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9780822327356

Guide to Sustainable Development and Environmental Policy

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780822327356

  • ISBN10:

    082232735X

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-04-01
  • Publisher: Duke Univ Pr

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Summary

"This useful reference work provides grounding for two essential tasks: understanding the needs of the present, and engaging with the compromises implicit in any attempt to assure that future generations will be able to meet their own needs."--Kai N. Lee, Williams College

Table of Contents

Introduction xxix
Contributors xxxiii
Basic Concepts of Development and Environment
Development Theory: Introductory Concepts, Criteria, and Measurements
Capital
1(4)
Absorptive Capacity, Economic
Capital
Capital Accumulation
Capital-Resource Substitution
Critical Natural Capital
Cultural Capital
Ecological Capital
Human Capital
National Heritage
Natural Capital/Natural Assets
Natural Wealth
Social Capital
Undercapitalization
Classification of Nations and Major Political Units by Development Characteristics
5(5)
Countries in Transition
Developed Countries
Developing Countries (Less Developed Countries [LDCS])
East vs. West
Economy in Transition
Fifth World
First World
Fourth World
Group of 7 (G-7)
Group of 77 (G-77)
Industrial Countries (First World)
Least Developed Countries (LLDCS)
Less Developed Countries (LDCS)
Newly Industrializing Countries (NICS)
North vs. South
Raw-Material-Intensive Economy
Second World
Third World
Development
10(9)
Bottom-up Development
Capacity Building
Core-Periphery Model
Development
Development Models
Economic Growth Debate
Endogenous Development (Endogenous Growth)
Exemplary Projects
Growth, Economic
Low-Level Equilibrium Trap
Modernization
Optimal Growth Theory
Participatory Development
Resource-Curse Hypothesis
Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth
Stakeholder
Trickle-Down Development
Underdevelopment
Economic Production, Investment, and Cycles
19(6)
Allocative Efficiency
Decreasing Returns to Scale
Diminishing Returns (Law Of Diminishing Returns)
Economic Efficiency
Industry
Informal Economy
Kondratieff Cycles
Market Failure
Opportunity Cost
Overshooting
Price System
Production Function
Resource Cycles
Subsidies
Human Resource Development
25(1)
Basic Needs
Human Capital
Human Development
Human Resource Development
Measurements of Economic Development and Growth
26(5)
Adjusted Income
Country Futures Indicators (CFI)
Gender-Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
Genuine Saving
Gini Index of Inequality
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Gross National Product (GNP)
Gross World Product
Human Development Index (HDI)
Human Poverty Index (HPI)
Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW)
Indicators of Development
Lorenz Curve
Measure of Economic Welfare (MEW, or Net Economic Welfare [NEW])
Natural Capital Indicator
Net Domestic Product (NDP)
Pollution-Adjusted Economy Indicator
Natural Resources and Environmental Services
Carrying Capacity
31(3)
Absorptive Capacity, Environmental (or Assimilative Capacity)
Assimilative Capacity
Carrying Capacity
Critical Environment
Critical Load
Ecological Footprint
Ecological Integrity
Environment
Environmental Space
Limiting Factor
Ecosystem
34(3)
Biocenosis
Biogeocenosis
Bioregion
Biosphere
Cultural Environment
Ecosystem
Natural Environments
Noosphere
Optimum Sustainable Population
Resilience
Seminatural Environment
Stability (of Ecosystem)
Subnatural Environment
Environmental Services
37(2)
Amenity Services of the Environment
Ecological Services
Environmental Functions
Environmental Needs
Environmental Resources
Environmental Services
Environmental Space
Life-Support Services of the Environment
Other Basic Environmental Concepts and Processes
39(6)
Biodiversity (Biological Diversity)
Biogeochemical Cycle
Ecological Imperialism
Ecological Entity
Entropy
Environmental Debt
Environmental Protection
Equilibrium, Environmental
Evolution
Feedback Mechanism
Habitat
Media, Environmental
Natural Pollution
Nonlinear Relationships
Pollution
Riparian Habitat
Species
Synergism (or Synergy)
Thresholds, Environmental
Wilderness
Resource Uses and Types
45(2)
Commodity
Conditionally Renewable Resources
Ecological Rucksacks (``Forgotten Tonnes'')
Environmental Resources
Exhaustible Resources
Material Resources
Natural Resources
Nonrenewable Resources
Resource Intensity
Tradable Commodity
Resource Conservation: Approaches and Practices
47(3)
Conservation
High Grading
Hotelling Rule
Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
Multiple Resource Use
Optimal Sustainable Yield
Preservation
Protection
Standards and Measurements
50(4)
Ambient Standards
Biodiversity Indices
