A History of Latin America, Volume 2: Independence to Present

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-07-28
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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This best-selling text for introductory Latin American history courses, A History of Latin America, encompasses political and diplomatic theory, class structure and economic organization, culture and religion, and the environment. The integrating framework is the dependency theory, the most popular interpretation of Latin American history, which stresses the economic relationship of Latin American nations to wealthier nations, particularly the United States.Spanning pre-historic times to the present, A History of Latin America uses both a chronological and a nation-by-nation approach, and includes the most recent historical analysis and the most up-to-date research. This is the most streamlined and cohesive edition yet, with substantial additions to pedagogy and chapter content. Expanded coverage of social and cultural history includes women, indigenous cultures, and Afro-Latino peoples.

Table of Contents

Mapsp. vii
Prefacep. viii
Introduction: The Geographic Background of Latin American Historyp. xiii
Latin America in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 178
Decolonization and the Search for National Identities, 1821-1870p. 193
The Fruits of Independencep. 193
Economic Stagnationp. 194
Politics: The Conservative and Liberal Programsp. 195
Mexicop. 196
The Mexican Economyp. 197
Politics: Liberals versus Conservativesp. 199
La Reforma, Civil War, and the French Interventionp. 201
Postwar Transformation of La Reformap. 204
Argentinap. 205
The Liberation of Paraguay, Uruguay, and Upper Perup. 205
The Struggle for Progress and National Unityp. 205
The Paraguayans Warp. 209
Progress and Development Under Sarmientop. 211
Chilep. 211
Portales and Economic Growthp. 212
Economic Expansion Under Bulnesp. 212
Montt's Moderate Reformsp. 214
Liberal Controlp. 215
United Provinces of Central Americap. 216
Independence and the Failure of Union, 1810-1865p. 216
Race, Nation, and the Meaning of Freedom, 1821-1888p. 219
Brazilp. 220
Dom Pedro, Emperorp. 221
Regency, Revolt, and a Boy Emperorp. 222
The Game of Politics and the Crisis of Slaveryp. 224
The Antislavery Movementp. 225
Perup. 228
Peruvian Politics and Economyp. 229
Pardo and the Civilianist Partyp. 230
Cubap. 231
Economic and Social Change: The Bitter Harvest of King Sugarp. 231
The Ten Years' Warp. 234
Gran Colombiap. 235
Páez, the Conservative-Liberal Split, and the Federal War in Venezuela, 1830-1863p. 237
Santander and the Birth of a Two-Party System in Colombia, 1830-1850p. 239
The Triumph of Neocolonialism and the Liberal State, 1870-1900p. 243
The New Colonialismp. 244
Expansion of the Hacienda Systemp. 245
Foreign Control of Resourcesp. 246
The Politics of Acquisitionp. 246
Mexican Politics and Economyp. 247
Dictatorship Under Díazp. 247
Concentration of Landownershipp. 249
The Economic Advancep. 250
Labor, Agrarian, and Middle-Class Unrestp. 250
Argentine Politics and Economyp. 252
Consolidation of the Statep. 252
Economic Boom and Inflationp. 252
The Formation of the Radical Partyp. 254
Electoral Reform and the Growth of the Labor Movementp. 255
Chilean Politics and Economyp. 255
Nitrates and Warp. 255
Aftermath of the War of the Pacificp. 256
Balmaceda's Nationalistic Policiesp. 258
