A History of Western Society, Volume 2

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  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-09-16
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Praised by instructors and students alike for its readability and attention to everyday life, the thirteenth edition of A History of Western Society includes a greater variety of tools to engage today's students and save instructors time. This edition features an enhanced primary source program, a question-driven narrative, five chapters devoted to the lives of ordinary people that make the past real and relevant, and the best and latest scholarship throughout.

Available for free when packaged with the print book, the popular digital assignment options for this text bring skill building and assessment to a highly effective level. The active learning options come in LaunchPad , which combines an accessible e-book with LearningCurve, an adaptive and automatically graded learning tool that—when assigned—helps ensure students read the book; the complete companion reader with quizzes on each source; and many other study and assessment tools. For instructors who want the easiest and most affordable way to ensure students come to class prepared, Achieve Read & Practice pairs LearningCurve adaptive quizzing and our mobile, accessible Value Edition e-book, in one easy-to-use product.

Table of Contents

The Combined Volume includes all chapters.

Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16.

Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-30.

Since 1300 includes Chapters 11-30.


14 European Exploration and Conquest 1450–1650

What was the Afro-Eurasian trading world before Columbus?

The Trade World of the Indian Ocean

The Trading States of Africa

The Middle East

Genoese and Venetian Middlemen

How and why did Europeans undertake ambitious voyages of expansion?

Causes of European Expansion

Technology and the Rise of Exploration

The Portuguese Overseas Empire

Spain’s Voyages to the Americas

Spain "Discovers" the Pacific

Early Exploration by Northern European Powers

What was the impact of European conquest on the New World?

Conquest of the Aztec Empire

The Fall of the Incas

Portuguese Brazil

Colonial Empires of England and France

Colonial Administration

How did Europe and the world change after Columbus?

Economic Exploitation of the Indigenous Population

Society in the Colonies

The Columbian Exchange and Population Loss

Sugar and Slavery

Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects

The Birth of the Global Economy

How did expansion change European attitudes and beliefs?

Religious Conversion

European Debates About Indigenous Peoples

New Ideas About Race

Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity

William Shakespeare and His Influence



Evaluating Written Evidence Columbus Describes His First Voyage

Thinking Like a Historian Who Was Doña Marina?

Individuals in Society Catarina de San Juan

Viewpoints Aztec and Spanish Views on Christian Conversion in New Spain

Evaluating Visual Evidence Depictions of Africans in European Portraiture

15 Absolutism and Constitutionalism ca. 1589–1725

What made the seventeenth century an "age of crisis" and achievement?

The Social Order and Peasant Life

Economic Crisis and Popular Revolts

The Thirty Years’?War

State-Building and the Growth of Armies

Baroque Art and Music

Why did France rise and Spain fall during the late seventeenth century?

The Foundations of French Absolutism

Louis XIV and Absolutism

Life at Versailles

Louis XIV’s Wars

The French Economic Policy of Mercantilism

The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century

What explains the rise of absolutism in Prussia and Austria?

The Return of Serfdom

The Austrian Habsburgs

Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

What were the distinctive features of Russian and Ottoman absolutism?

Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow

Building the Russian Empire

The Reforms of Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

Why and how did the constitutional state triumph in the Dutch Republic and England?

Religious Divides and Civil War

The Puritan Protectorate

The Restoration of the English Monarchy

Constitutional Monarchy

The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century



Thinking Like a Historian What Was Absolutism?

Evaluating Written Evidence Peter the Great and Foreign Experts

Individuals in Society Hürrem

Viewpoints Stuart Claims to Absolutism and the Parliamentary Response

Evaluating Visual Evidence Gonzales Coques, The Young Scholar and His Wife, 1640

16 Toward a New Worldview 1540–1789

What revolutionary discoveries were made in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

Contributions from the Muslim World

Scientific Thought to 1500

The Copernican Hypothesis

Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right

Newton’s Synthesis

Natural History and Empire

Magic and Alchemy

What intellectual and social changes occurred as a result of the Scientific Revolution?

The Methods of Science: Bacon and Descartes

Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry

Science and Religion

Science and Society

How did the Enlightenment emerge, and what were major currents of Enlightenment thought?

