A History of Latin America, Volume 1

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-01-23
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing

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The best-selling text for introductory Latin American history courses, A HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA encompasses political and diplomatic theory, class structure and economic organization, culture and religion, and the environment. The integrating framework is the dependency theory, the most popular interpretation of Latin American history, which stresses the economic relationship of Latin American nations to wealthier nations, particularly the United States. Spanning pre-historic times to the present, A HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA takes both a chronological and a nation-by-nation approach, and includes the most recent historical analysis and the most up-to-date scholarship. The Ninth Edition includes expanded coverage of social and cultural history (including music) throughout and increased attention to women, indigenous cultures, and Afro-Latino people assures well balanced coverage of the region's diverse histories.

Table of Contents

Mapsp. vi
Prefacep. vii
Introduction: The Geographic Background of Latin American Historyp. xiii
The Colonial Heritage of Latin Americap. 3
Ancient Americap. 7
Environment and Culture in Ancient Americap. 7
Populations in 1492p. 11
Nuclear Americap. 13
Early American Civilizationsp. 15
The Maya of Central Americap. 16
Maya Economy and Societyp. 19
Maya Religion and Learningp. 20
Maya Decline and Transformation of Mesoamericap. 22
The Aztecs of Mexicop. 24
Aztec Imperial Expansionp. 24
Aztec Culture and Societyp. 27
The Incas of Perup. 30
Origins of Inca Culturep. 30
Inca Economy and Societyp. 31
Inca Religion and Learningp. 35
The Hispanic Backgroundp. 37
The Medieval Heritage of Iberia's Christian Kingdomsp. 38
Castilep. 40
Aragónp. 41
Ferdinand and Isabella: The Catholic Sovereignsp. 42
Restoration of Orderp. 42
Religious and Economic Reformsp. 43
Foreign Policyp. 44
Reappraisal of Ferdinand and Isabella's Policiesp. 45
The Hapsburg Era: Triumph and Tragedyp. 48
The Reign of Charlesp. 48
The Reign of Philip II and the Remaining Hapsburgsp. 50
The Waning Economy and Societyp. 50
Literary and Artistic Developmentsp. 51
The Conquest of Americap. 53
The Great Voyagesp. 53
Exploration under Prince Henryp. 53
The Sea Route to the Eastp. 54
The Advance into the Atlanticp. 55
The Voyages of Columbusp. 56
The Discovery of America in Historical Perspectivep. 58
Balboa and Magellanp. 62
The Conquest of Mexicop. 63
Early Contact with Moctezumap. 63
Cortés-Quetzalcóatlp. 64
The March to Tenochtitlánp. 66
The Aftermath of Conquestp. 67
The Conquest of Perup. 68
Pizarro and Atahualpap. 68
Post-Conquest Troublesp. 69
How a Handful of Spaniards Won Two Empiresp. 70
The Quest for El Doradop. 72
Failures in North Americap. 72
Frustrations in South Americap. 73
The Conquistadorsp. 74
Lope de Aguirre-An Underdog of the Conquestp. 76
The Economic Foundations of Colonial Lifep. 79
Tribute and Labor in the Spanish Coloniesp. 80
The Encomienda and Slaveryp. 80
The New Laws of the Indies and the Encomiendap. 82
Repartimiento, Yanaconaje, and Free Laborp. 84
Black Slaveryp. 86
The Colonial Economyp. 87
Cortes as a Businessmanp. 87
The Growth of the Haciendasp. 89
Spanish Agriculture in the New Worldp. 90
Colonial Mining and Industryp. 92
Commerce, Smuggling, and Piracyp. 94
The Colonial Commercial Systemp. 94
Sir Francis Drake, Piracy, and Plunderp. 96
The Framework of the Colonial Economyp. 97
State, Church, and Societyp. 99
Political Institutions of the Spanish Empirep. 99
Formation of Colonial Administrationp. 99
The Royal Agentsp. 100
Provincial Administrationp. 102
Ineffectiveness of Much Spanish Colonial Lawp. 104
The Church in the Indiesp. 105
The Spiritual Conquest of Americap. 105
The Moral Decline of the Clergy and the Missionary Impulsep. 108
The Inquisition in the New Worldp. 110
The Church and Educationp. 111
Science, Literature, and the Artsp. 112
The Structure of Class and Castep. 114
The Ruling Classp. 115
The Mestizo: An Ambiguous Statusp. 116
Indigenous Peoples: A Separate Nationp. 116
Blacks, Mulattos, Zambos: The Lowest Classp. 120
Life in the City and on the Haciendap. 121
Marriage, Sexuality, and the Status of Womenp. 123
Colonial Brazilp. 127
The Beginning of Colonial Brazilp. 127
The Captaincy Systemp. 127
Portugal's Indigenous Policyp. 130
The French and Dutch Challengesp. 131
The Mineral Cycle, the Cattle Industry, and the Commercial Systemp. 132
