A History of World Societies, Combined Volume

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-10-05
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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A History of World Societiesintroduces students to the global past through social history and the stories and voices of the people who lived it. Now published by Bedford/St. Martin's, and informed by the latest scholarship, the book has been thoroughly revised with students in mind to meet the needs of the evolving course. Proven to work in the classroom, the book's regional and comparative approach helps students understand the connections of global history while providing a manageable organization. With more global connections and comparisons, more documents, special features and activities that teach historical analysis, and an entirely new look, the ninth edition is the most teachable and accessible edition yet.

Author Biography

John P. McKay (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913 and Tramways and Trolleys: The Rise of Urban Mass Transport in Europe
Bennett D. Hill (Ph.D., Princeton), late of the University of Illinois, published English Cistercian Monasteries and Their Patrons in the Twelfth Century, Church and State in the Middle Ages, and numerous articles and reviews, and was one of the contributing editors to The Encyclopedia of World History. A Benedictine monk of St. Anselm's Abbey in Washington, D.C., he was also a visiting professor at Georgetown University.
John Buckler (Ph.D., Harvard University) taught history at the University of Illinois.  His published books include Theban Hegemony, 371-362 B.C., Philip II and the Sacred War, and Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century B.C.. With Hans Beck, he most recently published Central Greece and the Politics of Power in the Fourth Century.
Patricia B. Ebrey (Ph.D., Columbia University), Professor of History at the University of Washington in Seattle, specializes in China. She has published numerous journal articles and The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, as well as numerous monographs.  In 2010 she won the Shimada Prize for outstanding work of East Asian Art History for Accumulating Culture: The Collections of Emperor Huizong.
Roger B. Beck (Ph.D., Indiana University) is Distinguished Professor of African and twentieth-century world history at Eastern Illinois University. His publications include The History of South Africa, a translation of P. J. van der Merwe's The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony, 1657-1842, and more than seventy-five articles, book chapters, and reviews. He is a former treasurer and Executive Council member of the World History Association.
 Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies.
Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She is the former Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.

Table of Contents

Note: All chapters close with Connections and a Chapter Review section
1. The Earliest Human Societies, to 2500 b.c.e.
Evolution and Migration
     Understanding the Early Human Past
     Hominid Evolution
     Homo Sapiens, "Thinking Humans"
     Migration and Differentiation
Paleolithic Society, 250,000-9000 b.c.e.
     Foraging for Food
     Family and Kinship Relationships
     Cultural Creations and Spirituality
The Development of Agriculture in the Neolithic Era, ca. 9000 b.c.e.
     The Development of Horticulture
     Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism
     Plow Agriculture
Neolithic Society
     Social Hierarchies and Slavery
     Gender Hierarchies and Inheritance
     Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections
Viewpoints     Stone Age Houses in Chile and China
Listening to the Past      Paleolithic Venus Figures
Individuals in Society      The Iceman
2. The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley, 3200-500 b.c.e.
Writing, Cities, and States
     Written Sources and the Human Past
     Cites and the Idea of Civilization
     The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies
Mesopotamia from Sumeria to Babylon
     Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion
     Sumerian Politics and Society
     The Invention of Writing and Other Intellectual Advances
     The Triumph of Babylon and the Spread of Mesopotamian Civilization
     Hammurabi's Code and Its Social Consequences
The Egyptians and Their Pharaohs
     The Nile and the God-King
     Social Divisions and Work in Ancient Egypt
     Migrations and Political Revivals
     New Political and Economic Powers
The Hebrews
     The Hebrew State
     The Jewish Religion
     The Family and Jewish Life
The Assyrians and Persians
     Assyria, the Military Monarchy
     The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire
     The Religion of Zoroaster
Listening to the Past      Gilgamesh's Quest for Immortality
Individuals in Society      Hatshepsut and Nefertiti
Global Trade      Iron
Viewpoints     Rulers and Divine Favor: Cyrus the Great in the Cyrus Cylinder and Hebrew Scripture 
3. The Foundation of Indian Society, to 300 c.e.
The Land and Its First Settlers, ca. 3000-1500 b.c.e.