Environmental Index
Environmental Indicators
Environmental Standards
Index of Resource Depletion
Living Standards Measurement Survey
Pollution Index
Sustainability Indicators
Epistemology of the Field
Approaches to Knowledge and Theory
54(10)
Bounded Rationality
Catastrophe Theory
Chaos Theory
Complex Adaptive Systems
Complex Models
Critical Theory
Cultural Determinism
Ecological Triad
Environmental Determinism (Geographical School; Environmentalism)
Game Theory
General System Theory
Geopolitics
Indigenous Knowledge (Indigenous Technical Knowledge [ITK]; Traditional Knowledge)
Maximization Postulate
Positivism
Prigogine's Evolutionary Paradigm
Rational Choice Theory
Reductionism
Reflexive Modernization
Traditional Ecological Knowledge
Environmental Studies and Economic Thought
64(47)
Conservation Biology
Ecological Economics
Ecological Energetics Paradigm
Ecology
Environmental Economics
Environmental Studies
Green Economics
Human Ecology
Neoclassical Economics
Policy-Relevant Research
Political Ecology
Resource Economics
Restoration Ecology
Welfare Economics
Sustainability
Basic Sustainability Concepts
Agricultural Sustainability
Coevolution
Community Sustainability
Sensible Sustainability
Steady State
Steady-State Economy
Strong Sustainability
Sustainability
Sustainable Development
Sustainable Natural Resource Management
Weak Sustainability
Measurements of Sustainability
Bellagio Principles
Constant Utility Path
Discounted Utilitarian Interpretation
European Sustainability Index (ESI)
Factor 10
Rawlsian Interpretation of Sustainability
Sustainability Indicators
Sustainable National Income (SNI)
Philosophical Approaches and Social Movements
Alternative Normativism
Alternative Structuralism
Animal Rights
Anti-Environmentalism
Back-to-Nature Movement
Bioregionalism
Core-Periphery Theory (Center-Periphery Theory)
Deep Ecology
Dependency Theory
Ecoanarchism
Ecodevelopment
Ecofascism
Ecofeminism
Eco-Marxism
Ecosocialism
Gaiasophy
Gandhian Concept of Development (Swaraj Doctrine; ``Hindu Development'')
Gender and Development Approach (GAD)
Holistic Ecology
Kropotkin, Piotr Alekseyevich
Land Ethic
Lifeboat Ethics
Radical Environmentalism
Social Ecology
Spaceship Economy
Stewardship
Transpersonal Ecology
Women and Development (WAD) Approach
Women in Development (WID) Approach
Sustainable Development Outlooks and Models
Boserupian Thesis
Buddhist Model of Development
Development Models
Ecological Energetics Paradigm
Environmental Convergence Theory
Global 2000 Report
``Golden Billion'' Development
IPAT Model
Leontieff Report
Limits to Growth Report
Outbreak-Crash Model of the Future
Sustainable Development Strategy and Agenda Statements
Agenda 21
Blueprint for Survival
Caring for the Earth
Declaration on the Human Environment
Development Decades
Earth Charter
Global Marshall Plan for the Environment
New International Economic Order (NIEO)
Small Is Beautiful
United Nations Declaration of a New International Economic Order
UN Development Decades
United Nations World Charter for Nature
World Charter for Nature
World Conservation Strategy (WCS)
Sustainable Society: Challenges, Institutions, and Mechanisms
Accountability
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
Civil Society
Collective Action Theory
Epistemic Communities
Free Rider (Free-Riding Problem)
Global Civil Society
Governance
Interdependence
Pareto Improvement (Pareto Optimality)
Prisoner's Dilemma
Regime(s)
Regime Effectiveness
Regime Robustness (Regime Resilience)
Social Institutions
Sustainable Society
Main Factors Behind Development and Environmental Change
Population, Poverty, and Underdevelopment
Demographic Transition
Human Carrying Capacity
Human Poverty Index (HPI)
International Human Suffering Index
Microeconomic Theory of Fertility
Poverty
Poverty Alleviation
Size Distribution of Income
Time Horizons
Underdevelopment
Affluence and Consumption
Consumer Groups
Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
Environmental Perceptions
Ethical Consumption
Green Consumerism
Technology
Appropriate Technology
Best Available Technology
Biotechnology
Clean Technology
Technological Fix
Technology Transfer
Political Economy
Externalities
111(2)
Coase Theorem
Environmental Externality Costs
Externalities (External Costs)
Externality, Environmental
Internalization of Environmental/External Costs
Transboundary Externalities
Transboundary Natural Resources
Transboundary Water Resources (International or Shared Waters)
Property and User Rights
113(5)
Bundle of Entitlements (or Rights)
Collective Intellectual Property Rights (CIPRS)
Common Property Resources (Common Pool Resources)
Emission Rights (or Credits)
Environmental Rights
Global Commons
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
International Commons
Open-Access Resources
Plant Breeder Rights (PBR)