The Early Enlightenment

The Influence of the Philosophes

Enlightenment Movements Across Europe

How did the Enlightenment change social ideas and practices?

Global Contacts

Enlightenment Debates About Race

Women and the Enlightenment

Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere

What impact did new ways of thinking have on politics?

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Austrian Habsburgs

Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism



Evaluating Written Evidence Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger

Evaluating Visual Evidence Andreas Vesalius, Frontispiece to On the Structure of the Human Body

Thinking Like a Historian The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance

Viewpoints Rousseau and Wollstonecraft Debate Women’s Equality

Individuals in Society Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment

17 The Expansion of Europe 1650–1800

How did European agriculture change between 1650 and 1800?

The Legacy of the Open-Field System

New Methods of Agriculture

The Leadership of the Low Countries and England

Why did the European population rise dramatically in the eighteenth century?

Long-Standing Obstacles to Population Growth

The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century

How and why did rural industry intensify in the eighteenth century?

The Putting-Out System

The Lives of Rural Textile Workers

The Industrious Revolution

What important changes occurred in economic thought and practice in the eighteenth century?

Economic Regulation and the Guilds

The Financial Revolution

Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism

What role did colonial markets play in Europe’s development?

Mercantilism and Colonial Competition

The Atlantic Economy

The Atlantic Slave Trade

Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World

The Atlantic Enlightenment

Trade and Empire in Asia and the Pacific



Evaluating Written Evidence Arthur Young on the Benefits of Enclosure

Thinking Like a Historian Rural Industry: Progress or Exploitation?

Viewpoints Opposing Views on Guilds and Economic Regulation

Evaluating Visual Evidence Mixed Races

Individuals in Society Rebecca Protten

18 Life in the Era of Expansion 1650–1800

How did marriage and family life change in the eighteenth century?

Late Marriage and Nuclear Families

Work Away from Home

Contraception and Community Controls

New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy

Sex on the Margins of Society

What was life like for children, and how did attitudes toward childhood evolve?

Child Care and Nursing

Foundlings and Infanticide

Attitudes Toward Children

The Spread of Elementary Schools

How did increasing literacy and new patterns of consumption affect people’s lives?

Popular Literature

Leisure and Recreation

New Foods and Appetites

Toward a Consumer Society

What role did religion play in eighteenth-century society?

Church Hierarchy

Protestant Revival

Catholic Piety

Marginal Beliefs and Practices

How did the practice of medicine evolve in the eighteenth century?

Faith Healing and General Practice

Improvements in Surgery


The Conquest of Smallpox



Evaluating Written Evidence A Day in the Life of Paris

Individuals in Society Rose Bertin, "Minister of Fashion"

Thinking Like a Historian A New Subjectivity

Evaluating Visual Evidence Hogarth’s Satirical View of the Church

Viewpoints The Case for and Against Female Midwives

19 Revolutions in Politics 1775–1815

What were the factors behind the revolutions of the late eighteenth century?

Social Change

Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality

The Seven Years’?War

Why and how did American colonists forge a new, independent nation?

The Origins of the Revolution

Independence from Britain

Framing the Constitution

Limitations of Liberty and Equality

How did the events of 1789 result in a constitutional monarchy in France?

Breakdown of the Old Order

The Formation of the National Assembly

Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man

A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges

Why and how did the French Revolution take a radical turn?

The International Response

The Second Revolution and the New Republic

Total War and the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory

How did Napoleon Bonaparte create a French empire, and why did it fail?

Napoleon’s Rule of France

Napoleon’s Expansion in Europe

The Grand Empire and Its End

How did slave revolt on colonial Saint-Domingue lead to the independent nation of Haiti?

Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue

The Outbreak of Revolt

The War of Haitian Independence



Thinking Like a Historian The Rights of Which Men?

Evaluating Written Evidence Abigail Adams, "Remember the Ladies"

Viewpoints Contrasting Visions of the Sans-Culottes

Evaluating Visual Evidence Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808

Individuals in Society Toussaint L’Ouverture

20 The Revolution in Energy and Industry ca. 1780–1850

Why and how did the Industrial Revolution emerge in Britain?

Why Britain?