     The Aryans During the Vedic Age, ca. 1500Ð500 b.c.e.
     Aryan Dominance in North India
     Life in Early India
India's Great Religions
     Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism
Western Contact and the Mauryan Unification of North India, ca. 513-185 b.c.e.
     Encounters with the West
     Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire
     The Reign of Ashoka, ca. 269-232 b.c.e.
Small States and Trading Networks, 185 b.c.e.-300 c.e.
Listening to the Past     Conversations Between Rama and Sita from the Ramayana
Individuals in Society     Gosala
Viewpoints     On Enemies from The Laws of Manu and The Arthashastra
4. China's Classical Age, to 221 b.c.e.
The Emergence of Civilization in China
     The Impact of Geography
     Early Agricultural Societies of the Neolithic Age
The Shang Dynasty, ca. 1500-1050 b.c.e.
     Shang Society
     Bronze Metalworking
     The Development of Writing
The Early Zhou Dynasty, ca. 1050-400 b.c.e.
     Zhou Politics
     Life During the Zhou Dynasty
The Warring States Period, 400-221 b.c.e.
     New Technologies for War
     The Victorious States
Confucius and His Followers
     The Spread of Confucian Ideas
Daoism, Legalism, and Other Schools of Thought
     Yin and Yang
Individuals in Society     Lord Mengchang
Listening to the Past     The Book of Mencius
Viewpoints     Mozi and Xunzi on Divine Response
5. The Greek Experience, 3500-100 b.c.e.
Hellas: The Land and the Polis, ca. 3500-ca. 800 b.c.e.
     The Minoans and Mycenaeans
     The Development of the Polis
Population and Politics in the Archaic Age, ca. 800-500 b.c.e.
     Greece's Overseas Expansion
     The Growth of Sparta
     The Evolution of Athens
Thought and Culture in the Classical Period, 500-338 b.c.e.
     The Deadly Conflicts, 499-404 b.c.e.
     Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles
     Daily Life and Social Conditions in Athens
     Greek Religion in the Classical Period
     The Flowering of Philosophy
Hellenistic Society, 336-100 b.c.e.
     From Polis to Monarchy, 404-200 b.c.e.
     Building a Shared Society
     The Growth of Trade and Commerce
Hellenistic Religion, Philosophy, and Science
     Religion in the Hellenistic World
     Philosophy and Its Guidance for Life
     Hellenistic Science and Medicine
Viewpoints     Two Opinions About Athenian Democracy
Listening to the Past     Aristotle, On the Family and On Slavery, from The Politics
Individuals in Society     Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor
6. The World of Rome, 750 b.c.e.-400 c.e.
The Romans in Italy
     The Etruscans and Rome
     The Roman Conquest of Italy
     The Distribution of Power in the Roman Republic
     Social Conflict in Rome
Roman Expansion and Its Repercussions
     Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars, 264-133 b.c.e.
     New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture
     The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus, 133-27 b.c.e.
     The Successes of Augustus
The Pax Romana
     Political and Military Changes in the Empire
     Life in Rome
     Prosperity in the Roman Provinces
     Eastward Expansion and Contacts Between Rome and China
The Coming of Christianity
     Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity
     The Life and Teachings of Jesus
     The Spread of Christianity
     The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity
Turmoil and Reform
     DiocletianÕs Reforms
     Economic Hardship and Its Consequences
     Constantine, Christianity, and the Rise of Constantinople
Viewpoints     On Roman Wives from a Tombstone Inscription and JuvenalÕs Sixth Satire
Individuals in Society     Queen Cleopatra
Listening to the Past     Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar
Global Trade     Pottery
7. East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism, 221 b.c.e.-800 c.e.
The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties
     The Qin Unification, 221-206 b.c.e.
     The Han Dynasty, 206 b.c.e.-220 c.e.
