Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan

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  • Edition: Reprint
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-08
  • Publisher: HarperCollins Publications
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Winner of the Pulitzer Prize

In this groundbreaking biography of the Japanese emperor Hirohito, Herbert P. Bix offers the first complete, unvarnished look at the enigmatic leader whose sixty-three-year reign ushered Japan into the modern world. Never before has the full life of this controversial figure been revealed with such clarity and vividness. Bix shows what it was like to be trained from birth for a lone position at the apex of the nation's political hierarchy and as a revered symbol of divine status.

Influenced by an unusual combination of the Japanese imperial tradition and a modern scientific worldview, the young emperor gradually evolves into his preeminent role, aligning himself with the growing ultranationalist movement, perpetuating a cult of religious emperor worship, resisting attempts to curb his power, and all the while burnishing his image as a reluctant, passive monarch. Here we see Hirohito as he truly was: a man of strong will and real authority.

Supported by a vast array of previously untapped primary documents, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan is perhaps most illuminating in lifting the veil on the mythology surrounding the emperor's impact on the world stage.

Focusing closely on Hirohito's interactions with his advisers and successive Japanese governments, Bix sheds new light on the causes of the China War in 1937 and the start of the Asia-Pacific War in 1941. And while conventional wisdom has had it that the nation's increasing foreign aggression was driven and maintained not by the emperor but by an elite group of Japanese militarists, the reality, as witnessed here, is quite different.

Bix documents in detail the strong, decisive role Hirohito played in wartime operations, from the takeover of Manchuria in 1931 through the attack on Pearl Harbor and ultimately the fateful decision in 1945 to accede to an unconditional surrender. In fact, the emperor stubbornly prolonged the war effort and then used the horrifying bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, together with the Soviet entrance into the war, as his exit strategy from a no-win situation.

From the moment of capitulation, we see how American and Japanese leaders moved to justify the retention of Hirohito as emperor by whitewashing his wartime role and reshaping the historical consciousness of the Japanese people. The key to this strategy was Hirohito's alliance with General MacArthur, who helped him maintain his stature and shed his militaristic image, while MacArthur used the emperor as a figurehead to assist him in converting Japan into a peaceful nation. Their partnership ensured that the emperor's image would loom large over the postwar years and later decades, as Japan began to make its way in the modern age and struggled -- as it still does -- to come to terms with its past.

Until the very end of a career that embodied the conflicting aims of Japan's development as a nation, Hirohito remained preoccupied with politics and with his place in history. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan provides the definitive account of his rich life and legacy. Meticulously researched and utterly engaging, this book is proof that the history of twentieth-century Japan cannot be understood apart from the life of its most remarkable and enduring leader.

"A historical bombshell. . . . Compelling. . . . The most controversial book yet on Japan's previous emperor." - The Economist

"Bix succeeds . . . in demonstrating that the emperor shirked moral responsibility. . . . Offers fresh and well-documented insights." - The Boston Globe

"Explosive. . . . Demolishes the stereotype of Japan's wartime emperor as a mousy and passive figurehead." - Los Angeles Times

Author Biography

Herbert P. Bix a professor in the Graduate School of Social Sciences at Hitotsubashi University in Tokyo.

Table of Contents

List of Mapsp. viii
Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Introductionp. 1
The Prince's Education, 1901-1921
The Boy, the Family, and the Meiji Legaciesp. 21
Cultivating an Emperorp. 57
Confronting the Real Worldp. 83
The Politics of Good Intentions, 1922-1930
The Regency and the Crisis of Taisho Democracyp. 127
The New Monarchy and the New Nationalismp. 171
A Political Monarch Emergesp. 205
His Majesty's Wars, 1931-1945
The Manchurian Transformationp. 235
Restoration and Repressionp. 279
Holy Warp. 317
Stalemate and Escalationp. 359
Prologue to Pearl Harborp. 387
The Ordeal of Supreme Commandp. 439
Delayed Surrenderp. 487
The Unexamined Life, 1945-1989
A Monarchy Reinventedp. 533
The Tokyo Trialp. 581
Salvaging the Imperial Mystiquep. 619
The Quiet Years and the Legacies of Showap. 647
Notesp. 689
Indexp. 771
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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