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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-03-15
  • Publisher: Columbia Univ Pr

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While members of most sexually reproducing species are either male or female, individuals belonging to the rest of the biological world are not so simply defined. Hermaphroditic creatures reproduce both as a male and as a female, providing a fascinating example of alternative sexual practice and its ecological and evolutionary successes. Eloquently written by an award-winning biologist and pioneer in molecular ecology, this primer traces the phenomenon of hermaphroditism throughout Earth's species and the adaptive significance of alternative sexual systems. The volume's accessible and richly illustrated text covers the evolutionary origins of hermaphroditism and its historical and fictional instances, proving the relevance of dual sexuality to the everyday world. John C. Avise describes the genetics, ecology, phylogeny, and natural history of hermaphroditic plants, fish, and invertebrate animals and details organisms that either reproduce simultaneously as male and female or switch routinely between one sex and the other. Filled with surprising creatures and inherently compelling topics, this book stands alone in its clear yet comprehensive treatment of hermaphroditism and its unique challenge to the supremacy of separate sexes.

Author Biography

John C. Avise is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Irvine. He is an elected member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the author or editor of 20 books, including most recently Inside the Human Genome: A Case for Non-intelligent Design; Molecular Ecology and Evolution: The Organisms Side; and Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
The Phenomenon of Dual Sexualityp. xi
Hermaphroditism in Fictionp. xii
Hermaphroditism in the Real Worldp. xiv
Two Sexes in Onep. 1
Maleness and Femalenessp. 4
Anisogamy and the Separate-sex Conditionp. 7
Evolutionary Originsp. 8
Evolutionary Ramificationsp. 11
Sex Ratios in Separate-sex Taxap. 19
Relationship to Sexual Selection and Mating Systemsp. 20
Impact on Demographic Parametersp. 26
Sex Ratios in Hermaphroditic Taxap. 28
Hermaphroditism Versus Separate Sexesp. 30
Fitness Considerationsp. 30
Mating Systems and Related Phenomenap. 32
Sex Allocationp. 34
Phylogenetic Legacy Versus Contemporary Adaptive Significancep. 36
Summaryp. 41
Dual-sex Plantsp. 43
Terminologyp. 44
Alternative Sexual Systems: Natural History and Examplesp. 47
Hermaphroditismp. 47
Monoecyp. 51
Andromonoecyp. 51
Gynomonoecyp. 52
Gynodioecyp. 53
Androdioecyp. 54
Trioecyp. 55
Sex-changersp. 56
Dioecyp. 58
Cosexuality Versus Dioecyp. 58
Ecological Considerationsp. 59
Phylogenetic Character Mappingp. 60
Transitional Statesp. 63
An Evolutionary Enigmap. 68
Selfing Versus Outcrossingp. 69
Inbreedingp. 70
Coadapted Genotypesp. 73
Fertilization Insurancep. 75
Sex Allocationp. 76
Sexual Selection in Plantsp. 78
Summaryp. 79
Dual-sex Invertebratesp. 81
Biological Examplesp. 83
Reef-building Coralsp. 83
Love-dart Snails, Earthworms, and Sea Slugsp. 83
Sperm-storing Freshwater Snailsp. 89
Sex-changing Limpets, Isopods, and Polychaetesp. 91
Androdioecious Clam Shrimps and Gynodioecious Sea Anemonesp. 92
Protandric Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Shrimpsp. 93
Quasi-asexual Flatwormsp. 95
Other Odditiesp. 95
Sex Determination and Pseudohermaphroditismp. 96
Evolutionary Histories: Gonochorism and Hermaphroditismp. 97
Phylogenetic Character Mappingp. 97
Gynodioecy and Androdioecyp. 100
Geneticsp. 101
Selective Pressuresp. 102
Selfing Versus Outcrossingp. 103
Genetic Considerationsp. 105
Ecological Considerationsp. 107
Joint Genetic and Ecological Considerationsp. 108
Sex Allocation in Simultaneous Hermaphroditesp. 109
Selfing and Allocation to Female Functionp. 112
Stress and Allocation to Male Functionp. 112
Local Mate Competitionp. 113
Local Resource Competitionp. 114
Brooding Constraintsp. 115
Intra-individual Trade-offsp. 115
Sexual Conflictsp. 117
Other Factorsp. 120
Sex Allocation in Sequential Hermaphroditesp. 120
The Size-advantage Hypothesisp. 121
Mating Systemsp. 122
Conclusions About Sex Allocation Theoryp. 124
Sexual Selectionp. 124
Summaryp. 126
Dual-sex Vertebratesp. 129
Sexual Flexibilityp. 131
Evolutionary Labilityp. 131
Ontogenetic Plasticityp. 133
Sequential Hermaphroditismp. 133
The Cast of Playersp. 133
Evolutionary Historyp. 142
Adaptive Significance of Alternative Modesp. 148
Simultaneous Hermaphroditismp. 154
The Cast of Playersp. 154
Evolutionary Constraintsp. 155
Mating Behaviors in Outcrossersp. 156
Self-fertilizationp. 161
History of Genetic Research on the Mangrove Rivulusp. 163
Adaptive Significance of Selfingp. 165
Summaryp. 169
Glossaryp. 171
References Citedp. 185
Indexp. 227
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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