     Han Intellectual and Cultural Life
     Inner Asia and the Silk Road
     Life in Han China
     China and Rome
     The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division
The Spread of Buddhism Out of India
     Buddhism's Path Through Central Asia
     The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China
The Chinese Empire Re-created: Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907)
     The Sui Dynasty, 581Ð618
     The Tang Dynasty, 618Ð907
     Tang Culture
The East Asian Cultural Sphere
     Global Trade Silk
Individuals in Society     The Ban Family
Listening to the Past     Sixth-Century Biographies of Buddhist Nuns
Viewpoints     Chinese and Japanese Principles of Good Government, ca. 650
8. Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia, 200-850
The Byzantine Empire
     Sources of Byzantine Strength
     The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium
     The Law Code of Justinian
     Byzantine Intellectual Life
     Life in Constantinople
The Growth of the Christian Church
     The Evolution of Church Leadership and Orthodoxy
     The Western Church and the Eastern Church
     The Iconoclastic Controversy
     Christian Monasticism
Christian Ideas and Practices
     Christian Beliefs and the Greco-Roman Tradition
     Saint Augustine
     Missionary Activity
     Conversion and Assimilation
Migrating Peoples
     Social and Economic Structures
     Chiefs, Warriors, and Laws
     Migrations and Political Change
     The Frankish Kingdom
Individuals in Society     Theodora of Constantinople
Viewpoints     Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians
Listening to the Past     Gregory of Tours, The Conversion of Clovis
9. The Islamic World, 600-1400
The Origins of Islam
     Arabian Social and Economic Structure
     Muhammad's Rise As a Religious Leader
     The Tenets of Islam
Islamic States and Their Expansion
     Islam's Spread Beyond Arabia
     Reasons for the Spread of Islam
     The Caliphate and the Split Between Shi'a and Sunni Alliances
     The Abbasid Caliphate
     Administration of the Islamic Territories
Fragmentation and Military Challenges, 900-1400
     Breakaway Territories and Shi'a Gains
     The Ascendancy of the Turks
     The Mongol Invasions
Muslim Society: The Life of the People
     The Social Hierarchy
     Women in Classical Islamic Society
Trade and Commerce
Cultural Developments
     The Cultural Centers of Baghdad and Cordoba
     Education and Intellectual Life
     The Mystical Tradition of Sufism
Muslim-Christian Encounters
Viewpoints      Jews in Muslim Lands
Listening to the Past    Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, The Etiquette of Marriage
Individuals in Society     Ibn Battuta
10. African Societies and Kingdoms, 1000 b.c.e.-1500 c.e.
The Land and Peoples of Africa
     Africa's Geographical and Human Diversity
     Egypt, Race, and Being African
Early African Societies
     Settled Agriculture and Its Impact
     Bantu Migrations
     Life in the Kingdoms of the Western Sudan, ca. 1000 b.c.e.-800 c.e.
The Trans-Saharan Trade
     The Berbers of North Africa
     Effects of Trade on West African Society
     The Spread of Islam in Africa
African Kingdoms and Empires, ca. 800-1500
     The Kingdom of Ghana, ca. 900-1100
     The Kingdom of Mali, ca. 1200-1450
     Ethiopia: The Christian Kingdom of Aksum
     The East African City-States
     Southern Africa and Great Zimbabwe
Individuals in Society     Amda Siyon
Viewpoints     Early Descriptions of Africa
Listening to the Past     A Tenth-Century Muslim Traveler Describes Parts of the East African Coast 
11. The Americas, 2500 b.c.e.-1500 c.e.
The First Peoples of the Americas
     Describing the Americas and Their Peoples
     Settling the Americas
     The Development of Agriculture
Early Societies
     Mounds, Towns, and Trade in North and South America
     Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion
Classical Era Mesoamerica and North America, 300-900 c.e.