Property Rights
Scarce Resources
Shared Natural Resources
Scarcity
118(11)
Absolute Scarcity
Ecological Scarcity
Geopolitical Scarcity
Hotelling Rent
Resource Rent
Resource Scarcity
Worldviews and Social Traps
Anthropocentrism
Basic Pessimist Model (Catastrophism)
Biocentrism
Catastrophist Model
Contempocentrism
Cornucopian Model
Ecocentrism
Exclusionist Paradigm
Human-Needs Theory
New Environmental Paradigm (NEP)
Technocentrism
Tragedy of the Commons
International Political Economy of Environment and Development
Globalization
Biocolonialism
Code of Conduct of Transnational Corporations
Comparative Advantage Theory
Competitive Advantage
Cultural Imperialism
Delinking
Ecodumping
Ecological Imperialism
Ecological Shadow
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Multinational Corporations (MNCS; Transnational Corporations, TNCS)
Multilateral Agreement of Investment (MAI)
Pollution Havens Hypothesis
Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA)
UN Code of Conduct of Transnational Corporations
Capital Shortages and Foreign Debt
Practices, Trends, and Problems
129(2)
Capital Market Liberalization
Debt
Debt Service
Hard Loan
Investment Gap
Liability
Debt Relief
131(2)
Austerity Measures
Debt Conversion
Debt-for-Nature Swaps (DFNS)
Sector Loan
Social Safety Nets
Soft Loans
Special Drawing Rights (SDRS)
Structural Adjustment Loans (SALS)
Multilateral Lending Institutions
133(5)
African Development Bank
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Bretton Woods System
Compensatory Financing Facility (CFF)
Declaration of Environmental Policies and Procedures Relating to Economic Development
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
International Development Association (IDA)
International Financial Institutions
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Multilateral Development Banks
World Bank
World Bank Group
Foreign Assistance
138(3)
Additionality, Principle of Aid Agencies
Conditionality
Data Activity Index (DAI)
Development Aid (Development Assistance)
Development Agencies (Development Assistance Agencies)
Foreign Assistance
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
International Aid
Official Development Assistance (ODA)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
International Trade
Practices, Trends, and Problems
141(5)
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Dispute
Danish Bottle Case
Duties
Export Processing Zones (EPZS; Free Trade Zones)
Free Trade
Garbage Imperialism
Maquiladoras
Nontariff Barriers
Protectionism
Recompensing Duties
Tradable Commodity
Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
Trading Blocs
Tuna-Dolphin Controversy
Responses and Strategies
146(4)
Alternative Trading Organization
Countervailing Duty (CVD)
Eco-Cooperation Agreements
Environmental Trade Measures (ETMS)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO 14000
Principle of Equity in Sharing Environmental Space
Production and Process Method (PPM)
Winnipeg Principles on Trade and Sustainable Development
Global Trade Integration Initiatives
150(11)
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Uruguay Round
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration
Amazonian Cooperation Treaty
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC)
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
European Community (EC)
European Union (EU)
Maastricht Treaty
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAECC)
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
South Pacific Commission (SPC)
South Pacific Forum
South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP)
Security and Sustainable Development
Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxic Weapons and Their Destruction (Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention)
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (Chemical Weapons Convention [CWC])
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Uses of Environmental Modification Techniques (Environmental Modification Convention (ENMOD)
Ecocide
Environmental Refugees
International Environmental Security
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Nuclear Winter
Decision Making
Analytical Tools for Environmental Decision Making
Adjusting National Accounts to Reflect Environmental and Resource Considerations
161(5)
Avoidance Costs Approach (Prevention Cost Approach)
Eco-Domestic Product (EDP;Green or Environmentally Adjusted Net Domestic Product)
Ecological Capital
Environmental Accounting (Green Accounting)
Environmentally Adjusted National Income (ENI)
Environmentally Adjusted Net Domestic Product
Environmentally Defensive Expenditures (EDES)
Environmental Resource Accounts
Framework for Indicators of Sustainable Development (FISD)
Genuine Savings
Green Accounting
Green Gross Domestic Product (GGDP)