The Parliamentary Republic, Foreign Economic Domination, and the Growth of the Working Classp. 260
Brazilian Politics and Economyp. 260
The Fall of the Monarchyp. 260
The New Republicp. 262
The Economic Revolutionp. 263
Central American Politics and Economyp. 265
Guatemala, 1865-1898p. 265
Nicaragua, 1870-1909p. 266
El Salvador, 1876-1911p. 267
Venezuelen Politics and Economyp. 268
Colombian Politics and Economyp. 270
Rafael N&uacuate;ñez, the ""Regeneration,"" and the War of a Thousand Days, 1880-1903p. 271
Latin America Since 1900p. 274
Forging a New Nation: The Mexican Revolution and the Populist Challengep. 313
The Great Revolution, 1910-1920p. 314
Madero's Presidency: Inadequacy and Revoltp. 315
Huerta's Dictatorshipp. 317
The Opposition: Zapata, Villa, Carranza, and Obregónp. 319
Intervention by the United Statesp. 320
Fighting Among the Victorsp. 321
The Constitution of 1917p. 324
Carranza's Presidencyp. 325
Reconstructing the State: Rule of the Millionaire Socialistsp. 325
Obregón and Reformp. 325
Calles' Regimep. 328
Cárdenas the Populist Interludep. 330
Land Reformp. 330
Labor Reformp. 331
Economic Reformp. 332
Women's Rightsp. 332
Cárdenas's Growing Moderation and the Election of 1940p. 333
The Big Bourgeoisie in Power, 1940-1976: Erosion of Reformp. 333
Popular Culture and Resistancep. 334
Brazil: Populism and the Struggle for Democracy in a Multiracial Societyp. 339
Decline and Fall of the Old Republic, 1914-1930p. 340
Economic Impact of World War Ip. 340
Postwar Industry and Laborp. 341
Cultural Crisis and Political Unrestp. 342
Economic Crisisp. 344
Vargas and the Bourgeois Revolution, 1930-1954p. 345
Vargas as Dictatorp. 347
A Military Coupp. 349
Vargas's Return to Powerp. 350
Reform and Reaction, 1954-1964p. 351
The Kubitschek Erap. 351
The Quadros Regimep. 352
Goulart's Presidencyp. 353
Argentina: Populism, the Military, and the Struggle for Democracyp. 356
The Export Economyp. 357
Argentine Societyp. 359
The Radical Era, 1916-1930p. 361
The Rise of the Radical Partyp. 361
The First Radical Government: Yrigoyen, 1916-1922p. 363
The Second Radical Government Alvear, 1922-1928p. 364
Yrigoyen's Second Term, 1928-1930p. 365
The ""Infamous Decade,"" 1930-1943: Military Intervention and the Statep. 366
The Perón Era, 1943-1955p. 368
Perón's Rise to Powerp. 368
Postwar Economicsp. 370
Perón's Downfallp. 371
Collapse of Populism: In the Shadow of Perón, 1955-1973p. 373
Economic Stagnationp. 373
The Military in Politicsp. 373
The Return of Perónp. 374
Cuba: The Revolutionary Socialist Alternative to Populismp. 376
Independence and the Spanish-Cuban-American Warp. 376
José Martí and the Revolutionary Movementp. 376
Involvement by the United Statesp. 378
The First U.S. Occupation, 1899-1902p. 379
Dependent Development and Popular Struggle, 1902-1953p. 381
Intervention, Corruption, and Popular Resistance, 1902-1924p. 381
World War I and the Dance of the Millionsp. 383
Machado, 1925-1933p. 385
The Revolution of 1933p. 386
Populist Interlude, 1938-1952p. 387
The Return of Batista as Dictator, 1952-1959p. 388
The Revolutionp. 389
The Revolution in Power, 1959-2003p. 391
United States-Cuban Relationsp. 391
Revolutionary Economicsp. 392
The Return to Sugar, 1963-1970: The Ten-Million-Ton Harvestp. 393
Failure, Reassessment, and Institutionalized Revolution, 1970-1990p. 394
Achievementsp. 397
Storm Over the Andes: Indigenous Rights and the Corporatist Military Alternativep. 400
Neocolonialism, the Military, and Indigenous Resistancep. 401