Technological Innovations and Early Factories

The Steam Engine Breakthrough

Steam-Powered Transportation

Industry and Population

How did countries outside Britain respond to the challenge of industrialization?

National and International Variations

Industrialization in Continental Europe

Agents of Industrialization

The Global Picture

How did work and daily life evolve during the Industrial Revolution?

Work in Early Factories

Working Families and Children

The New Sexual Division of Labor

Living Standards for the Working Class

What were the social consequences of industrialization?

The New Class of Factory Owners

Responses to Industrialization

The Early British Labor Movement

The Impact of Slavery



Individuals in Society Samuel Crompton

Evaluating Visual Evidence Rain, Steam, and Speed— the Great Western Railway

Viewpoints The Experience of Child Labor

Evaluating Written Evidence Advice for Middle-Class Women

Thinking Like a Historian Making the Industrialized Worker

21 Ideologies and Upheavals 1815–1850

How was peace restored and maintained after the Napoleonic Wars?

The European Balance of Power

Metternich and Conservatism

Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit

Limits to Conservative Power and Revolution in South America

What new ideologies emerged to challenge conservatism?

Liberalism and the Middle Class

The Growing Appeal of Nationalism

The Foundations of Modern Socialism

The Birth of Marxist Socialism

What were the characteristics of the Romantic movement?

The Tenets of Romanticism

Romantic Literature

Romanticism in Art and Music

How did reforms and revolutions challenge conservatism after 1815?

National Liberation in Greece

Liberal Reform in Great Britain

Ireland and the Great Famine

The Revolution of 1830 in France

What were the main causes and consequences of the revolutions of 1848?

A Democratic Republic in France

Revolution and Reaction in the Austrian Empire

Prussia, the German Confederation, and the Frankfurt National Parliament



Evaluating Written Evidence The Karlsbad Decrees: Conservative Reaction in the German Confederation

Thinking Like a Historian The Republican Spirit in 1848

Individuals in Society Mary Shelley

Evaluating Visual Evidence Casper David Friedrich, Two Men Contemplating the Moon, 1820

Viewpoints Picturing Revolutionary Violence in 1848

22 Life in the Emerging Urban Society 1840–1914

What were the main changes in urban life in the nineteenth century?

Industry and the Growth of Cities

The Advent of the Public Health Movement

The Bacterial Revolution

Improvements in Urban Planning

Public Transportation

How did class and gender reinforce social difference in the nineteenth century?

The Distribution of Income

The People and Occupations of the Middle Classes

The People and Occupations of the Working Classes


The Leisure Pursuits of the Working Classes

Faith and Religion

How did urbanization affect family life and gender roles?

Lifestyles of the Middle Classes

Middle-Class Marriage and Courtship Rituals

Middle- and Working-Class Sexuality

Separate Spheres and the Importance of Homemaking

Child Rearing

What were the most important changes in science and culture?

The Triumph of Science in Industry

Darwin and Natural Selection

The Modern University and the Social Sciences

Realism in Art and Literature



Evaluating Written Evidence First Impressions of the World’s Biggest City

Evaluating Visual Evidence Apartment Living in Paris

Individuals in Society Franziska Tiburtius

Thinking Like a Historian The Promise of Electricity

Viewpoints Émile Zola and Naturalism/Realism in Western Literature

23 The Age of Nationalism 1850–1914

What were the main features of the authoritarian nation-state built by Napoleon III?

France’s Second Republic

Napoleon III’s Second Empire

How were strong nation-states forged in Italy, Germany, and the United States?

The Unification of Italy

The Austro-Prussian War

Taming the German Parliament

The Franco-Prussian War and German Unification

Civil War and Nation Building in the United States

How did Russian and Ottoman leaders modernize their states and societies?

The "Great Reforms" in Russia

The Russian Revolution of 1905

Reform and Readjustment in the Ottoman Empire

How did the relationship between government and the governed change after 1871?

The Responsive National State

The German Empire

Republican France and the Third French Republic

Great Britain and Ireland

The Austro-Hungarian Empire

What were the costs and benefits of nationalism for ordinary people?

Making National Citizens

The Feminist Movement

Nationalism and Racism

Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism

How and why did revolutionary Marxism evolve in the late nineteenth century?