Gross World Product Resource Accounting
Natural Patrimony Accounting
Natural Resource and Environmental Accounts (NRA)
Resource Accounting
Resource-Adjusted Net Domestic Product (RANDP)
Resource and Pollutant Flow Accounts (RPFA)
Satellite Accounts
Stress Response Environmental Statistical System
System of National Accounts (SNA)
User Cost Approach
Benefit-Cost Analysis
166(2)
Benefit-Cost Analysis (Cost-Benefit Analysis)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)
Costs of Environmental Damage
Discount Rate
Opportunity Cost
Shadow Price
Shadow Projects
Social Cost
Social Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem Management and Land-Use Planning
168(4)
Adaptive Management
Ecosystem Management
Habitat Management Plan (Habitat Conservation Plans)
Key Area Approach (Enclave Strategy)
Land-Use Planning
Multiple Resource Use Management
Environmental Impact Assessment and Tools
172(3)
Comparative Risk
Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention)
Cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Audit
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Statement
Environmental Risk
Environmental Risk Assessment
Full Cost Accounting (FCA)
Natural Resource Damage Assessments
Information and Monitoring
175(3)
Earthwatch
Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS)
Global Monitoring System
International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information (INFOTERRA)
National Reports on Sustainable Development
State-of-the-Environment Reports (SERS)
Planning
178(1)
Capacity
Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe (EAP)
Green Planning
International Network of Green Planners (INGP)
National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPS)
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDSS)
Policy Dialogue
Valuation of Environmental Services and Natural Resources
179(1)
Value Concepts
179(3)
Ability to Pay
Aesthetic Value of Nature
Bequest Value
Consumptive Use Value
Costs of Environmental Damage
Environmental Costs
Environmental Values
Existence Value
Intrinsic Value
Instrumental Value
Nonconsumptive Use Value
Option Value
Resource Rent
Use Value
Vicarious Benefit
Valuation Techniques
182(5)
Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)
Direct Valuation
Dose-Response Technique
Energy Valuation
Hedonic Pricing
Household Production Function
Maintenance Valuation (in Environmental Accounting)
Replacement Cost Technique
Surrogate Market
Travel Cost Method (TCM)
Valuation of Environmental Services and Natural Resources
Willingness to Accept
Willingness to Pay
Environmental Policy Instruments and Principles
Environmental Policy
Environmental Policy Instruments
Environmental Protection
Direct Environmental Regulation and Politics
187(6)
Abatement
Allowance
Best Available Technology
Command and Control Approach
Command and Covenant Approach
Direct (Environmental) Regulations (Command and Control Regulations)
Ecological Funds
End-of- (the)-Pipe Regulations and Technologies
Environmental Funds (Ecological Funds)
Environmental Regulation
Environmental Standards
Grandfathering
Iron Triangle
Nonattainment Areas
Offsetting
Regulations
Standard-Setting
Threshold Instruments
Zoning
Market-Based Instruments
193(1)
Principles of Charges and Taxation
193(2)
Beneficiary Pays Principle
Benefit Principle of Taxation
Cost Recovery
Disincentives
Pigovian Tax Principle
Polluter Pays Principle (PPP)
Victim Pays Principle (VPP)
Instruments of Charges and Taxation
195(8)
Administrative Charges
Assurance Bonding System
Banking Scheme/Program
Carbon Tax
Charges
Deposit Refund Systems
Earmarking (of Revenues) (Hypothecation)
Economic (or Market-Based) Instruments
Eco-Taxation
Effluent (or Emission) Charges (or Taxes)
Emission Rights (or Credits)
Emission Taxation
Environmental Assurance Bonding System
Environmental Impact Tax
Environmental Liability Insurance
Fees
Green Tax
Hypothecation
Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQS)
International Tradable Emission Permits
Market Alternatives to Direct Regulation
Marketable Pollution Permits (Negotiable Permits)
Natural Resource Tax
Negotiable Permits or Vouchers
Noncompliance Fee
Output Taxes (Product Taxes or Product Charges)
Performance Bonds
Permits
Pollution Tax
Sewage Charge
Subsidies
Taxes
Tradable Pollution Discharge Permits
Tradable Pollution Rights
User Charges
Other Environmental Protection Actions
203(3)
Civic Environmentalism
Community Advisory Panels (CAPS)
Community-Based Environmental Protection (CBEP)
Consumer Groups
Dirty Dozen
Ecological Funds
Environmental Covenants
Environmental Labeling (Ecolabeling)
National Environmental Funds (NEFS)
Policy-Relevant Research
Project XL
Public Environmental Awareness
Side Payments
Voluntary Agreements
Environmental Policy Principles and Initiatives