Indigenous Resistancep. 402
The Leguía Regime: North American Investment and Peruvian Disillusionmentp. 403
Indigenismo and Socialismp. 405
APRA versus the Militaryp. 406
The Limits of Populism, 1952-1968p. 407
The 1952 Bolivian Revolutionp. 407
Peru's Belaúnde: Indigenista Populism and Broken Promisesp. 409
Military Corporatism and Revolution, 1968-1975p. 410
The Peruvian Military About-Facep. 410
Land Reform and Nationalization of Resourcesp. 411
Equador's Military Revolutionp. 413
Collapse of Military Corporatism, 1975-1990p. 415
The Peruvian Revolution Under Attack, 1975-1983p. 415
Popular Culture and Resistancep. 416
APRA in Power, 1985-1990p. 418
Chile: The Democratic Socialist Alternativep. 421
Foreign Dependency and the Liberal Parliamentary Republic, 1891-1920p. 422
Economic Growth and the Export Sectorp. 422
Women and the Workplacep. 423
Alessandri and the Rise of Populism, 1920-1970p. 424
Ibáñez and the Great Depressionp. 425
Alessandri and the Limits of Populismp. 426
Women and the Rise of the Popular Frontp. 427
New Alignments: Christian Democracy and Populismp. 429
The Children Road to Socialism, 1970-1973p. 432
The Oppositionp. 432
The First Year, 1971p. 434
Democratic Socialist Dilemma: Caught in the Middle, 1972-1973p. 435
Twilight of the Tyrants: Revolution and Prolonged Popular War in Central Americap. 438
Guatemalap. 439
Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1944-1983p. 440
Return to Democracy Guatemala Style, 1983-2003p. 443
Nicaraguap. 447
Liberalism, U.S. Intervention, and Sandino, 1894-1933p. 447
The Somoza Era, 1934-1979p. 449
The Sandinistas in Power, 1979-1990p. 452
Self-Determination for Atlantic Coast Peoplesp. 455
Women and the Revolutionp. 456
El Salvadorp. 457
The Populist Flirtationp. 457
Oligarchs and Generals, 1932-1979p. 458
The Salvadoran Revolution, 1980-1992p. 463
The Salvadoran Revolution: A Reckoningp. 466
Lands of Bolívar: Military Crisis, State Repression, and Popular Democracyp. 468
Populism, Military Repression, and Authorization Politics in Colombiap. 469
The Oligarchical Republic, 1903-1930p. 469
The Limits of Populism: ""The Revolution on the March"" and Oligarchical Resistance, 1934-1958p. 470
The National Front: Reform and Repression, 1958-1974p. 473
Drug Trafficking and Repression, 1974-2000p. 474
Foreign Aid and Repressionp. 478
Populism, Authoritarian Politics, and Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuelap. 481
The Liberal Tyranny of Juan Vicente Gómez, 1908-1935p. 481
A Strange Alliance: Betancourt, Military Populism, and Dictatorship, 1945-1954p. 484
Limited Democracy and Populist Resurgence, 1958-1969p. 487
Populist Problems in a Petroleum Republic, 1969-1988p. 489
Neoliberalism and the Dilemmas of a Petroleum Republic, 1988-2003p. 490
Popular Democracy, the Military, and Bolivarian Revolutionp. 493
Deconstructing the State: Dictatorship and Neoliberal Marketsp. 498
Military Dictatorship and Neoliberalism in Brazil, 1964-1990p. 499
Encouragement of Foreign capital and Repression of Laborp. 500
The Economy and Denationalizationp. 500
Cultural Resistance to Dictatorshipp. 501
The Dictatorship in Crisis, 1978-1983p. 505
The Military and External Constraints on Democracyp. 506
Military Dictatorship and Neoliberalism in Chile, 1973-1990p. 508
Pinochet, State Terrorism, and Free Marketsp. 508
Women and Resistance to Dictatorshipp. 510
Military Dictatorship and Neoliberalism in Argentina, 1976-1990p. 511