Government and Churchp. 134
The Administrators and Their Deficienciesp. 134
The Church and the Statep. 136
Masters and Slavesp. 136
Color, Class, and Slaveryp. 137
Large Estates and Colonial Townsp. 139
The Bourbon Reforms and Spanish Americap. 141
Reform and Recoveryp. 141
The Bourbon Reformsp. 141
Revival of Colonial Commerce and Breakdown of Trading Monopolyp. 143
Increased Economic Activityp. 145
Labor Systems in the Eighteenth Centuryp. 148
Early Labor Strugglesp. 149
Political Reformsp. 150
Strengthening the Defensesp. 152
Colonial Culture and the Enlightenmentp. 153
Creole Nationalismp. 155
Colonial Society in Transition, 1750-1810: An Overviewp. 156
The Revolt of the Massesp. 158
The Revolt in Perup. 160
The Insurrection in New Granada, 1781p. 163
The Independence of Latin Americap. 165
Background of the Wars of Independencep. 165
Creoles and Peninsular Spaniardsp. 165
The Causes of Revolutionp. 168
The Liberation of South Americap. 170
Simón Bolívar, the Liberatorp. 170
The Southern Liberation Movement and San Martinp. 174
The Achievement of Brazilian Independencep. 177
Mexico's Road to Independencep. 178
Latin American Independence: A Reckoningp. 184
Latin America in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 187
Decolonization and the Search for National Identities, 1821-1870p. 201
The Fruits of Independencep. 201
Economic Stagnationp. 202
Politics: The Conservative and Liberal Programsp. 203
Mexicop. 205
The Mexican Economyp. 205
Politics: Liberals versus Conservativesp. 206
La Reforma, Civil War, and the French Interventionp. 209
Postwar Transformation of La Reformap. 212
Argentinap. 213
The Liberation of Paraguay, Uruguay, and Upper Perup. 213
The Struggle for Progress and National Unityp. 214
The Paraguayan Warp. 217
Progress and Development under Sarmientop. 218
Chilep. 220
Portales and Economic Growthp. 220
Economic Expansion under Bulnesp. 221
Montt's Moderate Reformsp. 222
Liberal Controlp. 223
United Provinces of Central Americap. 224
Independence and the Failure of Union, 1810-1865p. 224
Race, Nation, and the Meaning of Freedom, 1821-1888p. 227
Brazilp. 229
Dom Pedro, Emperorp. 229
Regency, Revolt, and a Boy Emperorp. 230
The Game of Politics and the Crisis of Slaveryp. 233
The Antislavery Movementp. 234
Perup. 236
Peruvian Politics and Economyp. 237
Pardo and the Civilianist Partyp. 238
Cubap. 239
Economic and Social Change: The Bitter Harvest of King Sugarp. 239
The Ten Years' Warp. 242
Gran Colombiap. 244
Páez, the Conservative-Liberal Split, and the Federal War in Venezuela, 1830-1863p. 246
Santander and the Birth of a Two-Party System in Colombia, 1830-1850p. 248
The Triumph of Neocolonialism and the Liberal State, 1870-1900p. 251
The New Colonialismp. 251
Expansion of the Hacienda Systemp. 253
Foreign Control of Resourcesp. 254
The Politics of Acquisitionp. 255
Mexican Politics and Economyp. 255
Dictatorship under Díazp. 255
Concentration of Landownershipp. 257
The Economic Advancep. 258
Labor, Agrarian, and Middle-Class Unrestp. 259
Argentine Politics and Economyp. 260
Consolidation of the Statep. 260
Economic Boom and Inflationp. 261
The Formation of the Radical Partyp. 262
Electoral Reform and the Growth of the Labor Movementp. 263
Chilean Politics and Economyp. 263
Nitrates and Warp. 263
Aftermath of the War of the Pacificp. 265
Balmaceda's Nationalistic Policiesp. 267
The Parliamentary Republic, Foreign Economic Domination, and the Growth of the Working Classp. 268
Brazilian Politics and Economyp. 269
The Fall of the Monarchyp. 269
The New Republicp. 269
The Economic Revolutionp. 271
Central American Politics and Economyp. 274
Guatemala, 1865-1898p. 274
Nicaragua, 1870-1909p. 275
El Salvador, 1876-1911p. 276
Venezuelan Politics and Economyp. 276
Colombian Politics and Economyp. 278
Rafael Nunez, the "Regeneration," and the War of a Thousand Days, 1880-1903p. 279
Index Ip. 1
Geographic Features of Middle Americap. xiv
Geographic Features of South Americap. xv
Principal Sites of Pre-Conquest Culture in Mesoamericap. 17
Valley of Mexicop. 26
Growth of the Inca Empire, 1460-1532p. 33
Spain in the Time of Christopher Columbusp. 46
Early Spanish Voyages in the Caribbeanp. 61
Colonial Conquest, Trade, and Enslavement in the Making of Latin Americap. 88
Viceroyalties and Audiencias in Sixteenth-Century Spanish Americap. 102
Colonial Brazilp. 129
Viceroyalties in Latin America in 1780p. 151
Latin America, 1830p. 207
War and National Development in Paraguay and Bolivia, 1864-1938p. 219
War of the Pacificp. 266
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