206(4)
Accountability
Adaptation
Anticipatory Policy
Best Environmental Practice (BEP)
Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO)
Bubble Policy
Cross-Media Approach
Environmental Policies, Types of
Five ``R'' Principles
Full Cost Pricing
Keep Options Open Principle
Mitigation
Netting
No-Regrets Principle
Optimal Pollution Policy
Prevention
Subsidiarity
Zero-Cost Improvements
Policy Failures
210(4)
Capture Theory
Corruption
Economic Distortions
Government Failure (Policy Failure)
Institutional Failure
Kleptocracy
Market Failure
Perverse Incentive
Policy Failure (Government Failure)
Rent-Seeking Behavior
Business Sector Responses to Environmental Problems
Industry
Technological Responses
214(2)
Adapted Products
Ancillary Activities
Appropriate Technology
Best Available Technology (BAT)
Clean Technology
Five ``R'' Principles
Green Design
Product Stewardship
Remanufacturing
Eco-Efficiency and Voluntary Codes
216(5)
Business Charter for Sustainable Development
Cradle-to-Grave Analysis
Eco-Efficiency
Eco-Labeling
Enviro-Capitalism
Environmental Accounting
Environmental Audit
Environmental Covenants
Environmental Labeling
Environmental Voluntary Agreements
Green Labeling
``Golden Carrot'' Program
Good Neighbor Agreements
Life-Cycle Approach or Analysis (LCA) (``Cradle to Grave'' Analysis; Eco-Balancing)
Natural Step
Pollution-Prevention Pays (PPP) Policy
Primary Environmental Care (PEC)
Responsible Care
Environmentally Sensitive Business Management
221(4)
Corporate Environmental Reporting
Demand-Side Management
Design for Environment (DFE)
Environmental Audit
Environmental Benchmarking
Environmental Options Assessment
European Commission's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)
Industrial Ecology
Industrial Metabolism
ISO 14000
Porter Hypothesis
Portfolio Analysis
Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM)
Voluntary Eco-Auditing
Business Organizations and Initiatives Related to Environment
225(3)
Business Council of Sustainable Development (BCSD)
CERES Principles
Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI)
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
International Environment Bureau (IEB)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
World Economic Forum
Population and Consumption Responses
Cairo Conference on Population and Development
International Organization of Consumer Unions (IOCU)
United Nations International
Conference on Population and Development (ICPD; Cairo Conference)
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
International Environmental Management
Basic Concepts and Analytical Approaches
228(2)
Blocking (Veto) State
Environmental Diplomacy
Hegemonic Power
Human Needs Theory
Lead State (in Environmental Diplomacy)
Supporting State
Swing State
Global Conferences on Environment and Development
230(1)
Cairo Conference
Earth Summit
Rio Conference
Stockholm Conference
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED; Rio Conference; Earth Summit)
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
United Nations Conferences on Human Settlements (Habitat I and II)
International Agencies and Commissions
231(3)
Arctic Council
Canada/USA International Joint Commission (IJC)
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
United Nations Commission on Human Settlements (UNCHS)
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Office
United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration
United Nations Specialized Agencies
World Health Organization (WHO)
International Environmental and Sustainable Development Research
234(7)
Brundtland Commission
Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR)
Diversitas
European Centre for Nature Conservation (ECNC)
European Environmental Agency (EEA)
Global Change in Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE)
Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS)
Global Monitoring System
Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC)
Human Dimensions of Global Change Program (HDGCP)
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)
International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)
Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB)
Management of Social Transformations (MOST)
Past Global Changes (PAGES)
Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)
South Commission
United Nations University (UNU)
World Climate Programme (WCP)
World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED; Brundtland Commission)
International Legal Initiatives
241(9)
Additionality, Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities
Common Concern of Mankind
Common Heritage of Mankind
Compensation, Principle of
Convention, International
Crimes against Environment
Draft International Covenant on Environment and Development
Environmental Justice