     Maya Agriculture and Trade
     Maya Science and Religion
     Growth and Assimilation of the Teotihuac‡n and Toltec Cultures
     Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies
The Aztecs
     Religion and War in Aztec Society
     Social Distinctions Among the Aztecs
     The City of Tenochtitl‡n
The Incas
     Earlier Peruvian Cultures
     Inca Imperialism and Its Religious Basis
     The Clan-Based Structure of Inca Society
Viewpoints     Creation in the Popul Vuh and in Okanogan Tradition
Individuals in Society     TlacaŽlel
Listening to the Past     Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government
12. Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia, to 1400
Central Asian Nomads
     Nomadic Society
     The Turks
     The Mongols
     Mongol Daily Life
Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire
     The Chinggis Kahn
     Chinggis's Successors
     The Mongols as Rulers
East-West Communication During the Mongol Era
     The Movement of Peoples
     The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas
India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300-1400
     The Gupta Empire, ca. 320Ð480
     India's Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam
     The Delhi Sultanate
     Life in Medieval India
Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade
     State Formation and Indian Influences
     The Srivijaya Maritime Trade Empire
     The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective
     The Settlement of the Pacific Islands
Listening to the Past     The Abduction of Women in The Secret History of the Mongols
Viewpoints     Chinese Accounts About the Mongol Army
Individuals in Society     Bhaskara the Teacher
Global Trade     Spices 
13. States and Cultures in East Asia, 800-1400
The Medieval Chinese Economic Revolution, 800-1100
China During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 960-1368
     The Song Dynasty
     The Scholar-Officials and Neo-Confucianism
     Women's Lives in Song Times
     China Under Mongol Rule
Korea Under the Koryo Dynasty, 935-1392
Japan's Heian Period, 794-1185
     Fujiwara Rule
     Aristocratic Culture
The Samurai and the Kamakura Shogunate, 1185-1333
     Military Rule
     Cultural Trends
     Global Trade Tea
Individuals in Society     Shen Gua
Viewpoints     Zhu Xi and Yuan Cai on Family Management
Listening to the Past     The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon 
14. Europe in the Middle Ages, 800-1450
Political Developments
     Invasions and Migrations
     Feudalism and Manorialism
     The Restoration of Order
     Law and Justice
The Christian Church
     Papal Reforms
     Monastic Life
     Popular Religion
     The Expansion of Christianity
The Crusades
     Background and Motives
     The Course of the Crusades
     Consequences of the Crusades
The Life of the People
     The Life and Work of Peasants
     The Life and Work of Nobles
     Towns, Cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests
     The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution
Learning and Culture
     Universities and Scholasticism
     Cathedrals and a New Architectural Style
     Troubadour Poetry
Crises of the Later Middle Ages
     The Great Famine and the Black Death
     The Hundred Years' War
     Challenges to the Church
     Peasant and Urban Revolts
Individuals in Society     Hildegard of Bingen
Listening to the Past     An Arab View of the Crusades
Viewpoints     Italian and English Views of the Plague 
15. Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600
Renaissance Culture
     Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy
     The Rise of Humanism
     Christian Humanism
     Printing and Its Social Impact
     Art and the Artist
Social Hierarchies
     Race and Slavery
     Wealth and the Nobility
     Gender Roles
Politics and the State in the Renaissance, ca. 1450-1521
     The Habsburgs
The Protestant Reformation
     Criticism of the Church
     Martin Luther
     Protestant Thought and Its Appeal
     The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants' War
     Marriage and Women's Roles
     The Reformation and German Politics
     England's Shift Toward Protestantism
     Calvinism and Its Moral Standards
The Catholic Reformation
     Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent
     New Religious Orders
Religious Violence
     French Religious Wars
     Civil Wars in the Netherlands
     The Great European Witch-Hunt
Viewpoints     Lauro Quirini and Cassandra Fedele: Women and Humanist Learning
Individuals in Society     Leonardo da Vinci
Listening to the Past     Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty

16. The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600
The Afroeurasian Trade World Before Columbus
     The Trade World of the Indian Ocean
     Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean
     Trade with Africa and the Middle East
     Genoese and Venetian Middlemen
The European Voyages of Discovery
     Causes of European Expansion
     Technology and the Rise of Exploration
     The Expanding Portuguese Empire
     Christopher Columbus's Voyages to the Americas
     Later Explorers
     Spanish Conquest in the New World
The Impact of Conquest
     Colonial Administration
     The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples
     The Columbian Exchange
     Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery
     The Birth of the Global Economy
Changing Values and Beliefs
     New Ideas About Race
     Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity
     William Shakespeare and His Influence
     Religious Conversion in the New World
Individuals in Society     Zheng He
Listening to the Past     Columbus Describes His First Voyage
Global Trade     Silver
Viewpoints     Christian Conversion in New Spain 
17. European Power and Expansion, 1500-1750
Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding
     Crises Among Peasants and the Urban Poor
     The Return of Serfdom in Eastern Europe
     The Thirty Years' War
     Achievements in State Building
Absolutism in France and Spain
     The Foundations of Absolutism
     Louis XIV and Absolutism
     Life at Versailles French Finances
     Louis XIV's Wars
     The Decline of Absolutist Spain