Economic Crisis and ""Dirty War""p. 512
Women, War, and Resistancep. 513
Neoliberalism and the Authoritarian State in Mexico, 1977-1994p. 514
Debt, Crisis, the IMF, and Populist Collapsep. 514
Electoral Fraud, Maquiladoras, and NAFTAp. 516
Foreign Intervention and Subversion of Democracy in Nicaraguap. 520
""Low-Intensity"" Conflict and Democratic Destabilizationp. 520
Transcending Neoliberalism: Electoral Engaños and Popular Resistance to the Dictatorship of Marketsp. 523
Electoral Deception in Brazilp. 524
Neoliberal Wine in Populist Electoral Bottles, 1990-2002p. 524
Electoral Engaños and Popular Protestp. 525
Popular Resistance and State-Sponsored Development, 2002-2008p. 527
Electoral Deception in Argentinap. 529
Menem's Reversal of Fortune, 1990-2000p. 529
""Democracy or Dictatorship of the Market,"" 2000-2008p. 530
Electoral Deception in Perup. 532
Fujimori's Fraud, 1990-2000p. 532
Popular Mobilization and Resistance, 2000-2008p. 535
Electoral Deception in Chilep. 536
Neoliberalism in a Limited Democracy, 1990-2000p. 536
Popular Struggle for Democracy and Social Justice, 2000-2008p. 538
Electoral Deception in Mexicop. 540
Neoliberal Crisis and Popular Resistance, 1994-2008p. 540
A Fox in the Henhousep. 541
Electoral Deception in Boliviap. 543
Covert Subversion of Democracy, 1985-2000p. 544
Popular Resistance and Resurrection of the State, 2000-2008p. 546
Electoral Deception in Ecuadorp. 547
Populist Rhetoric and Neoliberal Practice, 1984-2000p. 547
Pluricultural Resistance and State Reconstruction, 2000-2008p. 549
Market Forces and State Regulation in the Cuban Model, 1990-2008p. 552
Rectificación and the ""Special Period""p. 552
A Mix of State Ownership, Regulation, and Marketsp. 555
The Two Americas: United States-Latin American Relationsp. 559
U.S. Policy Objectivesp. 561
Prelude to Empire, 1810-1897p. 561
Manifest Destiny, 1810-1865p. 561
Commerce and the Canalp. 563
The Awakening Giant, 1865-1887p. 563
Adventures in Latin America, 1888-1896p. 563
The Turning Point: Venezuela, 1895-1896p. 565
An Imperial Power, 1898-1945p. 566
The War with Spainp. 566
An ""American Lake"": The ""Big Stick"" and ""Dollar Diplomacy"" in the Caribbeanp. 566
The Panama Canalp. 566
The Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaraguap. 568
Puerto Ricop. 569
The Mexican Revolutionp. 570
Quiet Imperalism: The Good Neighbor in Words and Action, 1921-1945p. 571
Defending the Empire and Capitalism, 1945-1981p. 573
Investment and Tradep. 573
Post-World War II Adjustmentsp. 574
The Cold Warp. 575
The Latin American Policies of Truman and Eisenhowerp. 575
The Cuban Revolutions and United States-Latin American Relationsp. 578
The Vietnam Erap. 579
Carter's Latin American Policy: Nationalism, the Canals, and Human Rightsp. 581
The Return to ""Gunboat Diplomacy,"" 1981-2003p. 581
Grenadap. 582
Haitip. 582
Central Americap. 584
The Invasion of Panamap. 585
Latin America and the Gulf Warp. 586
Toward a New World Order?p. 587
Indexp. I-1
Geographic Features of Middle Americap. xiv
Geographical Features of South Americap. xv
Latin America in 1830p. 198
War of the Triple Alliance and the Chaco Warp. 210
War of the Pacificp. 257
Modern Mexicop. 318
Modern South Americap. 360
Modern Caribbean Nationsp. 378
U.S. Territorial Expansionp. 560
U.S. Interventions in the Caribbean and Central America 1898-1945p. 568
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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