Harnessing Farms and Forests in the Low-Carbon Economy: How to Create, Measure, and Verify Greenhouse Gas Offsets

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-06-30
  • Publisher: Duke Univ Pr
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As the United States moves to a low-carbon economy in order to combat global warming-first at the state level and eventually through a national program-credits for reducing carbon dioxide emissions will increasingly become a commodity that is bought and sold on the open market. Farmers and other landowners can benefit from this new economy by conducting land management practices that help sequester carbon dioxide, creating credits they can sell to industry to "offset" industrial emissions of greenhouse gases. This guide is the first comprehensive technical publication providing direction to landowners for sequestering carbon, and information for traders and others who will need to verify the sequestration. It will provide invaluable direction to farmers, foresters, land managers, consultants, brokers, investors, regulators, and others interested in creating consistent, credible greenhouse gas offsets as a tradable commodity in the United States. The guide contains a non-technical section detailing methodologies for scoping of the costs and benefits of a proposed project, quantifying offsets of various sorts under a range of situations and conditions, and verifying and registering the offsets. The technical section provides specific information for quantifying, verifying, and regulating offsets from agricultural and forestry practices.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. vii
Prefacep. ix
Introduction: The Role of Landowners and Farmers in the New Low-Carbon Economyp. 3
The Process of Creating Offsetsp. 10
Land-Management Options for Creating Offsetsp. 22
Steps in Determining a Project's Offsets
Step 1: Scoping the Costs and Benefits of a Proposed Projectp. 39
Step 2: Determining Additionality and Baselinesp. 46
Step 3: Quantifying the Carbon Sequestered in Forestsp. 52
Step 4: Quantifying the Carbon Sequestered in Soilp. 64
Step 5: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Manurep. 75
Step 6: Quantifying and Minimizing Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soilp. 84
Step 7: Estimating Leakage or Off-Site Emissions Caused by the Projectp. 91
Step 8: Verifying and Registering Offsetsp. 99
Conclusion: Putting These Guidelines into Practicep. 107
Key Factors to Consider in Developing a Sampling Strategyp. 111
Quantifying Inadvertent Emissions from Project Activitiesp. 115
Using Statistics in Quantifying Offsetsp. 118
Calculating Levelized Costs and Benefitsp. 125
Categorical Additionality and Barrier Testsp. 128
Using Periodic Transition Rates to Calculate Baselinesp. 131
Typical Carbon Stocks in Forest Poolsp. 136
Protocols for Measuring Carbon in Subplotsp. 139
Using Stocking Surveys to Monitor Forest Projectsp. 143
Determining the Density of Woody Materialsp. 146
Correcting for the Degree of Slopep. 156
Calculating Carbon Stock and Changes in Carbon Stockp. 159
Adapting Biomass Equations from One Species to Anotherp. 165
Developing New Biomass Equationsp. 166
Using Stand-Level Equationsp. 175
Calculating Changes in Carbon Sequestration When Soil Density Changesp. 176
Determining Mass-Specific Ratiosp. 179
Calculating Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manurep. 181
The Dynamics of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soilp. 184
Market Leakage and Activity Shiftingp. 186
Land-Management Projects and Changes in Demandp. 187
Addressing Leakage from Forestation Projectsp. 188
Using Regression Analysis to Calculate Elasticityp. 190
Guidelines for Auditing Greenhouse Gasesp. 191
Verifying and Registering Offsets under the Kyoto Protocolp. 193
Choosing a Registryp. 196
Sample Field Protocol: Establishing Plots and Measuring Biomass in a Forestry Projectp. 201
Notesp. 209
Bibliographyp. 215
Indexp. 223
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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