Absolutism in Austria, Prussia, and Russia
     The Austrian Habsburgs
     Prussia in the Seventeenth Century
     The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism
     Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow
     The Tsar and His People
     The Reforms of Peter the Great
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic
     Absolutist Claims in England
     Religious Divides and Civil War
     The Puritan Protectorate
     Restoration of the English Monarchy
     Constitutional Monarchy
     The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century
Colonialism in the Americas
     Colonial Expansion of Northern European Powers
     Mercantilism and Colonial Wars
     Life in the Colonies
Listening to the Past     A German Account of Russian Life
Viewpoints     The Debate over the Extent of Royal Power in England
Individuals in Society     GlŸckel of Hameln 
18. New Worldviews and Ways of Life, 1540-1790
The Scientific Revolution
     Scientific Thought Through the Early 1500s
     Origins of the Scientific Revolution
     Copernican Hypothesis
     Proving Copernicus Right
     Newton's Synthesis
     Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method
     Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry
     Science and Society
The Enlightenment
     The Emergence of the Enlightenment
     The Influence of the Philosophes
     Enlightenment Across Europe
     Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere
     Late Enlightenment
Enlightened Absolutism
     Reforms in Prussia, Russia, and Austria
     Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism
The Growth of Consumerism and the Atlantic World
     A Revolution in Consumption and Daily Life
     The Atlantic Economy
     Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World
     Race and the Enlightenment
Individuals in Society     Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment
Viewpoints     Malachy Postlethwayt and Olaudah Equiano on the Abolition of Slavery
Listening to the Past     Denis Diderot's "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage"
19. Africa and the World, 1400-1800
West Africa in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
     The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin
     The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland
     The Lives of the People of West Africa
     Trade and Industry
Cross-Cultural Encounters Along the East African Coast
     Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630
     The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600
The African Slave Trade
     The Institution of Slavery in Africa
     The Transatlantic Slave Trade
     Impact on African Societies
Viewpoints     European Descriptions of Timbuktu and Jenne
Listening to the Past     Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States
Global Trade     Slaves
Individuals in Society     Olaudah Equiano 
20. The Islamic World Powers, 1300-1800
The Turkish Ruling Houses: The Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals
     The Ottoman Turkish Empire's Expansion
     The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves
     The Safavid Empire in Persia
     The Mughal Empire in India
Cultural Flowering
     The Arts
     City and Palace Building
     Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends
     Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact
Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule
Shifting Trade Routes and European Penetration
     European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean
     Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires
     From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India
Political Decline
Individuals in Society     HŸrrem
Viewpoints     Ottoman Travelers in Mughal and Safavid Lands
Listening to the Past     Katib Chelebi on Tobacco 
21. Continuity and Change in East Asia, 1400-1800
Ming China, 1368-1644
     The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty
     Problems with the Imperial Institution
     The Mongols and the Great Wall
     The Examination Life
     Everyday Life in Ming China
     Ming Decline
The Manchus and Qing China, to 1800
     The Rise of the Manchus
     Competent and Long-Lived Emperors
     Imperial Expansion
Japan's Middle Ages, ca. 1400-1600
     Muromachi Culture
     Civil War
     The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi
The Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800
     Tokugawa Government
     Commercialization and the Growth of Towns
     The Life of the People in the Edo Period
Maritime Trade, Piracy, and the Entry of Europe into the Asian Maritime Sphere
     Zheng He's Voyages
     Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures Europeans Enter the Scene
     Christian Missionaries
     Learning from the West
     The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century
Individuals in Society     Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor
Viewpoints     Chinese and Japanese Financial Advice
Listening to the Past     KeinenÕs Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign 
22. Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1775-1815
Background to Revolution
     Social Change
     Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality
     The Seven Years' War
The American Revolutionary Era, 1775-1789
     The Origins of the Revolution
     Independence from Britain
     Framing the Constitution
Revolution in France, 1789-1791
     Breakdown of the Old Order
     The Formation of the National Assembly
     Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man
     A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges
World War and Republican France, 1791-1799
     The International Response
     The Second Revolution and the New Republic
     Total War and the Terror
     The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory
Napoleon's Europe, 1799-1815
     Napoleon's Rule of France
     Napoleon's Expansion in Europe
     The Grand Empire and Its End
The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
     Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue
     The Outbreak of Revolt
     The War of Haitian Independence
Listening to the Past     Abbe de Sieyes, "What Is the Third Estate?"