Framework Convention
Incremental Costs, Principle of
Intergenerational Equity, Principle of
International Court for Environmental Arbitration and Conciliation (ICEAC; International Environmental Court)
International Court of Justice (IJC; World Court)
Intragenerational Equity, Principle of
Joint Implementation (JI; Activities Implemented Jointly)
Liability for Environmental Harm, Principle of
Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources, Principle of
Precautionary Principle (PP)
Prevention of Environmental Harm, Duty of
Protocol
Right to Development
Soft Law
Subsidiarity
Treaty
Major Nongovernmental Organizations and Movements
250(9)
Big 10
Chipko Movement
Club of Rome
Committee of International Development Institutions on the Environment (CIDIE)
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN)
Earth Council
Earth First! (EI!)
Earthwatch Institute (Earthwatch)
Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)
Environmental Liaison Centre International (ELCI)
European Environment Bureau (EEB)
Friends of the Earth International (FOEI)
Global Legislators for a Balanced
Environment (GLOBE) International
Grassroots Organizations
Green Cross International (GCR)
Greenpeace International
International Academy of the Environment
International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU)
International Environmental Bureau (IEB)
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASSA)
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN)
Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
Nature Conservancy
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOS)
Private Voluntary Organization (PVOS)
Rainforest Action Network
Sierra Club
United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Office (UN-NGLO)
World Conservation Union (IUCN)
World Resources Institute (WRI)
Worldwatch Institute
World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)
Major Problems of Environmental Degradation and Development
Agricultural Decline and Pollution
Agricultural Trends, Practices, and Problems
259(3)
Agricultural Collapse
Agricultural Extensification
Agricultural Intensification
Declining Relative Prices
Dirty Dozen
Engel's Law (and Engel's Curve)
Food Self-Sufficiency
Green Revolution
Land Rotation Agriculture
Shifting Cultivation
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
Soil Erosion
Swidden Agriculture (Shifting Cultivation; Land Rotation Agriculture; Slash-and-Burn Agriculture)
Agricultural Responses and Strategies
262(5)
Agrarian Reform
Agroecology
Agroforestry
Alternative Farming
Biodynamic Agriculture
Codex Alimentarius
Codex Alimentarius Commission
Food Aid
Food Security
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Nature Farming
Organic Agriculture
Permaculture (Permanent Agriculture)
Sustainable Agriculture (Agricultural Sustainability)
Urban Agriculture
Organizations Related to Agriculture
267(5)
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS)
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
World Food Council (WFC)
World Food Programme (WFP)
World Food Summit
Air Pollution
Acid Deposition (Acid Rain)
Air Pollution
Air Pollution Index (API; Air Quality Index)
Air Quality Standards
Ambient Standards
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (LRTAP)
Trail Smelter Case
Transboundary Air Pollution
Biodiversity Loss and Conservation Efforts
Biodiversity Concepts, Trends, and Conditions
272(4)
Biocolonialism
Biodiversity Loss
Biodiversity Indices
Biosafety
Conservation versus Preservation
Endangered Species
Extinct Species
Genetic Engineering
Keystone Species
Riparian Habitat
Spasms of Extinction
Vavilov Centers
Responses and Strategies
276(7)
Bioprospecting
Biosafety Protocol (Cartagena Agreement)
Biosphere Reserves
Buffer Zone
Collective Intellectual Property Rights (CIPRS)
Ecotourism
Ex Situ Preservation
Gene Banks
Global Biodiversity Strategy
Habitat Management Plan
In Situ Preservation
``Key Area'' Approach (``Enclave'' Strategy)
Monuments of Nature
National Parks
Protected Areas
Rainforest Action Network (RAN)
Red Book
Traffic Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC)
World Conservation Strategy (WCS)
Zakazniks
Zapovedniks
International Agreements and Organizations Related to Biodiversity Conservation
283(5)
African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1968 Algiers African Convention)
African Convention Relative to the Preservation of Flora and Fauna in their Natural State (1933 London African Convention)
Biosafety Protocol
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention; WHC)
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention)
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention)
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (Western Hemisphere Convention)
