and Elsewherep. 541
Understanding Social Welfare Policyp. 542
Social Welfare Policy and the Scope of Governmentp. 542
Democracy and Social Welfarep. 543
Summaryp. 543
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National Security Policymakingp. 546
American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakersp. 547
Instruments of Foreign Policyp. 548
Actors on the World Stagep. 549
The Policymakersp. 551
American Foreign Policy: An Overviewp. 556
The Cold Warp. 557
The Era of Detentep. 560
The Reagan Rearmamentp. 561
The Final Thaw in the Cold Warp. 562
The War on Terrorismp. 563
Afghanistan and Iraqp. 564
A Generation of Change: Rethinking National Security Policyp. 566
The Politics of Defense Policyp. 567
Defense Spendingp. 567
Personnelp. 569
Weaponsp. 570
Reforming Defense Policyp. 571
The New Global Agendap. 571
The Changing Role of Military Powerp. 572
Nuclear Proliferationp. 574
You Are the Policymaker: Defanging a Nuclear Threatp. 576
The International Economyp. 576
Young People and Politics: Embracing Globalizationp. 577
Understanding National Security Policymakingp. 582
How You Can Make a Difference: Joining the Peace Corpsp. 583
National Security Policymaking and Democracyp. 583
National Security Policymaking and the Scope of Governmentp. 584
Summaryp. 584
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Issues of the Times Readerp. 587
Appendixp. 622
Glossaryp. 646
Notesp. 663
Key Terms in Spanishp. 681
Acknowledgmentsp. 686
Indexp. 688
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