Viewpoints     The Question of Jewish Citizenship in France
Individuals in Society     Toussaint L'Ouverture 
23. The Revolution in Energy and Industry, 1760-1850
The Industrial Revolution in Britain
     Origins of the British Industrial Revolution
     The First Factories
     The Steam Engine Breakthrough
     The Coming of the Railroads
     Industry and Population
Industrialization Beyond Britain
     National and International Variations
     The Challenge of Industrialization in Continental Europe
     Agents of Industrialization
     Government Support and Corporate Banking
     The Situation Outside of Europe
Relations Between Capital and Labor
     The New Class of Factory Owners
     The New Factory Workers
     Work in Early Factories
     Working Families and Children
     The Sexual Division of Labor
     The Early Labor Movement in Britain
     The Impact of Slavery
Individuals in Society     Josiah Wedgwood
Viewpoints     Women's Role in Industrialized Europe
Listening to the Past     The Testimony of Young Mine Workers
24. Ideologies of Change in Europe, 1815-1914
A Conservative Peace Gives Way to Radical Ideas
     The European Balance of Power
     Coerced Conservatism after 1815
     Liberalism and the Middle Class
     The Growing Appeal of Nationalism
     The Birth of Socialism
Reforms and Revolutions, 1815-1850
     Liberal Reform in Great Britain
     Revolutions in France
     The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe
Nation Building in Italy, Germany, and Russia
     Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy
     Bismarck and German Unification
     The Modernization of Russia
Life in the Emerging Urban Society
     Taming the City
     New Social Hierarchies and the Middle Classes
     The People and Occupations of the Working Classes
     The Changing Family
     Science for the Masses
     Cultural Shifts
Nationalism and Socialism, 1871-1914
     Trends in Suffrage
     The German Empire
     Republican France
     Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire
     Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism
     The Socialist Movement
Individuals in Society     Giuseppe Garibaldi
Listening to the Past     Mrs. Beeton's Guide for Running a Victorian Household
Viewpoints     Socialist and Anti-Socialist Perspectives 
25. Africa, Southwest Asia, and the New Imperialism, 1800-1914
Africa: From the Slave Trade to European Colonial Rule
     Trade and Social Change
     Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa
     The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914
     Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century
     Colonialism's Impact After 1900
The New Imperialism, 1880-1914
     Causes of the New Imperialism
     A "Civilizing Mission"
     Critics of Imperialism
     African and Asian Resistance
The Islamic Heartland Under Pressure
     Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire
     Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation
The Expanding World Economy
     The Rise of Global Inequality
The World Market
The Great Global Migration
Viewpoints     The Congo Free State
Listening to the Past     A French Leader Defends Imperialism
Individuals in Society     Muhammad Ali
Global Trade     Indigo 
26. Asia in the Era of Imperialism, 1800-1914
India and the British Empire in Asia
     The Evolution of British Rule
     The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule
     The British and the Indian Educated Elite
Competition for Southeast Asia
     The Dutch East Indies
     Mainland Southeast Asia
     The Philippines
China Under Pressure
     The Opium War
     Internal Problems
     The Self-Strengthening Movement
     Republican Revolution
Japan's Rapid Transformation
     The "Opening" of Japan
     The Meiji Restoration
     Japan as an Imperial Power
The Movement of Peoples
     Westerners to Asia
     Asian Emigration
The Countries of Asia in Comparative Perspective
Viewpoints     Rammohun Roy and Thomas Babington Macauley on Education for Indians
Individuals in Society      Jose Rizal
Listening to the Past     Fukuzawa Yukichi, Escape from Asia
27. Nation Building in the Americas and Australia, 1770-1914
Latin America, 1800-1914
     The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers
     Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence
     The Aftermath of Independence
     Neocolonialism and Its Socioeconomic Effects
     The Impact of Immigrants from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East
The United States, 1789-1914
     Manifest Destiny and Its Consequences for Native American
     Women's Roles in White Settlements
     Black Slavery in the South
     The Civil War and Its Impact
     Industrialization and the Formation of Large Corporations
     Immigrants and Their Reception
Canada, from French Colony to Nation