The Socialist International

Labor Unions and the Evolution of Working-Class Radicalism

Marxist Revisionism



Evaluating Visual Evidence The Proclamation of the German Empire, January 1871

Evaluating Written Evidence Eyewitness Account of Bloody Sunday

Thinking Like a Historian How to Build a Nation

Individuals in Society Theodor Herzl

Viewpoints Marxist Revisionism

24 The West and the World 1815–1914

What were the global consequences of European industrialization?

The Rise of Global Inequality

The World Market

Western Pressures on China

Japan and the United States

Western Intervention in Egypt

How was massive migration an integral part of Western expansion?

The Pressure of Population

European Emigration

The Immigrant Experience in the United States

Asian Emigration

How did the New Imperialism change Western colonialism?

The European Presence in Africa Before 1880

The Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa

The British in Africa After 1885

Imperialism in Asia

Causes of the New Imperialism

A "Civilizing Mission"


European Critics of Imperialism

How did non-Westerners respond to Western expansion?

The Patterns of Response

The British Empire in India

Reforming Japan

Toward Revolution in China



Evaluating Written Evidence Nativism in the United States

Evaluating Visual Evidence European Imperialism at Its Worst

Individuals in Society Cecil Rhodes

Thinking Like a Historian Women and Empire

Viewpoints The White Man’s Versus the Brown Man’s Burden

25 War and Revolution 1914–1919

What caused the outbreak of the First World War?

Growing International Conflict

The Mood of 1914

The July Crisis and the Outbreak of War

How did the First World War differ from previous wars?

Stalemate and Slaughter on the Western Front

The Widening War

In what ways did the war transform life on the home front?

Mobilizing for Total War

The Social Impact of Total War

Growing Political Tensions

Why did world war lead to a successful Communist revolution in Russia?

The Fall of Imperial Russia

The Provisional Government

Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

Trotsky and the Seizure of Power

Dictatorship and Civil War

What were the benefits and costs of the postwar peace settlement?

The End of the War

Revolution in Austria-Hungary and Germany

The Treaty of Versailles

The Peace Settlement in the Middle East

The Human Costs of the War



Evaluating Visual Evidence Trench Warfare on the Western Front

Individuals in Society Vera Brittain

Viewpoints Wartime Propaganda Posters

Evaluating Written Evidence Peace, Land, and Bread for the Russian People

Thinking Like a Historian The Partition of the Ottoman Empire and the Mandate System

26 Opportunity and Crisis in the Age of Modernity 1880–1940

How did intellectual developments reflect the ambiguities of modernity?

Modern Philosophy

The Revival of Christianity

The New Physics

Freudian Psychology

How did modernism revolutionize Western culture?

Architecture and Design

New Artistic Movements

Twentieth-Century Literature

Modern Music

How did consumer society change everyday life?

Modern Mass Culture

The Appeal of Cinema

The Arrival of Radio

What obstacles to lasting peace did European leaders face?

Germany and the Western Powers

Hope in Foreign Affairs

Hope in Democratic Government

What were the causes and consequences of the Great Depression?

The Economic Crisis

Mass Unemployment

The New Deal in the United States

The Scandinavian Response to the Depression

Recovery and Reform in Britain and France



Evaluating Written Evidence Friedrich Nietzsche Pronounces the Death of God

Evaluating Visual Evidence Modern Design for Everyday Use

Individuals in Society Sigmund Freud

Viewpoints The Modern Girl: Image or Reality?

Thinking Like a Historian The Radio Age

27 Dictatorships and the Second World War 1919–1945

What were the most important characteristics of Communist and Fascist ideologies?

Conservative Authoritarianism and Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships

Communism and Fascism

How did Stalinism transform state and society in the Soviet Union?

From Lenin to Stalin

Stalin and the Nationalities Question

The Five-Year Plans

Life and Culture in Soviet Society

Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges

What kind of government did Mussolini establish in Italy?

The Seizure of Power

The Fascist Regime in Action

What policies did Nazi Germany pursue, and why did they appeal to ordinary Germans?

The Roots of National Socialism

Hitler’s Road to Power

State and Society in Nazi Germany

Popular Support for National Socialism

Aggression and Appeasement

What explains the success and then defeat of Germany and Japan during World War II?