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention)
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR)
International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources (IUPGR)
1900 London Convention
Rainforest Action Network (RAN)
World Conservation Union
World Wildlife Fund for Nature
Climate Change
Climate Concepts, Trends, and Conditions
288(3)
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent
Climate Change
Climate Index
Global Warming
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Greenhouse Climate Response Index
Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse Index
Sea-Level Rise
Shapley Value
Conventions and Institutions Related to Climate Issues
291(5)
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
Annex Parties
Berlin Mandate
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
Conference of the Parties (COP)
Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Joint Implementation (JI; Activities Implemented Jointly)
Kyoto Protocol (KP)
World Climate Conferences
World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)
World Meterological Organization (WMO)
Deforestation and Forestry
Forestry Trends, Practices, and Problems
296(2)
Clear-Cutting
Deforestation
High-Grading
Old-Growth Timber
Plantation Forestry
Selective Logging
Responses and Strategies
298(2)
Declaration of the Development of Forests
Harvesting Plans
Statement of Forest Principles
Sustainable Forestry
Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TEAP)
Organizations Related to Forestry
300(4)
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF)
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF)
International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)
International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA)
International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)
Rainforest Action Network (RAN)
Desertification
Club du Sahel
Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD)
Desertification
Global Mechanism
Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)
Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (PACD)
Energy Shortages and Pollution
Energy Trends, Practices, and Problems
304(1)
Energy Crisis
Energy-GNP Correlation
Energy-Intensive Industry
Fuel Efficiency
Energy Responses and Strategies
305(13)
Demand-Side Management
Ecological Energetics Paradigm
Energy Valuation
Energy-GNP Decoupling
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
International Energy Agency (IEA)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Soft Energy Path
Fresh Water Scarcity and Pollution
Absolute Territorial Integrity, Doctrine of
Canada/USA International Joint Commission (IJC)
Clean Water Act (U.S. Federal Water Pollution Control Act)
Community of Interests, Doctrine of
Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses
Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki Convention)
Equitable Utilization, Doctrine of
Harmon Doctrine
Helsinki Rules on the Use of Waters of International Rivers
International Watercourses
Riparian Rights
Transboundary Waters
Water Environment Federation (WEF)
Water-Resource Management
Water Use Charges
Global Environmental Change
Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics (FDES)
Global Change
Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS)
International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information (INFOTERRA)
Stress-Response Environmental Statistical System
Hazardous Wastes
Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movements and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa (Bamako Convention)
Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention)
Dirty Dozen
Garbage Imperialism
Hazardous Substances (and Hazardous Wastes)
International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC)
Nuclear Waste
Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
Superfund
Natural and Humanmade Disasters
Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
Convention on Nuclear Safety
Convention on Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents
Natural Disasters
Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (UNDRO)
Three Mile Island Nuclear Disaster
United Nations International Decade on Natural Disaster Reduction
Ocean's Resource Use and Degradation
Jurisdictional Issues
318(1)
Boundary Concepts and Issues
318(2)
Contiguous Zone
Continental Shelf
Creeping Jurisdiction
Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
Freedom of the Seas Principle
Geographically Disadvantaged States (GDS)
High Seas (International Waters)
Maritime Boundaries
Presential Sea, Concept of
Territorial Sea
Maritime Conventions, Programs, and Implementing Institutions
320(3)
Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea
Antarctic Treaty
Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf (CLCS)
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
Law of the Sea
Regional Seas Programme
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea III (UNCLOS III)
Coastal Processes and Management
323(2)
Coastal Zone
Coastal Zone Management (CZM)
Integrated Coastal Management (ICM); Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management [MCAM]; also Integrated Coastal Zone Management [ICZM])
Land Reclamation
Marine Protected Areas
Police Power
Public Trust Doctrine
Sectoral Management
Special Area Management
Fisheries
325(1)
Trends, Practices, and Problems
325(6)
Anadromous Species
Aquaculture
Catadromous Species
Driftnets
Exotic Species Introduction
Fish Aggregation Devices (FADS)
Fisheries Population Crash
Highly Migratory Species
Long-Distance Fishing
Open-Access Fisheries
Overcapitalization
Overfishing
Straddling Stocks
Responses, Strategies, and Institutions
331(3)
Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1995 Fish Stocks Agreement)
Allowable Catch (Total Allowable Catch)
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
Fishing Moratorium
Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQ)
International Code of Responsible Fishing
International Commission for the Regulation of Whaling (International Whaling Commission [IWC])
International Fisheries Commissions
Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
Optimal Sustainable Yield
Marine Environment
334(1)
Marine Pollution
334(1)
Bilge Dumping
Contamination
Dumping
Eutrophication
Marine Pollution
Oil Pollution
Oil Spills
Marine Pollution Conventions and Their Implementing Institutions
335(3)
Baltic Sea Conventions
Barcelona Convention
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft (Oslo Convention)
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention [LDC])
Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources (Paris Convention)
Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention)
Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution (Barcelona Convention)
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
International Conventions on the Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC 1969; CLC 1992)
International Convention on Oil
Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC)
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP)
Marine Scientific Research
338(1)
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)
International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES)
Mineral Resources of the Oceans
338(2)
Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA)
Enterprise
International Seabed Area (``The Area'')
International Seabed Authority
Outer Space and Electromagnetic Spectrum
Trends, Practices, and Problems
340(3)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Geostationary Orbit (GEO)
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
Military Uses of Space
Remote Sensing
Satellites, Artificial
Satellite Power Stations (SPSS)
Space Commercialization
Space Debris
Space Pollution
Space Race
Responses and Strategies
343(2)
Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Moon Agreement)
Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts, and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space of 1968 (Rescue Agreement)
Convention for Registration of Objects Launched into Space of 1976 (Registration Convention)
Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Liability Convention)
New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO)
Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of Earth from Space
Space Law
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space: Including the Moon and Other Clestial Bodies of 1967 (Outer Space Treaty)
Organizations and Initiatives Related to Outer Space
345(8)
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS)
European Space Agency (ESA)
International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
International Space Station
International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
United Nations Programme on Space Applications
World Meterological Organization
Ozone Depletion
Chlorofluorocarbons and Related Compounds
Molina-Rowland Hypothesis
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Ozone Layer Depletion
Vienna Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer
Transportation Energy Consumption and Pollution
Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVS)
Car-Pooling Incentives
Catalytic Converters
Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) Standards
Fleet Fuel Efficiency Targets
Fuel Efficiency
Intermodal Split
Mass Transit
Non-Point-Source Pollution
Transportation Infrastructure
Transportation-System Maintenance
References 353(18)
Index 371

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