Australia, from Penal Colony to Nation
     A Distant Land Turned Penal Colony
     An Economy Built on Wool, Gold, and Immigrant Labor
     The Shaping of a Government and a National Identity
The New Countries from a Comparative Perspective
Viewpoints     Mexican and American Perspectives on the U.S.-Mexican War
Listening to the Past     Mary Seacole on Her Early Life
Individuals in Society     Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator 
28. World War and Revolution, 1914-1929
The First World War, 1914-1918
     The Bismarckian System of Alliances
     The Outbreak of War
     Stalemate and Slaughter
     The War Becomes Global
The Home Front
     Mobilizing for Total War
     The Social Impact
     Growing Political Tensions
The Russian Revolution
     The Fall of Imperial Russia
     The Provisional Government
     Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution
     Dictatorship and Civil War
The WarÕs Consequences
     The End of the War
     The Treaty of Versailles
     American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty
The Search for Peace and Political Stability, 1919-1929
     Germany and the Western Powers
     Hope in Foreign Affairs
     Hope in Democratic Government
The Age of Anxiety
     Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion
     The New Physics
     Freudian Psychology
     Twentieth-Century Literature
     Modern Architecture, Art, and Music
     Movies and Radio
Viewpoints     Poetry of the Great War
Listening to the Past     The Experience of War
Individuals in Society     Vera Brittain 
29. Nationalism in Asia, 1914-1939
The First World War's Impact on Nationalist Trends
     Asian Reaction to the War in Europe
     The Mandates System
     Nationalism's Appeal
Nationalist Movements in the Middle East
     The Arab Revolt
     The Turkish Revolution
     Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan
     Gradual Independence in the Arab States
     Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine
Toward Self-Rule in India
     British Promises and Repression
     The Roots of Militant Nonviolence
     Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India
Nationalist Struggles in East and Southeast Asia
     The Rise of Nationalist China
     China's Intellectual Revolution
     From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan
     Japan Against China
     Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia
Listening to the Past     Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus
Viewpoints     Gandhi and Mao on Revolutionary Means
Individuals in Society     Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman
30. The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945
The Great Depression, 1929-1939
     The Economic Crisis
     Mass Unemployment
     The New Deal in the United States
     The European Response to the Depression
     Worldwide Effects
Authoritarian States
     Conservative Authoritarianism
     Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships
Stalin's Soviet Union
     From Lenin to Stalin
     The Five-Year Plans
     Life and Culture in Soviet Society
     Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges
Mussolini and Fascism in Italy
     The Seizure of Power
     The Regime in Action
Hitler and Nazism in Germany
     The Roots of Nazism
     Hitler's Road to Power
     The Nazi State and Society
     Hitler's Popularity
     Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939
The Second World War, 1939-1945
     Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942
     The Holocaust
     Japan's Asian Empire
     The Grand Alliance
     The War in Europe, 1942-1945
     The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945
Viewpoints     Hitler, Mussolini, and the Great War
Individuals in Society     Primo Levi
Listening to the Past     Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students
31. Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers, 1945 to the Present
The Division of Europe
     The Origins of the Cold War
     West Versus East
Renaissance and Crisis in Western Europe
     The Postwar Challenge
     Building Europe and Decolonization
     The Changing Class Structure and Social Reform
     Economic and Social Dislocation, 1970-1990
Recovery and Reform in Soviet Eastern Europe, 1945-1991
     Stalin's Last Years
     Limited De-Stalinization and Stagnation
     The Impact of Reform on Everyday Life
     The Gorbachev Era
     The Revolutions of 1989
     The End of the Cold War and Soviet Disintegration
The United States: Confrontation and Transformation
    America's Economic Boom and Civil Rights Revolution
     Youth and the Counterculture
     The Vietnam War
     Detente and a Return to Cold War Tensions
Japan's Resurgence as a World Power
     Japan's American Revolution
     "Japan, Inc."