German Victories in Europe

Europe Under Nazi Occupation

The Holocaust

Japanese Empire and the War in the Pacific

The Grand Alliance and the "Hinge of Fate"

Allied Victory



Evaluating Written Evidence Famine and Recovery on a Soviet Collective Farm in the Ukraine

Evaluating Visual Evidence Nazi Propaganda and Consumer Goods

Individuals in Society Primo Levi

Thinking Like a Historian Normalizing Eugenics and "Racial Hygiene" in Nazi Germany

Viewpoints Oratory and Ideology in World War II

28 Cold War Conflict and Consensus 1945–1965

Why was World War II followed so quickly by the Cold War?

The Legacies of the Second World War

The Peace Settlement and Cold War Origins

West Versus East

Big Science in the Nuclear Age

What were the sources of postwar recovery and stability in western Europe?

The Search for Political and Social Consensus

Toward European Unity

The Consumer Revolution

What was the pattern of postwar development in the Soviet bloc?

Postwar Life in the East Bloc

Reform and De-Stalinization

Foreign Policy and Domestic Rebellion

The Limits of Reform

How did decolonization proceed in the Cold War era?

Decolonization and the Global Cold War

The Struggle for Power in Asia

Independence and Conflict in the Middle East

Decolonization in Africa

What were the key changes in social relations in postwar Europe?

Changing Class Structures

Patterns of Postwar Migration

New Roles for Women

Youth Culture and the Generation Gap



Evaluating Written Evidence De-Stalinization and Khrushchev’s "Secret Speech"

Evaluating Visual Evidence Postwar Youth Subcultures

Viewpoints Cold War Propaganda

Thinking Like a Historian Violence and the Algerian War

Individuals in Society Armando Rodrigues

29 Challenging the Postwar Order 1960–1991

Why did the postwar consensus of the 1950s break down?

Cold War Tensions Thaw

The Affluent Society

The Counterculture Movement

The United States and Vietnam

Student Revolts and 1968

The 1960s in the East Bloc

What were the consequences of economic stagnation in the 1970s?

Economic Crisis and Hardship

The New Conservatism

Challenges and Victories for Women

The Rise of the Environmental Movement

Separatism and Right-Wing Extremism

What led to the decline of "developed socialism" in the East Bloc?

State and Society in the East Bloc

Dissent in Czechoslovakia and Poland

From Détente Back to Cold War

Gorbachev’s Reforms in the Soviet Union

What were the causes and consequences of the 1989 revolutions in the East Bloc?

The Collapse of Communism in the East Bloc

German Unification and the End of the Cold War

The Disintegration of the Soviet Union



Evaluating Written Evidence Human Rights Under the Helsinki Accords

Evaluating Visual Evidence The "May Events" in Paris, 1968

Individuals in Society Margaret Thatcher

Thinking Like a Historian The New Environmentalism

Viewpoints "Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall"

30 Life in an Age of Globalization 1990 to the Present

How did life change in Russia and the former East Bloc countries after 1989?

Economic Shock Therapy in Russia

Russian Revival Under Vladimir Putin

Political Instability in the Former Soviet Republics

Economic and Political Transformations in the Former East Bloc

Civil War in Yugoslavia

How did globalization affect European life and society?

The Global Economy

The New European Union

Supranational Organizations

Life in the Digital Age

The Costs and Consequences of Globalization

How is growing ethnic diversity changing contemporary Europe?

The Prospect of Population Decline

Changing Immigration Flows

Toward a Multicultural Continent

Europe and Its Muslim Population

What challenges will Europeans face in the coming decades?

Growing Strains in U.S.-European Relations

Turmoil in the Muslim World

The Global Recession and the Viability of the European Union

The New Populism

Dependence on Fossil Fuels, Climate Change, and Environmental Degradation

Promoting Human Rights



Evaluating Written Evidence President Putin on Global Security

Evaluating Visual Evidence The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, Germany

Viewpoints Debating the Impact of Social Media and the Internet

Individuals in Society Edward Snowden

Thinking Like a Historian The Conservative Reaction to Immigration and Islamist Terrorism

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