     Japan in the Post-Cold War World
The Post-Cold War Era in Europe
     Common Patterns and Problems
     Recasting Russia Without Communism
     Postcommunist Reconstruction in Eastern Europe
     Unity and Identity in Western Europe
Viewpoints     The Cold War Begins
Global Trade     Oil
Listening to the Past     A Solidarity Leader Speaks from Prison
Individuals in Society     Vaclav Havel 
32. Independence, Progress, and Conflict in Asia and the Middle East, 1945 to the Present
The Resurgence of East Asia
     The Communist Victory in China
     Mao's China
     The Limits of Reform
     The Asian "Economic Tigers"
     Political and Economic Progress in Southeast Asia
     The Reunification of Vietnam
New Nations and Old Rivalries in South Asia
     The End of British India
     Pakistan and the Creation of Bangladesh
     India Since Independence
Secularism and Religion at War in the Middle East
     The Arab-Israeli Conflict
     The Palestinian Quest for Independence
     Egypt: Arab World Leader
     A Fractured Lebanon
     Challenges to Turkey's Secularism
     Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq
Individuals in Society     Liu Xiaobo
Listening to the Past     Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom from Fear"
Viewpoints     Ho Chi Minh, Lyndon Johnson, and the Vietnam War 
33. The Global South: Latin America and Africa, 1945 to the Present
Latin America: Moving Toward Democracy
    Economic Nationalism in Mexico and Brazil
    Communist Revolution in Cuba
    From Authoritarianism to Democracy in Latin America
    Pan-Latin American Unity
Nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa
     The Growth of African Nationalism
     Achieving Independence with New Leaders
     Ghana Shows the Way
     French-Speaking Regions
Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1960
     Striving for National Unity
     Nigeria, Africa's Giant
     The Struggle in Southern Africa
     Political Reform in Africa Since 1990
Interpreting the Experiences of the Emerging World
Individuals in Society      Evita Peron
Viewpoints    Ghanaian and South African Leaders on Black Nationalism
Listening to the Past     Nelson Mandela, The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa 
34. A New Era in World History
Global Unity or Continued Division?
     The United Nations
     Preemptive War in Iraq
     Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World
     The Terrorist Threat
     Weapons of Mass Destruction
Global Interdependence
     Multinational Corporations
     Industrialization and Modernization
     Agriculture and the Green Revolution
     The Economics and Politics of Globalization
The Growth of Cities
     Rapid Urbanization
     Overcrowding and Shantytowns
     Rich and Poor
     Urban Migration and the Family
     Urbanization and Agriculture
Science and Technology: Changes and Challenges
     The Medical Revolution
     Population Change: Balancing the Numbers
     Global Epidemics
     Mass Communication
Social Reform and Progress
     Women: The Right to Equality
     Children: The Right to Childhood
Listening to the Past     The United Nations Millennium Project Report
Viewpoints     George W. Bush, Osama bin Laden, and the 9/11 Attacks
Global Trade     Arms
Individuals in Society     The Dalai Lama
Timeline A History of World Societies: An Overview

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